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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemisty
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Volume & Issues
Volume 54, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 54, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 54, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 54, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Biochemical Characteristics of an Alanine Racemase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Kang, Han-Chul ; Yoon, Sang-Hong ; Lee, Chang-Muk ; Koo, Bon-Sung ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 231~237
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.038
A gene encoding a putative alanine racemase in Xanthomonas. oryzae pv. oryzae was cloned, expressed and characterized. Expression of the cloned gene was performed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLys using a pET-21(a) vector harbouring
tag. Purification of the recombinant alanine racemase by affinity chromatography resulted in major one band by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl amide gel electrophoresis analysis, showing about 45 kDa of molecular weight. The alanine racemase gene, cloned in this experiment, appears to be constitutively expressed in X. oryzae, as analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme was the most active toward L-alanine and secondly D-alanine, showing a racemic reaction, thus the enzyme is considered as an alanine racemase. The enzyme was considerably activated by addition of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP), showing that 75% increase in activity was observed at 0.3 mM, compared with control. D-Cysteine as well as L-cysteine significantly inhibited the enzyme activity. The inhibitions by cysteines were more prominent in the absence of PLP, showing 9 and 5% of control activity at 2 mM of addition, respectively. The enzyme was the most active at pH 8.0 and more stable at alkaline pHs than acidic pH condition.
Biological Activity of Ethanol Extracts from Amelanchier asiatica Fruits
Chae, Jung-Woo ; Kim, Jin-Sung ; Jo, Bun-Sung ; Kang, Sun-Ae ; Park, Hye-Jin ; Joo, Sung-Hyun ; Chun, Sung-Sook ; Cho, Young-Je ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 238~243
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.039
Amelanchier asiatica fruits have been used as a traditional medical food. This research was investigated to assess angiotensin converting enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XOase) and elastase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activities. The content of total phenolic compounds in A. asiatica fruits extracts was 17.6mg/mL. In extracts, the electron donating ability by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test of A. asiatica fruits extracts was 90.18% at
. The 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical decolorization of A. asiatica fruits extracts was 98.81% at
. The inhibition rate of the antioxidant protection factor was 1.03, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance was 73.27% at
. The XOase inhibition activity of A. asiatica fruits extracts of showed to be 13.19% at
. The angiotensin converting enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by A. asiatica fruits extracts as 82.52% inhibitory rate at
. Elastase inhibitory activity in the A. asiatica fruits extracts (41.48% at
) was higher than vitamin C (12.8% at
). These results suggests that A. asiatica fruits extracts have the greatest property as a functional food and functional cosmetic source.
Identification and Functional Characterization of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASE (MoGolS1) Gene in Melissa officinalis Plants
Kim, Jun-Hyeok ; Hossain, Acktar Mohammad ; Kim, Na-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Ho ; Lee, Ho-Joung ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 244~251
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.040
Galactinol and rafinose accumulation in plants is associated with stressful environmental conditions such as cold, heat, or dehydration by the action of galactinols synthase (GolS) in the raffinose family of oligosaccharides biosynthetic pathway from UDP-galactose. Moreover, several reports mentioned that GolS transcription is up regulated by various environmental stresses like cold, heat, dehydration. Therefore, to determine whether MoGolS1 was induced with the abiotic stress we analyzed the expression pattern of the gene under various abiotic stresses like heat, cold, abscisic acid, sucrose and salt concentration in the lemon balm plants grown in standard MS medium. The MoGolS1 gene was 981-bp in length encoding 326 amino acids in its sequence and shared 77 and 76% sequence similarity with Arabidopsis thaliana galactinol synthase4 (AtGolS4) and AtGolS1 genes respectively. The MoGolS1 gene was strongly expressed by the abiotic stress induced by sucrose, ABA or heat shock. It was also expressed in responses to cold, Identification and Functional Characterization of the GALACTINOL SYNTHASgene induction with various stresses may be possible for itscrucial function in abiotic stress tolerance in plants, providing a good engineering target for genetic engineering.
