Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jan 2000
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Jan 2000
Selecting the target year
Efficient Target-Site Assay of Chemicals for Melanin Biosynthesis Inhibition of Magnaporthe grisea
Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Son, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Heung-Tae ; Park, Gyung-Ja ; Hahn, Hoh-Gyu ; Nam, Kee-Dal ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 125~129
A rapid and efficient assay to determine melanin biosynthesis inhibition of Magnaporthe grisea, a causal agent of the rice blast, by chemicals was developed. Wells in 24-well plates were loaded with spore suspension of the fungus and three known melanin biosynthesis inhibitors of KC10017, tricyclazole, and carpropamid. Subsequent color changes of mycelia and culture media in the wells were observed 7 days after incubation. The wells treated with KC10017 (an inhibitor of polyketide synthesis step and/or pentaketide cyclization step) became colorless, whereas tricyclazole (an inhibitor of 1, 3, 8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase) or carpropamid (an inhibitor of scytalone dehydratase)-treated wells exhibited red color. They did not show any inhibitory effect on fungal growth. The inhibition of reaction steps prior to 1, 3, 6, 8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene formation was easily determined by colorless medium and mycelia. However, it was impossible to distinguish between inhibition of reduction steps and inhibition of dehydration steps by colors of the cultures. It was accomplished through HPLC analysis of the melanin biosynthesis-involving pentaketide metabolites accumulated by the inhibitors. Through screening of a number of synthetic chemicals using the in vitro assay, we could find a novel chemical group of melanin biosynthesis inhibitor.
Indicative Responses of Rice Plant to Atmospheric Ozone
Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Yun, Sung-Chul ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 130~136
Differences in physiological and biochemical responses between sensitive and tolerant rice cultivars to ozone were investigated to develop reliable indications of early ozone damage. Three Korean local rice cultivars -sen-sitive cultivar Dongjin (DJ), moderately tolerant cultivar Hwayeong (HY) and tolerant cultivar Ilmee (IM) were exposed to ozone at the concentrations of 100 nl
or 200 nl
, 8 h per day for 10 days in a controlled-environment fumigation chamber. The rice cultivars seemed to be endurable to ozone stress at the concentration of 100 nl
which is frequently monitored during the growing season in summer. However, severe damage was induced and differential sensitivity was clearly noted among the rice cultivars at the higher ozone concentration. Activation of the glutathion (GR) -ascorbate peroxidase (APX) cycle was likely to be responsible for protection of rice plants against ozone exposure, relating difference in sensitivity of rice cultivars to ozone. Photosynthetic activity appeared to be one of sensitive responses, for which chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf greenness can together provide a very reliable index, a degree of photosynthetic damages by ozone. Formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) was also considered as an indication that can differentiate cultivars sensitivity to ozone. However, the changes in polyamines and total phenolics were not consistent with exposed ozone concentrations and/or ozone sensitivity of the cultivars. The behavior of polyamines and phenolics in the damaged plants at high ozone levels could be interpreted as an indication of ozone injury rather than activation of additional protection mechanisms scavenging active oxygen species formed by ozone. Several responses triggered by ozone could explain the differential sensitivity of the rice cultivars and be used as reliable indications of relative ozone damage to rice plant.
Phytotoxin Production of Nigrospora sphaerica Pathogenic on Turfgrasses
Park, Gyung-Ja ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Shon, Mi-Jeong ; Kim, Heung-Tae ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 137~141
A causal fungus of turfgrass blight was isolated from the infected leaves of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) and identified as Nigrospora sphaerica (Sacc.) Mason by using a light misroscope. Its conidia are large (14-20
diameter), shiny, black, aseptate, and smooth-walled spheres. The fungus caused typical blighting symptoms on the two turfgrass plants of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.). The fungus was found to produce a phytotoxic subtance to be associated with the pathogenic mechanism. A phytotoxin was isolated from the liquid cultures of N. sphaerica by repeated silica gel column chromatography and its structure was determined to be 5, 6-dihydro-5-hydroxy-6-propenyl-2H-pyr-2-one (T-3 compound). It was not a host-specific toxin showing phytotoxic effects to various plants inclusing turfgrasses in the leaf-wounding assay, the whole plant test, and the cellular leakage test. The compound caused leaf tip dieback symptoms in turfgrass plants similar to those caused by the pathogen. Thus, T-3 compound is thought to be involved in the development of Nigrospora blight.
Ordered Differential Display from Cryphonectria parasitica
Kang, Hyun-Seok ; Choi, Jin-Won ; Park, Seung-Moon ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Yang, Moon-Sik ; Kim, Dae-Hyuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 142~146
Ordered differential display using RT-PCR (ODD-PCR) was conducted to have a profile of the differently expressed genes between a hypovirulent strain of Cryphonectria parasitica (UEP1) and its isogenic wild type strain (EP155/2). ODD-PCR has advantages of high sensitivity, reproducibility, proportional representation, and limited number of primer combinations comparing with other differential display methods. RNAs were prepared from 1 and 5 day liquid culture of both hypovirulent and wild type strains, and were further evaluated with the marker genes of C. parasitica such as cryparin and mating factor MF2-1, which were already proven to be specifically down-regulated by the presence of mycovirus CHV1-713. ODD-PCR was conducted using those RNAs and expressed genes were categorized to five groups according to their temporal and quantitative expression patterns. Those fives groups are CPC, CPE, CPL, CPD, and CPU which represent constitutively-expressed, early-expressed, late-expressed, down-regulated, and up-regulated, respectively. Ninety two primer combinations out of a total of 192 have been tested so far. Among the twenty to fifty distinct bands per each reaction, an average of four to ten genes was identified as viral-regulated fungal genes. Those viral-specifc genes were further analyzed by DNA sequencing followed by homology search. Characterization of 30 clones including all five groups were conducted as a preliminary data and more are under investigation.
