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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Dec 1999
Volume 15, Issue 5 - Oct 1999
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Aug 1999
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Jun 1999
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Apr 1999
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Feb 1999
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Heterodera glycines-Induced Syncytium Structures Related to the Nematode Growth and Reproduction in Susceptible Soybean Cultivars
Kim, Yong-Ho ; Robert D. Riggs ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~7
The production of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, including female formation and fecundity was much higher in SCN race 14 (R14) than in race 3 (R3) in susceptible soybean cultivars Bragg (intolerant), Lee74 (moderately tolerant), and PI 97100 (highly tolerant). The nematode body was also significantly larger in R14 than in R3 at 20 days after inoculation, but the further nematode growth appeared to be slower in R14 than in R3, resulting in no significant difference between the two races at 30 days after inoculation. Within each race, no significant difference was observed in the growth and reproduction among the soybean cultivars tested. Syncytial areas near the nematode lip regions (infection sites) were measured for each soybean cultivar-SCN race combination. R14 induced significantly larger syncytia than R3. Bragg had relatively larger syncytia than Lee74 and PI 97100, but the difference among the soybean cultivars was minimal or not significantly different. Syncytium occupation in the stelar region differed only between PI 97100 and the other two cultivars, which may be somewhat, but not exactly, related to tolerance levels. Syncytial cytomplasm was degenerated more with R14 and in Bragg than with R3 and in Lee74 and PI 97100, respectively. In light microscopy, degenerated syncytia were characterized by depleted and loose cytoplasm with less plastids than normal-looking (intact) syncytia which had dense syncytial cytoplasm. Electron microscopy revealed that degenerated syncytia contained highly vacuolated cytoplasm with degenerated plastids. The above results suggest that structural characteristics of syncytia may match the nematode growth and reproduction.
Similarities of Tobacco Mosaic Virus-Induced Hypersensitive Cell Death and Copper-Induced Abiotic Cell Death in Tobacco
Oh, Sang-Keun ; Cheong, Jong-Joo ; Ingyu Hwang ; Park, Doil ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 8~13
Hypersensitive cell death of plants during incompatible plant-pathogen interactions is one of the efficient defense mechanisms of plants against pathogen infections. For better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the plant hypersensitive response (HR), TMV-induced biotic plant cell death and CuSO4-induced abiotic plant cell death were compared in terms of expression patterns of ten different defense-related genes as molecular markers. The genes include five pathogenesis-related protein genes, two plant secondary metabolite-associated genes, two oxidative stress-related genes and one wound-inducible gene isolated from tobacco. Northern blot analyses revealed that a same set of defense-related genes was induced during both biotic and abiotic cell death but with different time and magnitude. The expression of defense-related genes in tobacco plants was temporarily coincided with the time of cell death. However, when suspension cell cultures was used to monitor the expression of defense-related genes, different patterns of the gene expression were detected. This result implies that three are common and, in addition, also different branches of signaling pathways leading to the induced expression of defense-related genes in tobacco during the pathogen- and heavy metal-induced cell death.
Antibiotic and Phytotoxic Activities of Ophiobolins from Helminthosporium Species
Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Kim, Byung-Sup ; Kim, Hong-Gi ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 14~20
Twenty isolates of Helminthosporium species were obtained from various grass plants and tested for controlling efficacy on the development of plant diseases. An isolate of Helminthosporium sp. TP-4 was chosen and six antibiotic substances were purified from cultures of the fungus by repeated silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin-layer chromatography. They were identified as ophiobolin a, 6-epiophiobolin A, 3-anhydroophiobolin A, 3-anhydro-6-epiophiobolin A, iphiobolin B, and iphiobolin I mainly by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Ophiobolins inhibited the growth of a grampositive bacterium Streptomyces griseus, but were not active against gram-negative bacteria. They also showed an antifungal activity. In in vivo tests, iphiobolin B exhibited potent controlling activities against rice blast, tomato late blight, and wheat leaf rust with control values more than 90% and 70% at concentration of
/ml and 100
/ml. Ophiobolin A and 6-epiophiobolin A controlled the development of wheat leaf rust more than 80% at concentrations of 100 /ml and
/ml respectively. 3-Anhydro-6-epiophiobolin A was not active against any plant disease. On the other hand, the A-series ophiobolins other than 3-anhydroophiobolin A showed stronger phytotoxic activity in a leaf-wounding assay using 8 plant species than those of 3-anhydroophiobolin A, ophiobolin B, and ophiobolin I. The results indicate that there is little correlation between antifungal activity and phytotoxicity of ophiobolins.
