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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Kyung Hee Oriental Medicine Research Center, Kyung Hee University
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 9, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 9, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 9, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 9, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Rubia cordifolia: a review
Patil, Rupali ; Mohan, Mahalaxmi ; Kasture, Veena ; Kasture, Sanjay ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.001
Medicinal herbs are significant source of synthetic and herbal drugs. In the commercial market, medicinal herbs are used as raw drugs, extracts or tinctures. Isolated active constituents are used for applied research. For the last few decades, phytochemistry (study of plants) has been making rapid progress and herbal products are becoming popular. According to Ayurveda, the ancient healing system of India, the classical texts of Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita were written around 1000 B.C. The Ayurvedic Materia Medica includes 600 medicinal plants along with therapeutics. Herbs like turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, garlic and holy basil are integral part of Ayurvedic formulations. The formulations incorporate single herb or more than two herbs (poly-herbal formulations). Medicinal herb contains multitude of chemical compounds like alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, resins, oleoresins, sesquiterpene, lactones and oils (essential and fixed). Today there is growing interest in chemical composition of plant based medicines. Several bioactive constituents have been isolated and studied for pharmacological activity. R. cordifolia is an important medicinal plant commonly used in the traditional and Ayurvedic system of medicine for treatment of different ailments. This review illustrates its major constituents, pharmacological actions substantiating the claims made about this plant in the traditional system of medicine and its clinical applications.
A study on consistency and accuracy of pulse diagnosis in Eight-Constitution Medicine
Shin, Yong-Sup ; Nah, Seong-Su ; Oh, Hwan-Sup ; Park, Young-Jae ; Park, Young-Bae ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 14~19
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.014
The aim of this study is to evaluate appraiser's consistency and accuracy about pulse diagnosis (PD) in discrimination of eight-constitutions using Gage R&R study. Cumulative numbers of PD for discrimination of eight constitutions of three appraisers' experience were 75,000 cases, 50,000 cases, 1,100 cases, respectively. Three Appraisers diagnosed subject's eight-constitutions by PD with blinded method. Gage R&R study was used to verify the results. In the measurements of consistency, appraiser B (agreement = 80%, Value of k = 0.8276) was very good, appraiser A (agreement = 70%, Value of k = 0.7465) was good, and appraiser C (agreement = 50%, Value of k = 0.5365) was moderate. In the measurements of accuracy, appraiser B (agreement = 70%, Value of k = 0.6812) was good, appraiser A (agreement = 60%, Value of k = 0.6414) was good, and appraiser C (agreement = 0%, Value of k = -0.1000) was poor. The results suggest that accuracy of discrimination of constitutions relatively depend on experience and number of cases of PD. Further large controlled study is needed to evaluate the accuracy of PD.
HDDM, a formula consisting of seven herbs, had anti-diabetic but no immunomodulatory activities in multiple low doses of streptozotocin-treated female of B6C3F1 mice
Zheng, Jian Feng ; Guo, Tai L ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 20~38
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.020
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of herb formula HDDM, a modification of Huangdan decoction that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of glomerulonephritis and chronic renal failure, on the blood glucose levels in multiple low doses (MLD; 50 mg/kg for five consecutive days) of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated female B6C3F1 mice. Initial studies were performed to compare diabetes induction in five strains (e.g., B6C3F1, NOD, CD-1, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6) of mice by MLD-STZ, and immune changes following the treatment. The results suggested that the order of susceptibility to diabetes induction was NOD
CD-1 > B6C3F1
C3H > C57BL/6. Furthermore, STZ modulation of T cell development, differentiation and activation might play a role in diabetes induction by MLD-STZ treatment. MLD-STZ-induced diabetes in female B6C3F1 mice was moderate, which allowed the evaluation of drug-induced protection or exacerbation of diabetes to be performed. As such, modulation of blood glucose by HDDM, which consisted of Da Huang (Radix Et Rhizoma Rhei), Huang Qi (Radix Astragali Seu Hedysari), Dan Shen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), Yin Yang Huo (Herba Epimedii), Yi Yi Ren (Semen Coicis or Coix lacryma-jobi), Mai Dong (Radix Ophiopogonis) and Shan Zhu Yu (Fructus Corni), was evaluated in MLD-STZ-treated female B6C3F1 mice. The results suggested that HDDM could lower the blood glucose levels, but it had no immunomodulatory activities. Additionally, HDDM-treated mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance. In conclusion, these studies have suggested that MLD-STZ-induced diabetes in female B6C3F1 mice is a useful model to evaluate drug modulation of diabetes, and that the herb formula HDDM possesses anti-diabetic effects.
