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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jan 2000
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Jan 2000
Selecting the target year
Isolation and Numerical Identification of Streptomyces humidus strain S5-55 Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Lim, Song-Won ; Kim, Jeong-Dong ; Kim, Biom-Seok ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 189~199
To search for the antifungal substances, various actino-mycete isolates were obtained from various soils of Korea using plate dilution method on the humic acid vitamin agar plates. In the screening procedures using a dual culture method, 32 actionomycete isolates were selected, which showed the inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi Altirnaria mali, Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, Magnaporthe grisea, Phytophthora capsici, and Rhizoctonia solani. Bioassay of the crude extracts from culture filtrates and mycelial mets revealed that 12 antagonistic actionomycetes produced highly active antifungal substances. Actinomycete strain S5-55 which showed the substantial antifungal activity against the tested fungi was selected for production of the antifungal substances. Based on the cytochemical and morphological characteristics, strain S5-55 was identified as a Streptomyces species. The results of the numerical identification using the TAXON program confirmed that Streptomyces strain S5-55 was identical with Streptomyces humidus including in TAXON major cluster 19. The production of antifungal substance was most favorable when S. humidus strain S5-55 was cultivated for 10 dats on soluble starch broth supplemented with
. The antifungal substances active against the plant pathogenic fungi P. capsici and M. grisea were partially purified using
reversed-phase column chromatography.
Potentials for Biological Control of Blue Stain on Woods Caused by Ophiostomatoid Fungi
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Oh, Eun-Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 200~205
Biological control of blue stain fungi, such as Ophiostoma and Leptographium spp., that reduce the quality of logs and cause economic losses in wood product industry, was carried out in laboratory and field trials by a colorless strain of Ophiostoma quercus, BSFcs-1. Inoculation of pine wood chips with the colorless strain 1 wk before inoculating wild-type strain demonstrated that BSFcs-1 colonized wood chips and excluded blue stain fungi from being established. Efficacy of BSFcs-1 was compared with colorless strain of O. piliferum, which is commercially available under the trade name of Cartapip. Inoculation of pine wood logs with the colorless strain 1 wk before inoculating wild-type strain of blue stain in isolated wood chips, while O. quercus and O. floccosum colonized 0% and 17%, respectively. Simultaneous inoculation of logs with the colorless and wild-type strains resulted in decreased colonization (28%) by BSFcs-1, but increased colonization by O. quercus (185) and O. floccosum (29%). On the other hand, BSFcs-1 and wild-type strain alone colonized 75% and 71%, respectively. Treatment of the surface of log ends with mycelial suspension of BSFcs-1 after cutting also showed good control of blue stain fungi in a pine forest stands.
Evaluation of Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water as a Control Agent of Cucumber Powdery Mildew
Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Cha, Kwang-Hong ; Ko, Sook-Ju ; Park, In-Jin ; Park, Boung-In ; Seong, Ki-Young ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 206~210
The effect of the electrolyzed oxidizing water on Sphaerotheca fuliginea was investigated with germination and sporulation of the fungal conidia. The sporulation was inhibited by the electrolyzed oxidizing water of pH 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, but was not inhibited by the distilled water adjusted pH with 1N-HCL solution. However, the electrolyzed oxidizing water did not affect conidial germination. The oxidation-reduction potential at pH 2.5 and pH 3.5 of electrolyzed oxidizing water were 1130 mV and 1060 mV, respectively, but those of distilled water adjusted with HCL solution were 550 mV and 490 mV, respectively. When the electrolyzed oxidizing water of ORP over 1100 mV was sprayed on cucumplanting, the disease severities of powdery mildew were about 8.5% and 19.2%, respectively. Disease severity of a standard control (triflumizole 30% WP,
) was about 3.0%, while that of plants without electrolyzed oxidizing water was to 45.8%.