Identification of hrcC, hrpF, and maA Genes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines 8ra: Roles in Pathogenicity and Inducing Hypersensitive Response on Nonhost Plants
Park, Byoung-Keun ; Ingyu Hwang ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 21~27
Nonpathogenic mutants of Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines were generated with Omegon-Kim to isolate genes essential for pathogenicity and inducing hypersensitive response (HR). Three nonpathogenic multants and two mutants showing slow symptom development were isolated among 1,000 colonies tested. From two nonpathogenic mutants, 8-13 and 26-13, genes homologous to hrcC and hrpF of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria were identified. The nonpathogenic mutant 8-13 had a mutation in a gene homologous to hrpF of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and failed to cause HR on pepper plants but still induced HR on tomato leaves. The nonpathogenic mutant 26-13 had an insertional mutation in a gene homologous to hrcC of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and lost the ability to induce HR on pepper leaves but still caused HR on tomato plants. Unlike other phytopathogenic bacteria, the parent strain and these two mutants of X. campestris pv. glycines did not cause HR on tobacco plants. a cosmid clone, pBL1, that complemented the phenotypes of 8-13 was isolated. From the analysis of restriction enzyme mapping and deletion analyses of pBL1, a 9.0-kb Eco RI fragment restored the phenotypes of 8-13. pBL1 failed to complement the phenotypes of 26-13, indicating that the hrcC gene resides outside of the insert DNA of pBL1. One nonpathogenic mutant, 13-33, had a mutation in a gene homologous to a miaA gene encoding tRNA delta (2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase of Escherichia coli. This indicated that tRNA modifications in X. campestris pv. glycines may be required for expression of genes necessary for pathogenicity. The mutant 13-33 multiplied as well as the parent strain did in the culture medium and in planta, indicating that loss of pathogenicity is not due to the inability of multiplication in vivo.
Phytophthora Root Rot of Chinese Cabbage and Spinach Caused by P. drechsleri in Korea
Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Kim, Wan-Gyn ; Cho, Weon-Dae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 28~33
Phytophthora root rot of Chniese cabbage and spinach is reported for the first time in Korea. The diseases ocurred at Yangju, Seosan and Yeocheon in Korea from 1995 through 1998, mainly in lowland and submerged areas. Symptoms consisted of stunt, yellows, wilt and eventual death due to root rot. Fourteen isolates collected from naturally infected plants were all identified as P. drechsleri based on mycological characteristics. PCR-RFLP analysis of rDNA of the isolates confirmed the above result, since the restriction band patterns of the small subunit and internal transcribed spacers were identical to P. drechsleri and P. cryptogea, but distinct from closely related species of P. erythroseptica, P. cambivora, P. sojae and P. megasperma. The pathogen showed strong pathogenicity to Chinese cabbage, moderate to spinach, radish, cabbage and tomato, and weak or none to brown mustard, kale, chicory and pepper in pathogenicity tests.
Use of Triton X-100 and Sephacryl S-500 HR for the Purification of Cymbidium Mosaic Virus from Orchid Plants
Han, Jung-Heon ; La, Yong-Joon ; Lee, Cheol-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 34~37
Cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV) was purified from CyMV infected orchid plant leaves by Sephacryl S-500 HR column chromatography. Partial purification was done by solubilization with Triton X-100 (alkylphenoxypolyethoxy ethanol) and precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG 6,000) followed by ultracentrifugation on 30% sucrose cushion. Based on the spectrophotometric analysis, 33 mg of CyMV could be obtained form 100 g of CyMV-infected orchid plant leaves. The purified CyMV represented one distinct homogeneous band by SDS-PAGE, and electron microscopy revealed that it was highly homogeneous and not fragmented. Bioassay demonstrated that the purified CyMV had a normal infectivity to Chenopodium amaranticolor and orchid plants. Based on these results, the purification method in this work could be served as an improved method for the purification of CyMV and similar viruses with good yield, high purity and native integrity.
Molecular Analysis of Geminigirus ORFs on Symptom Development
Park, Eulyong ; Hyunsik Hwang ; Lee, Sukchan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 38~43
Mutants of the monopartite geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) have been screened for infectivity, systemic movement, replication and symptom development in Arabidopsis thaliana. As known by coding for coat protein, R1 mutant was not infectious and did not move systemically. R2, R3 and L2/L3 mutants produced milder symptoms compared to wild type BCTV but the infectivity was reduced by 40% to 60%. R2 ORF is thought to be involved in the regulation of ssDNA and dsDNA accumulation because only dsDNA was accumulated on R2-infected organs. Disruption of ORF L4 resulted in reduced infections, but the viral DNA was accumulated in infected organs from roots to shoot tips as much as wild type BCTV on Sei-O. In addition, 4 mutants did not produce callus-like tissues on infected organs, suggesting that L4 ORF may play a role in the induction of host cell divisions by virus infection. This result was supported by the patterns of mRNA expression and promoter analysis of the cell cycle marker gene, cycl, on Arabidopsis. cycl mRNA was accumulated on symptomatic organs by wild type BCTV infections but not by L4 mutant. We conclude that the BCTV L4 ORF is essential for symptom developments, specially callus-like formation on infected organs.