Effect of long term treatment of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale in Type 2 diabetic patients
Mansuri, Mustakim M ; Goyal, Bhoomika R ; Upadhyay, Umesh M ; Sheth, Jayesh ; Goyal, Ramesh K ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 39~48
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.039
We have evaluated the effect of long term treatment of Enicostemma littorale (E. littorale) in type 2 diabetic patients taking pills of aqueous extract of E. littorale regularly as a complimentary medicine for at least 9 months. The effects of E. littorale on glycemic control, lipid profile, cardiac function and DNA damage in these patients were compared with those who had not been regular in taking E. littorale but regular in taking other conventional anti-diabetics. Our data suggest that, E. littorale can maintain normal blood glucose, serum insulin, serum triglycerides levels of type 2 diabetic patients if taken regularly. E. littorale also improves insulin sensitivity, and normalize disturbed lipogram and elevated creatinine levels, thereby produces beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular complications and may preserve the kidney function. The finding that E. littorale also prevents DNA damage suggest a long term effect in diabetic patients. E. littorale thus can be considered as safe supplementary therapy for a long term and effective management of type 2 diabetic patients.
Effects of methanol extracts of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed on male reproductive system of mice
Pal, DK ; Gupta, M ; Mazumder, UK ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 49~57
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.049
The antifertility activity of methanol extract of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. stem (MECR) and Corchorus olitorius Linn. seed (MECO) were studied on male Swiss albino mice. The extracts were found to decrease sperm count, percentage of motile sperm and testosterone level in treated mice when compared with vehicle control after 17 days of treatment. The weight of gonads, epididymis were decreased whereas no significant changes of the body weight of mice were observed after methanol extract treatments. The fertility test showed 100% negative result in MECR and MECO treated mice at medium and high dose level of treatment. MECR and MECO in low (25 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg, respectively), medium (50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively) and high (75 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg, respectively) dose level caused a simultaneous fall in testicular
-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities which are involved in testicular steroidogenesis. Total cholesterol and ascorbic acid content in testis were increased significantly in gonads. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase, malic dehydrogenase and ascorbic acid oxidase were reduced whereas that of carbonic anhydrase was increased significantly in the testis of MECR and MECO treated mice. All these observations indicate that the methanol extract of C. reflexa stem and C. olitorius seed produced antifertility activity in sexually matured male mice, which may be due to inhibition of gonadal steroidogenesis. This activity may be attributed due to the presence of flavonoids and steroids, respectively.