Ultrastructural Aspects of the Mixed Infections of Watermelon Mosaic Potyvirus and Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Tobamovirus Isolated from Watermelon
Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Park, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 211~215
Symptoms on 4 varieties of watermelons inoculated with watermelon mosaic potyvirus II isolated from watermelon (WMV-W) were severe mosaic and leaf malformation while those inoculated with cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus from watermelon (CGMMV-W) were mild mosaic and chlorotic spots. Inoculation of the mixture of WMV-W and CGMMV-W produced extremely severe mosaic along with necrotic spots and general necrosis. Doubly infected plants were also stunted. Cells infected with WMV-W or CGMMV-W alone exhibited the intrinsically ultra-structural properties of each virus infection. WMV-W induced potyvirus-characteristic cylindrical inclusions in the cytosol. Virus particles were orderly aligned along the tonoplasts. CGMMV-W induced tobamovirus-characteristic stacked crystalline arrays of virus particles in the cytosol. Cells infected doubly with WMV-W and CGMMV-W contained striking cytopathic effects that were not present in single infection of each virus. The unique ring structure, nonagon, was that a single potyvirus particle was surrounded by 9 CGMMV-W tobamovirus particles.
Ultrastructural Aspects of the Mixed Infections of Watermelon Mosaic Potyvirus Isolated from Pumpkin and Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Tobamovirus from Watermelon
Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Park, Hong-Soo ; La, Yong-Jun ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 216~221
Mixed infection of watermelon mosaic potyvirus II isolated from pumpkin (WMV-P) and cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus from watermelon (CGMMV-W) caused extremely severe symptoms such as progressive silting and death of watermelon plants. Single infections of either WMV-P or CGMMV-W on the same hosts produced only vein clearing and/or mosaic on the upper leaves. In cells infected with WMV-P, potyvirus-characteristic inclusions of pinwheels, scrolls and cylindrical inclusions were present in the cytosol. Parallel arrays of virus particles in the tonoplast were also common. In cells infected with CGMMV-W, virus particles occurred as stacked-bands of scattered randomly in the cytosol and vacuoles in all type cells. Many cells also contained vesiculated mitochondria with fibril-containing vesicles. Cells infected mixedly with WMV-P and CGMMV-W contained structural features that were not observed in cells infected singly with the two viruses. A particle of WMV-P potyvirus was surrounded by evenly spaced nine particles of CGMMV-W tobamovirus, which made a unique nonagon ring. The angled layers having
were alternating layer, herringbone, crosshatching and ladder figures.
In Vitro Sensitivity to Metalaxyl of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae Isolates from Burley Tobacco in Korea
Kang, Yue-Gyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 222~226
In disease surveys from 1986 ti 1998, disease incidence of tobacco black shank was gradually increased in burley tobacco from 1996. To study the causes of the disease occurrence, one hundred and fourteen isolates of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) were collected from burley tobacco-growing areas in the southern part of Korea during 1996-1997, and tested in vitro for meatlaxyl sensitivity which was determined by measuring the mycelial growth on corn meal agar (CMA) amended with metalaxyl. Of the tested isolates, 78.1% showed sensitive to metalaxyl, having
values less than 1.0
, while 1.7% was resistant weth
greater than 100
. Ppn isolates from three provinces, Chungnam, Chonbuk and Chonnam showed similar distributions of metalaxyl sensitivity. Metalaxyl-resistant isolates were not significantly different from metalaxyl-sensitive ones in mycelial growth rate, chlamydospore formation capacity and size of the spore, and pathogenicity on tobacco plant (cv. Burley 21). These results suggest that the metalaxyl-resistant Ppn in burley tobacco may be one of the major factors to cause the higher occurrence of the tobacco black shank in the burley tobacco-growing area.
Vegetative Compatibility Groups and Pathogenicity Variation among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis
Ahn, Il-Pyung ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 227~230
A total of 90 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, the causal agent of oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa) wilt, was isolated from symptomatic tissues of oriental melon from 4 provinces in Korea. These isolates were grouped into vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) by demonstrating heterokaryosis through complementation using nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. No self-incompatibility was observed in any of isolates. All isolates were grouped into 3 VCGs ; A, B, and C. iSOLATES BELONGING TO VCG A and VCG B accounted for 87% and 91% of the fungal population collected in 1991 and 1993, respectively. As the increment of cultivation period in the same field, the proportion of isolates belonging to VCG B increased whereas that of isolates belonging to VCG A decreased. Mean virulence of a total population increased as the increment of cultivation period in the same field. Isolates belonging to VCG B showed the highest increment of virulence. These data suggest that replanting of a host plant in the same field may cause increase of virulence in the pathogens. Furthermore, virulence of F. oxysporum f.sp. melonis isolates is related to the VCGs.