Sporulation of Pyricularia grisea at Different Growth Stages of Rice in the Field
Kim, Chang-Kyu ; Reiich Yoshino ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 147~150
Sporulation patterns of rice blast fungus were studied at relatively later stages of leaf blast and neck blast seasons in Icheon, Korea. This experiment was done by detaching lesion-bearing leaves and panicle bases. The number of conidia remaining on the leaf blast lesions of different cultivars from Jul 20 to Jul 23 ranged from 3,640 to 82,740 spores. More conidia were observed on the adaxial surface because they were released from abaxial surface. After heading, sporulation was observed from the lesions on the flag leaves but the number of spores was less than in the late July. Detached panicle bases or uppermost internodes infected by Pyricularia grisea produced abundant amount of conidia. Among these panicle bases, 30.1 mm size lesion recorded the highest count of 244,560 spores. When we compared the sporulation amount using the KY-type spore trap, more conidia were recorded from intact lesions than from the lesions which removed conidia and conidiophore The ratio of conidia release against total sporulation ranged from 20.5%-25.0% for leaf blast and 8.2%-25.3% in the neck blast. Effective inoculum potential was also discussed.
Cloning and Expression of a Rice cDNA Encoding a Lls1 Homologue of Maize
Jwa, Nam-Soo ; Park, Sang-Geun ; Park, Chan-Ho ; Kim, Soon-Ok ; Ahn, Il-Pyung ; Park, Sook-Young ; Yoon, Choong-Hyo ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 151~155
A cDNA (Oslls1) encoding Lls1-homologue of maize was isolated from cDNA library of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Ilpum). The 2,138 bp of full length Oslls1 clone contains an open reading frame of 1,623 nucleotides encoding 575 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of Oslls1 has a high level of homology with chlorophyll a oxygenases of Arabidopsis thaliana (67%) and Marchantia polymorpha (65%). Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicates the existence of a small gene family for Oslls1 in the rice genome. The expression of Oslls1 mRNA was induced in leaves and germinating seeds. Treatment of
significantly down-regulated Oslls1 expression. The expression of Oslls1 mRNA was consititutively down-regulated in the blm, a rice mutant exhibiting spontaneous necrotic lesions. These results suggest that this Oslls1 gene may be involved incell death mechanisms in the blm mutant of rice.
Occurrence of Eggplant Wilt Caused by Verticillium dahliae
Kim, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Ki-Woo ; Park, Eun-Woo ; Hong, Soon-Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 156~161
A wilt disease occurred on greenhouse-grown eggplants at Yeojoo, Korea in 1997. The wilted eggplants had leaves with gradual yellowing, interveinal necrosis, and marginal crinkling. Vascular tissues of diseased stems were discolored, turned black, and microsclerotia developed at the base of stems. The disease progressed from lower parts of the plants upward. Fungal isolates from discolored vascular tissues were initially whitish to cream color on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plate, which later turned black due to the formation of microsclerotia. Conidiophores were erect, hyaline, verticillately branched, and had 3 or 4 phialides arising at each node. Phialides were hyaline, arranged in whorls, and measured as 17.5-32.5 x 2-3
. Conidia were hyaline, ellipsoidal to sub-cylindrical, mainly one-celled, and measured as 5-8.8 x 2-4
. Conidia were borne in small clusters at the tips of phialides. Microsclerotia formed on PDA plates, and consisted of globular cells that formed irregular masses of various shapes. Chlamydospores were absent. Based on these cultural and morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Verticillium dahliae Klebahn. Pathogenicity tests by root cutting, root dipping or soil drenching resulted in similar symptoms observed in the naturally infected eggplants. This is the first report on occurrence of Verticillium wilt of eggplant in Korea.
Chemical Control of Gray Blight of Tea in Korea
Shin, Gil-Ho ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 3, 2000, Pages 162~165
Screening of effective fungicides, determination of effective fungicide application time and investigation of the emergence of resistant isolates to fungicides were conducted to establish effective chemical control strategy of gray blight of tea (Camellia sinensis) in Korea. Systemic fungicides, such as bitertanol, were effective for controlling gray blight when the fungicides were sprayed within 3 days after cutting tea leaves for harvest. Sprayed immediately after cutting, contact fungicides such as chlorothalonil were also effective, but control efficacy rapidly decreased with lengthening of the intervals between cutting and spraying. Korean isolates of P. longiseta and P. theae were still sensitive to bitertanol or fluazinam. However, the isolates highly insensitive to copper hydroxide or thiophanate-methyl have already emerged in Korea. Therefore, careful attention should be paid to use of fungicides and spraying programs for the effective control of gray blight of tea in Korea.