Development of Media for the Cultivation of Enterobacter amnigenus GG0461 and its Nitrate Uptake
Park, Seong-Wan ; Yoon, Young-Bae ; Wang, Hee-Sung ; Kim, Young-Kee ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 252~257
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.041
To remove excess nitrate from the agricultural environments, Enterobacter amnigenus GG0461 has been isolated as a bacterial strain having high capability of nitrate uptake activity. This strain was able to remove nitrate more than 3,000 ppm (50 mM) in the Pseudomonas agar F (PAF) medium. Therefore, it could be a candidate strain for a nitrate scavenger in the various contaminated environments, such as agricultural soils, livestock sewage, and industrial wastewater. In order to develop medium for the large-scale production of the strain GG0461, each component of PAF medium was replaced with the corresponding commercial product and the optimal conditions for bacterial growth and nitrate uptake activity were measured. Glycerol was replaced with the commercially available product and the nitrogen source was substituted with commercial tryptone, yeast extract, soybean meal, and fermented fish extract. Bacterial growth and nitrate uptake activity were maximal in the media containing 2% tryptone, followed by yeast extract, soybean meal, and fermented fish extract. The pH of the growth medium containing 2% tryptone was decreased by the bacterial nitrate uptake, suggesting that the nitrate uptake is mediated by a nitrate/proton antiporter. This result shows that the medium containing commercial tryptone was good enough for the physiological activity of the strain GG0461. Each component of PAF medium was successfully replaced with the corresponding commercial product except peptone. In conclusion, the composition of medium for the cultivation of the strain GG0461 was determined as 2% tryptone, 1% glycerol, plus required salts according to the composition of PAF medium.
In vitro Antioxidant Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Protecting Activity of the Ethanol Extracts of Cacalia firma Komar
Lee, Jin-Ha ; Lee, Bong-Gyeong ; Park, Ae-Ri ; Lee, Kye-Jhae ; Choi, Dae-Woon ; Han, Sang-Hwa ; Choi, Geun-Pyo ; Kim, Jong-Dai ; Kim, Jin-Chul ; Ahn, Ju-Hee ; Lee, Hyeon-Yong ; Shin, In-Chul ; Park, Hee-Juhn ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 258~264
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.042
The Korean edible mountainous vegetable, byeongpungssam, Cacalia firma Komar. (CFK) is a wild plant found in the intermountain areas in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate its free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenozothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays, an electron spin resonance spectroscopy. We also examined its protective effect against oxidative DNA damage using agarose electrophoresis of ethanol extract of CFK. The protective activity of the extract against the DNA damage induced by HO
radicals was compared to epicatechin, ascorbic acid and trolox as reference antioxidant compounds. Total phenolic content in the extract was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Total polyphenolic content of the extract was measured in the leaves (
) and shoot (
). The antioxidant potential of the extracts against some radicals and DNA damage by HO
radicals showed over 60%, respectively.
Evaluation of Medicinal Activity on Isolated Inhibitory Compounds against Helicobacter pylori from Cheongmoknosang Mulberry Leaves
Kim, Byong-O ; Cho, Young-Je ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 265~269
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.043
Inhibitory effect of useful components from Cheongmoknosang mulberry leaves extracts against Helicobacter pylori were investigated to develope them to a health functional food. It was confirmed that H. pylori bacterial infection occurred after 6 weeks over in C57BL/6 mouse which was caused the infection, and the average number of pathogens was
CFU/mL. Effects of the prevention and cure against H. pylori were tested by the mouth administration with Cheongmoknosang mulberry leaves extracts include the active ingredient, and number of H. pylori colony in stomach of drug groups were decreased more than control group. The result of testing immuno-glogulin isotype from the separated serum from a mouse, IgG1, IgA produced more in administered group, and it is expected to inhibit the H. pylori infection because of increasing antibody production in the mixture. These results suggest that caffeic acid, rosemarinic acid and chlorogenic acid in Cheongmoknosang mulberry leaves extracts are very effective to prevent or cure against H. pylori infection. So the ratio of infection is increasing and it is regarded to be able to prevent and cure the disease like gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer which are caused by H. pylori.