Mycological Characteristics of Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi Isolated from Pea, Ginseng and Soybean in Korea
Jung, Yong-Sung ; Kim, Young-Tae ; Yoo, Sung-Joon ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 44~47
Fungal isolates belong to Fusarium solani (perfect stage : Nectria haematococca) were isolated form pea, ginseng roots and soybean during 1995 and 1996 in Korea. Thirty-five isolates were identified as F. solani f. sp. pisi based on the morphological characteristics and their pathogenicity. Microconidia formed on the long conidiophore were ovoid or oblong sizing 5~14 x 2.5~5.0
. Macroconidia were formed on carnation leaf agar media with 4.8~5.3 x 32.0~40.7
in size. They belonged to
-type since their 3-septate macroconidia were smaller than
in width. Chlamydospores were smooth- or rough- walled and formed in terminal or lateral branches of hyphae, intercalary, or in chains. Most isolates were highly virulent to pea seedlings, producing dark brown or rot lesions. This is the first report of f. solani f. sp. pisi being pathogenic to pea in Korea.
Field Performance of a New Fungicide Ethaboxam Against Cucumber Downy Mildew, Potato Late Blight and Pepper Phytophthora Blight in Korea
Kim, Dal-Soo ; Prak, Hyun-Cheol ; Chun, Sam-Jae ; Yu, Seung-Hun ; Park, Kyong-Ju ; Oh, Jeung-Haing ; Shin, Kwang-Hoon ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Kim, Byung-Sup ; Hahm, Young-Il ; Chung, Bong-Koo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 48~52
Ethaboxam is the first proprietary fungicide developed in Korea, registered in 1998 and commercialized in 1999 by LG Chemical Ltd., Korea. It is a derivative of aminothiazole carboxamide and formulated into 25% wettable powder for practical application in fields. Ethaboxam effectively controlled cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans, and pepper Phytophthora blight caused by P. capsici, and was superior or comparable to the commercial standards, when foliarly sprayed 3∼5 times until dripping off at approximately 7-day intervals during the growing season. Ethaboxam was required at least 125 mg/liter and 250 mg/liter for effective control of cucumber downy mildew, and potato late blight and pepper Phytophthora blight, respectively. There was not phytotoxicity observed o leaves, stems or fruits of cucumber, potato and pepper from any trial.
Vegetative Compatibility Groups in Fusarium graminearum Isolates from Corn and Barley in Korea
Moon, Jae-Ho ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Lee, Yin-Won ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 53~56
Fifty-three isolates of Fusarium graminearum were obtained from corn and barley samples in several provinces of Korea. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of trichothecenes produced by these isolates revealed that 37 and 16 isolates were nivalenol (NIV)- and deoxynivalenol (DON)-chemotypes, respectively. Two hundred and seventy-five nitrate-nonutilizing (nit) mutants were obtained from the isolates. Of these mutants, 187 were identified as nit1, nit3, or NitM, but 88 could not be identified as one of these classes. The highest frequency of nit mutant was nit1 (65%), followed by nit3 (20%) and NitM (15%). Higher frequency of NitM was observed in DON-chemotypes than in NIV-chemotypes. The mutants were used for vegetative compatibility group (VCG) analysis by examining heterokaryosis using complementary mutant pairs. No heterokaryon formation was observed among all 1,248 pairwise combinations, suggesting that all isolates tested belong to different VCGs. Higher frequency of self-incompatibility was observed in NIV-chemotypes than in DON-chemotypes. These results suggest that the like-lihood of asexual genetic recombination may be very low I F. graminearum under the field condition.