Inhibitory effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Rubia cordifolia Linn. on egg albumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis in rats
Rishit, Zalawadia ; Chintan, Gandhi ; Vaibhav, Patel ; Balaraman, R ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 58~66
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.058
Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common allergic disease. These diseases are severe & frequent which requires search of new treatments. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of Tinospora cordifolia (TC), Rubia cordifolia Linn. (RC) on experimentally induced allergic conjunctivitis in rats. In this study, dried water soluble extracts of TC and RC. (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. for 7 days) were evaluated for their antiallergic activity in Wistar rats. They were tested for inhibition of egg albumin-induced vascular permeability, inhibition of histamine release from the rat conjunctiva as well as in histamine content in tears. TC and RC showed significant (P < 0.05) inhibition in vascular permeability, inhibition in histamine release from the rat conjunctiva which is reflected by reduced level of histamine content in tears. The activities were found to be comparable to azelastine hydrochloride. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect on egg albumin-induced experimental allergic conjunctivitis in rat may be due to the antihistaminic activity of TC and RC. Our studies provide evidence that TC and RC may be beneficial in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
Folic acid inhibits necrosis and apoptosis in ischemic and reperfusion induced injury in rat liver
Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh ; Shukla, Gunjan ; Wahi, Arun Kumar ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 67~73
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.067
Temporary clamping of the portal triad is a common strategy to minimize bleeding during liver transplantation. Increasing evidences suggests that oxygen derived free radicals and reintroduction of oxygen in ischemic tissue lead to ischemic and reperfusion injury (I/R) and lead to apoptosis and necrosis. Adult Wistar rat subjected to 60 min of partial liver ischemia followed by three hour reperfusion. Eighteen Wister rats were divided into sham-operated control group (I) (n = 6), ischemia and reperfusion group (II) (n = 6), folic acid treated group (1 mg/kg body weight/daily by oral route for 7 days before induced ischemia reperfusion maneuver) (III) (n = 6). Apoptotic and necrotic hepatocytes, mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes were measured. Liver injury was assessed by alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), liver histopathology and electron microscopy. An ischemic and reperfusion hepatocellular injury was indicated by increased serum-ALT, AST, histopathology and electron microscopy studies. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were increased which was revealed by flow cytometry in I/R group. Pre- treatment with folic acid significantly decreased serum -ALT, AST levels, apoptotic and necrotic cells after 1 h ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Histopathology and TEM studies showed markedly diminished hepatocellular injury in folic acid pretreated rats during the hepatic I/R, which reached a level comparable to saline-treated rat of sham operated group. On the basis of our findings it may be concluded that folic acid afforded significant protection from necrosis and apoptosis in I/R injury.
Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (Meliaceae) leaves
Roy, S ; Besra, SE ; Banerjee, B ; Mukherjee, J ; Vedasiromoni, JR ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 74~82
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.074
Pharmacological investigations were carried out with aqueous methanolic extract (AME) of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (Meliaceae) leaves. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the
dose of AME was 600 mg/kg, i.p. AME was found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute, sub-chronic and chronic models of inflammation. AME selectively inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity, which is involved in arachidonic acid metabolism and biosynthesis of prostaglandins under inflammatory conditions. Treatment with AME significantly enhanced total peritoneal cell count and the number of macrophages in normal mice, which revealed that AME may also alter the immune response along with its anti-inflammatory effect. The saponins or the alkaloids present in AME may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity.
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and adaptogenic activity of Asparagus acutifolius extract
Kasture, Sanjay ; Kasture, Ameya ; Ballero, Mauro ; Maxia, Andrea ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.083
Although many species of Asparagus have been studied scientifically and shoots are used in the diet of Sardinians, there is very little literature available on the medicinal uses of Asparagus acutifolius Linn. The acetone-ethanol (1:1) extract was screened for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic activities. The extract showed good anti-oxidant activity in DPPH, hydroxyl radical, and nitric oxide radical assays. The extract also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and adaptogenic activity in the milk induced leucocytosis assay in rats. The results of the present study suggest need to investigate other pharmacological activities of Asparagus acutifolius.
Antibacterial effect of naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids from Prunus japonica against Propionibacterium acnes
Sultan, Md Zakir ; Lee, Ki-Moo ; Moon, Surk-Sik ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 90~96
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.090
The antibacterial activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of seeds of traditional medicinal plant Prunus japonica resulted in the isolation of linoleic acid and cis-11-eicosenoic acids, and their methyl esters. Linoleic acid inhibited the growth of Propionibacterium acnes, the acne-causing anaerobic bacterium, but cis-11-eicosenoic acid, methyl linoleate, and cis-11-eicosenoate were found to be inactive. Together with isolated linoleic acid, authentic saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were also tested against P. acnes with other bacteria and fungi. Most of the unsaturated fatty acids possessed anti-acne (MIC
) and antimicrobial properties.
In vitro cytotoxic activity of (-)-ent-costunolide (Notes)
Kim, Myung-Ju ; Lee, Jae-Sug ; Baek, Seung-Hwa ;
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, volume 9, issue 1, 2009, Pages 97~99
DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2009.9.1.097
The cytotoxic activity was strongly shown by (-)-ent-costunolide (1) (P388;
: 687 ng/mL) which isolated from Hepatostolonophora paucistipula. These results suggest that (-)-ent-costunolide (1) has a potential cytotoxic activity.