Moderating Effects of Skin Hyperpigmentation from Lycii fructus and Lycii folium Extracts
Kim, Dong-Hee ; Lee, Soo-Yeon ; Kim, Nam-Kyung ; Youn, Bo-Kyung ; Jung, Da-Som ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Hong, So-Ri ; Yoon, Ji-Young ; Kang, Myung-Hwa ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 270~278
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.044
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the skin whitening effect of the extracts, Lycii fructus (LF), Dry-L. foilum (DLF) and Fresh-L. folium (FLF). Tyrosinase inhibition activities was 44% in DLF ethanol extracts at a
. When the tyrosinase activities in B16F10 murine melanoma cell were tested, the activities in DLF ethanol extracts was 14% at a
concentration. The protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and tyrosinase, which are all melanin related factors, showed that LF, DLF and FLF extracts inhibited the protein bio-synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cell. Especially the DLF extract showed greater decrease of protein expressions. Results indicate that the DLF extract tested in the present study had skin whitening activity and can be used as a function a ingredients for food and cosmetic compositions.
The Effects of Phenethyl Isothiocyanate on Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression Induced by Toll-like Receptor Agonists
Kim, Soo-Jung ; Park, Hye-Jeong ; Shin, Hwa-Jeong ; Kim, Ji-Soo ; Ahn, Hee-Jin ; Min, In-Soon ; Youn, Hyung-Sun ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 279~283
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.045
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in induction of innate immune responses. The activation of TLRs triggers inflammatory responses that are essential for host defense against invading pathogens. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) extracted from cruciferous vegetables has an effect on anti-inflammatory therapy. Dysregulated activation of nuclear factor-
B), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been shown to play important roles in the development of certain inflammatory disease. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of PEITC, NF-
B activation and COX-2 and iNOS expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, TLR4 agonist), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly[I:C], TLR3 agonist), 2 kDa macrophageactivating lipopeptide (MALP-2, TLR2 and TLR6 agonist) or oligodeoxynucleotide 1668 (ODN1668, TLR9 agonist) were examined. PEITC inhibits the activation of NF-
B induced by LPS or Poly[I:C] but not by MALP-2 or ODN1668. PEITC also suppressed the iNOS expression induced by LPS or Poly[I:C]. However, PEITC did not suppress COX-2 expression induced by LPS, Poly[I:C], MALP-2, or ODN1668. These results suggest that PEITC has the specific mechanism for antiinflammatory responses.
Whitening Activities of the Agrimonia pilosa L. Extracts
Kim, Dong-Hee ; An, Bong-Jeun ; Lee, Jin-Young ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 284~289
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.046
The extracts of Agrimonia pilosa L. were investigated for the inhibitory effect on the melanin synthesis in B16/F10 mouse melanoma cells as a functional ingredient for cosmetic products. Tyrosinase inhibition activities were 42% in A. pilosa L. 70% ethanol extract at
. The protein and mRNA expression of tyrosinase, which are all skin-whitening related factors, showed that A. pilosa L. water and A. pilosa L. 70% ethanol extracts inhibited the protein bio-synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cell. Results indicate that the A. pilosa L. extracts tested in the present study have skin whitening activity and can be used as a functional ingredient for cosmetic compositions.
Cultivation Environment in Relation to Good Agricultural Practices in the Major Cultivation Area of Disocorea batatas
Cho, Jae-Young ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 290~295
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.047
This study was carried out to investigate the quality of soil, irrigation water, and status of agrochemicals application in relation to good agriculture practices system in the major cultivation area of Disocorea batatas. The concentrations of heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in soils and irrigation waters were lower than those of standard level for Environmental Conservation Act of Soil and Water in Korea. The dominant weed have been appeared Digitaria sanguinalis and Portulaca oleraceamite. The dominant insect pests and plant pathogens have been appeared aphid and anthracnose. Average yearly application of pesticide was 2 to 4 times for herbicide and 4 to 6 times for plant pathogens and insect pests. In order to safety production of medicinal crops could be achieved by proper cultivation management such as minimum application of agro-chemicals, effective use of by-product fertilizer, and technology development of organic farming.