Sensitive and Pathovar-Specific Detection of Xanthormonas campestris pv. glycines by DNA Hybridization and Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis
Changsik Oh ; Sunggi Heu ; Park, Yong-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 57~61
Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines causes bacterial pustule disease on susceptible soybean leaves and produces a bacteriocin, named glycinecinA, against most xanthomonads including Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. One of the 5 isolated DNA regions responsible for bacteriocin production, a 1.7 kb DNA region for the glycinecinA gene, was used as a probe to detect the presence of the homolog DNA in other bacterial strains. Among 55 bacterial strains tested, only X. campestris pv. glycines showed the positive signal with glycinecinA DNA. Two oligomers, heu2 and heu4, derived from a glycinecinA DNA were used to carry out the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with chromosomal DNA from 55 different bacterial strains including 24 different strains of X. campestris pv. glycines, 9 different pathovars of xanthomonads, and other 22 bacterial strains of different genus and species. By separation of the PCR products on agarose gel, a 0.86 kb DNA fragment was specifically detected when X. campestris pv. glycines was present in the amplification assay. The 0.86 kb fragment was not amplified when DNA from other bacteria was used for the assay. Southern analysis with glycinecinA DNA showed that the PCR signal was obtained with X. campestris pv. glycines isolates from various geographic regions and soybean cultivars. Therefore, the 1.7 kb DNA region for the glycinecinA gene can be used for the pathovar-specific probe for the DNA hybridization and the primers heu2 and heu4 can be used for the pathovar-specific primers for the PCR analysis to detect X. campestris pv. glycines.
Anthracnose of Safflower Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum
Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Moon, Young-Gi ; Cho, Weon-Dae ; Park, So-Deuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 62~67
Anthracnose occurred severely on safflower plants grown in Euiseong and Jecheon areas of Korea in 1997 and 1998. The disease incidence was up to 100% in some fields, and symptoms developed on seedlings, leaves, stems, roots and hulls of the plants. Coletotrichum sp. was consistently present on the diseased plant parts, and all the isolates from the lesions were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum based on the morphological and cultural characteristics. Similar symptoms were produced on the host plants by artificial inoculation with isolates of the fungus. The fungus was reisolated from lesions on the plants inoculated. This is the first report that c. acutatum causes anthracnose of safflower.
-Tubulin Gene and Effect of Pencycuron on Tubulin Assembly in Rhizoctonia solani
Roh, Seong-Hwan ; Heung-Tae KIm ; Isamu-Yamaguchi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 68~71
To illustrate the action mechanism of pencycuron on Rhizoctonia solani, two experiments were conducted including the comparison of amino acids of
-tubulin between R-C (sensitive isolate) and Rh-131 (non-sensitive isolate), and the inhibitory effect of pencycuron on tubulin assembly in vitro. Both
-tubulin genes of R-C and Rh-131 proved to have 1,582 nucleotides encoding a protein of 445 amino acids, showing 98% homology in amino acid sequences between them. It was found that codons at 103, 236, and 267 for lysine (AGG), valine (GTC) and isoleucine (ATT) in R-C were replaced by codons for methionine (ATG), isoleucine (ATT) and methionine (ATG) in Rh-131, respectively. No inhibitory effect of pencycuron on the tubulin assembly was observed. It suggests that pencycuron may have no direct inhibitory effects on the assembly of tubulin at least in vitro.
A Scab Disease Caused by Cladosporium cucumberinum on Watermelon Seedlings
Kwon, Mi-Kyung ; Hong, Jeong-Rae ; Cho, Baik-Ho ; Ki, Un-Kye ; Kim, Ki-Chung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 72~75
A scab disease occurred on watermelon seedlings by the infection of Cladosporium cucumberinum. This is the first report demonstrating the scab disease on watermelon in Korea. The casual agent attacked all plant parts of the seedlings on the ground. Infection sites were initiated with sunken and dark green spots, and then suddenly developed to large lesions softened with gummy substances. When hypocotyl and leaf stalk of seedlings were infected and softened, upper parts of seedlings were brokin down, dried and eventually died. Conidiophores of the fungus were characterized by pale olivaceous brown color, and variable length of about 3-5 mm in width. Conidia were formed I long branched chains, and conidium was ellipsoidal, fusiform or subspherical single cell mostly without septum. Morphological characteristics of the fungus were almost identical to Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Authur. The fungus was also pathogenic to cucumber, squash and oriental melon, suggesting that it is a common pathogen to cucurbits. However, the fungus was not pathogenic to bottle gourd.
Phloeospora Leaf on Spiraea
Shin, Hyeon-Dong ; Lee, Hyun-Tae ; Oh, Jeong-Taek ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 15, issue 1, 1999, Pages 76~78
A Phloeospora leaf spot disease on Spiraea prunifolia var. simpliciflora was noticed to commonly occur in Korea. The causal organism of the disease was identified as Phloeospora spiraeicola based on the morphological characteristics of conidiomata and conidia. Pathogenicity of the fungus was proved by artificial inoculation. This is the first record of Phloeospora leaf spot in Korea.