Molecular Analysis of the 3'-Terminal Region of Lily Latent Carlavirus from Lilium lancitoium
Ryu, Ji-Hwan ; Park, Hye-Won ; Park, Won-Mok ; Lee, Se-Yong ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 231~235
The 3,000 nucleotides of 3'-terminal region of the genomic RNA of a new isolate of carlavirus from a Korean native lily (Lilum lancitoium) was cloned and its nucleotide sequences were determined. The coat protein (CP) gene of the virus showed 72.0% to 72.8% nucleotide sequence identities and 86.9% to 88.0% amino acid sequence identities with those of the four strains (two Korean, one Dutch, and one Japanese isolates) of lily symptomless virus (LSV). Interestingly, different amino acid sequences between the new isolate and LSV strains were located at the N-terminal region of the CP. Pairwise amino acid sequence comparison of the CP gene revealed sequence identities of 22.0% to 71.1% between the virus and other 9 carlavirus species. The 25 kDa and 12 kDa proteins genes of the virus share 30.7% to 76.3% and 31.1% to 85.8% amino acid sequence identities, respectively, with those of 8 other carlaviruses. The 16 kDa protein gene of the virus shares 16.7% to 72.9% amino acid sequence identities with that of 9 other carlaviruses. These data indicate that the virus, designated as lily latent virus (LiLV), is a distinct of the Carlavirus genus and distinguished from the known strains of LSV.
A New Selective Medium for Detecting Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae in Rice Seeds
Song, Wan-Yeob ; Kang, Mi-Hyung ; Kim, Hyung-Moo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 236~241
A selective agar medium was developed and tested for the isolation of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, the causal bacterial pathogen of bacterial brown stripe, from rice seeds. The new selective agar medium, designated sorbitol pyroglutamic acid agar (SPA) medium, contained 0.5 g of
, 3.0 g of Na
, 2.0 g of D-sorbitol, 0.2 g of L-pyroglutamic acid, 10.0
of tween 80, 40.0 mg of victoria blue B, 15.0 g of agar, 150.0 mg of ampicillin and 25.0 mg of vancomycin per litter. Colonies of A. avenae subsp. avenae on SPA medium were smooth, round, convex, shiny, blue and 1.5-2.0 mm in diameter 4 days after incubation at 28
. Blue colored colony having dark blue zone was typical type of A. avenae subsp. avenae colonies on the medium. Mean recovery of 8 isolates of A. avenae subsp. avenae on the selective SPA medium was 95.8% in comparison to that on KB medium. The saprophytic bacteria were reduced to 97.9% on SPA medium compared to those on KB medium. Most of other rice seedborne bacteria as well as reported pathogenic bacteria were failed to grow on SPA medium. This medium was highly selective for recovering A. avenae subsp. avenae from rice seed samples, and it could be used to enhance the recovery of this bacterium from rice seed samples, which may be contaminated with large numbers of competing microorganisms.
Occurrence of Colletotrichum Stem Rot Caused by Glomerella cingulata on Graft-Cactus in Korea
Kim, Young-Ho ; Jun, Ok-Kyoung ; Sung, Mi-Joo ; Shin, Jun-Sung ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Jeong, Myoung-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 4, 2000, Pages 242~245
In 1999 and 2000, a rot of graft-cacti including Hylocereus trigonus (three-angled cactus), Gymnocalycium mihanovichii, and Chamaecereus silvestrii occurred in several greenhouses in major cactus-growing areas of Korea. Typical symptoms included a moist, light brown rot or a watery rot of the stems. A Colletotrichum sp. was isolated from the lesions. The fungus formed dark gray, dense or floccose colonies on potato dextrose agar, frequently forming many light pink acervuli often surrounded with setae. The hyaline, cylindrical conidia were one-celled with round ends. Appressoria were mostly semicircular or clavate. Thin-walled asci contained eight, one-celled, hyaline ascospores (biseriate in ascus). Ascopspores were strainht or curved, ellipsoidal or subcylindrical. Based on these characteristics, the fungus was identified as Glomerlla cingulata (anamorph : C. gloeosporioides). Wound inoculation of basal stems of the cactus by the mycelial plugs or conidia produced symptoms identical to those described above. Various cactus species were compared in susceptibility using stem disc inoculation. Cereus tetragonus, Eriocereus jusbertii, Myrtillocactus geomentrizans, and three-angled cacti from Mexico and Taiwan were susceptible, but C. peruvianus (Peruvian apple cactus) and Harrisia tortuosa not. This is the first report of G. cingulata causing stem rot of graft-cactus in Korea.