Evaluation and Assessment of Biosafety for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic Rice: Responses of Daphnia magna Fed on Bt-transgenic Rice Variety
Oh, Sung-Dug ; Shin, Hye-Chul ; Sohn, Soo-In ; Lee, Ki-Jong ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Ryu, Tae-Hun ; Lee, Jang-Yong ; Park, Beom-Seok ; Kweon, Soon-Jong ; Suh, Seok-Cheol ; Park, Jong-Sug ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 296~302
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.048
Insect-resistant transgenic rice was developed by inserting the mCry1Ac1 a modified gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). For biosafety assessment, we studied the effects on survival of cantor Daphnia magna, a commonly used as a model organism in ecotoxicological studies. D. magna fed on Bt rice and its near non-genetically modified (GM) counterparts (Nakdong) grown in the same environment (100% ground rice suspension). The Bt rice was comfirmed to have the insertion of T-DNA and protein expression by the polymerase chain reaction and ELISA analysis. Feeding study showed similar cumulative immobility and abnormal response of D. magna between Bt rice and non-GM counterparts. 48 h-
values of Bt rice and non-GM rice showed 4,429 and 2,889 mg/L respectively. The rice no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values for D. magna was suggested 1,000 mg/L. We conclude that the tested Bt-rice and Nakdong similar cumulative immobility for D. magna the widely used model organism. We found out that there is strong possibility that the growth of Bt rice didn't affect to non-target insects.
Microbiological and Organoleptic Characteristics of gochujang, Korean Traditional Red Pepper Paste Added with Different Levels of Sweet Persimmon Powder
Kim, Jeong-Yeon ; Hwang, Su-Jung ; Eun, Jong-Bang ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 303~308
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.049
To develop food and organoleptic quality of gochujang 0, 3, 4, and 5% of sweet persimmon powder were added to Korean traditional red pepper paste during fermentation and microbiological and organoleptic characteristics were investigated. The total bacteria count of the gochujang tended to increase slowly until a level of
CFU/g with increasing fermentation time. There was no significant difference (p <0.05) between the control and the treatment during fermentation. The number of yeast and mold was
CFU/g during fermentation. Sensory evaluation after 30, 60, and 90 days of fermentation showed that addition of sweet persimmon powder to the gochujang did not affect its color, but the level of sweetness and umami, increased as additional level of sweet persimmon powder increased. In the overall acceptabilty, there was no significant difference (p <0.05) until 30 days of fermentation and the gochujang added with 4% sweet persimmon powder showed the highest organoleptic value. And it showed high score in sweetness, umami and overall acceptability at the end of fermentation. The results indicated that 4% additional level of sweet persimmon powder was the best making gochujang.
Sterols from Lindera glauca Blume Stem Wood
Huh, Gyu-Won ; Park, Ji-Hae ; Shrestha, Sabina ; Lee, Youn-Hyung ; Ahn, Eun-Mi ; Kang, Hee-Cheol ; Baek, Nam-In ;
Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, volume 54, issue 4, 2011, Pages 309~312
DOI : 10.3839/jabc.2011.050
Chipped stem wood from Lindera glauca was extracted repeatedly with 80% aqueous methanol at room temperature, and the concentrated methanolic extract was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butyl alcohol, and
. From the EtOAc fraction, four sterols were isolated through a repeated silica gel and octadecyl silica gel column chromatography. The chemical structures of the sterols were elucidated as
-sitosterol (1), 7-ketositosterol (2), 7
-hydroxysitosterol (3), and daucosterol (4). Among them, compounds 2 and 3 were isolated for the first time from the stem woods of this plant.