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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Aug 2000
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Jun 2000
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Apr 2000
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2000
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jan 2000
Volume 16, Issue 5 - Jan 2000
Selecting the target year
Selection of Nitrate-nonutilizing Mutants of Hypoxylon atropunctatum, A Fungal Pathogen on Oak Species
Chun, Se-Chul ; Fenn, P. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 247~251
Latent infections of healthy-appearing oaks of Hypoxylon atropunctatum complicates field studies by interfering with inoculation experiments to follow pathogenesis, fungal development and reproduction of this canker rot fungus. Mutants with unique and easily scorable phenotypes would be useful for inoculation studies. There is a broad range in the capacity of wild-type isolates to utilize nitrate as a sole nitrogen sources. Several types of nitrate-nonutilization mutants (nit1, Nit3, NitM) were selected from nitrate-utilizing wild-type isolates. Also, a few mutants of Hypoxylon atropunctatum were selected that could only grow poorly on basal medium supplemented with various nitrogen sources and even on yeast extract agar. These unknown mutants need to be characterized further. Nit mutants of Hypoxylon atropunctatum were readily selected, grew well and were recovered after inoculation into oak stems. These results suggest that nit mutants could be useful for inoculation studies in trees that contain latent infections.
Detection of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi Using Specific PCR Primers Designed from the 16S-23S rRNA Intergenic Spacer Region
Kwon, Soon-Wo ; Myung, In-Sik ; Go, Seung-Joo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 252~256
The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) were sequenced and analyzed to design specific primer for identification of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. Two types ISRs, large and small ISRs, were identified from three strains (ATCC 11663, KACC 10163 and KACC 10165) of P. chrysanthemi and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum ATCC 15713.Large ISRs contained transfer RNA-Ile(tRNA
, and small ISRs contained tRNA
. Size of the small ISRs of P. chrysanthemi ranged on 354-356 bp, while it was 451 bp in small ISR of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum ATCC 15713. From hypervariable region of small ISRs, species-specific primer for P. chrysanthemi with 20 bp length (CHPG) was designed from hypervariable region of small ISRs, which was used as forward promer to detect P. chrysanthemi strains with R23-1R produced PCR product of about 260bp size (CHSF) only from P. chrysanthemi strains, not from other Pectobacterium spp. and Erwinia spp. Direct PCR from bacterial cell without extracting DNA successfully amplified a specific fragment, CHSF, from P. chrysanthemi ATCC 11663. The limit of PCR detection was 1
Alteration of Gas Exchange in Rice Leaves Infected with Magnaporthe grisea
Yun, Sung-Chul ; Kim, Pan-Gi ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 257~263
Infection with rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe grisea) significantly reduced foliar net photosynthesis (A) of rice cultivars: Ilpoom, Hwasung, and Choochung in greenhouse experiments. By measuring the amount of diseased leaf area with a computer image analysis system, the relation between disease severity (DS) and net photosynthetic rate was curvilinearly correlated (r=0.679). Diseased leaves with 35% blast symptom can be predicted to have a 50% reduction of photosynthesis. The disease severity was linearly correlated (r=0.478) with total chlorophyll (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b) per unit leaf area(TC). Light use efficiency was reduced by the fungal infection according to the light response curves. However, dark respiration (Rd) did not change after the fungal infection (p=0.526). Since the percent of reduction in photosynthesis greatly exceeded the percent of leaf area covered by blast lesions, loss of photosynthetic tissue on an area basis could not by itself account for the reduced photosynthesis. Quantitative photosynthetic reduction can be partially explained by decreasing TC, but cannot be explained by decreasing Rd. By photosynthesis (A)-internal CO
curve analysis, it was suggested that the fungal infection reduced ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration, and inorganic phosphate regeneration. Thus, the reduction of photosynthesis by blast infection was associated with decreased TC and biochemical capacity, which comprises all carbon metabolism after CO
enters through the stomata.
Scopoletin Production Related to Induced Resistance of Tobacco Plants Against Tobacco mosaic virus
Kim, Young-Ho ; Choi, Do-Il ; Yeo, Woon-Hyung ; Kim, Young-Sook ; Chae, Soon-Yong ; Park, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Sang-Seock ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 264~268
A fluorescent material was accumulated in inoculated leaves showing necrotic local lesions of tobacco plants with N gene, Nicotiana tabacum cvs. Xanthi-nc NN, Samsun NN, Burley 21 and KF 114, and N. glutinosa, and Datura stramonium at the early growth stages by the inoculation of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). It was identified as a coumarin phytoalexin, scopoletin. Although the material was most prominently produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco leaves with local necrotic lesions, its accumulation was also noted in uninoculated leaves of TMV-inoculated plants. Its accumulation was somewhat greater in high resistance-induced leaves than low resistance-induced and intact leaves. Scopoletin treatment induced the expression of a pathogenesis-related protein, PR-1, prominently at the concentration of 500 or 1000
g/ml. This suggests that scopoletin is a phytoalexin abundantly accumulating in N gene-containing resistant plants in response to TMV infection, and may be related to hypersensitive responses (HR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in the resistant tobacco plants.
Characterization and Partial Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of Alfalfa Mosaic Alfamoviruses Isolated from Potato and Azuki Bean in Korea
Jung, Hyo-Won ; Jung, Hye-Jin ; Yun, Wan-Soo ; Kim, Hye-Ja ; Hahm, Young-Il ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 269~279
Alfalfa mosaic alfamoviruses(AIMV) were isolated from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum) and azuki bean (Paseolus angularis) in Korea. Two AIMV isolated from potatoes were named as strain KR (AIMV-KR1 and KR2) and AIMV isolated from azuki bean was named as strain Az (AIMV-Az). Each isolated AIMV strain was characterized by using their host ranges, symptom developments, serological relations and nucleotide sequence analysis of coat protein (CP) gene. Strains KR1, KR2, and Az were readily transmitted to 20 of 22 inoculated plant species including bean, cowpea, tomato, tobacco, and potato. AIMV-KR1 and KR2 produced the typical symptoms like chlorotic or necrotic spots in Chenopodium quinoa and Solanum tuberosum cv. Superior. AIMV-Az caused bright yellow mosaic symptom and leaf malformation in Nicotiana glauca, which were different from the common mosaic symptom caused by AIMV-KR1 and KR2. Electron microscope observation of purified virus showed bacilliform virions containing a single-stranded plus-strand RNAs of 3.6, 2.6, 2.0 and 0.9 kbp in length, respectively, similar in size and appearance to those of Alfamovirus. In SDS-PAGE, the coat protein of the two viruses formed a consistent band that estimated to be about 24kDa. The CP genes of the AIMV strains, KR1, KR2, and Az have been amplified by RT-PCR using the specific primers designed to amplify CP gene from viral RNA-3, cloned and sequenced. Computer aided analysis of the amplified cDNA fragment sequence revealed the presence of a single open reading frame capable of encoding 221 amino acids. The nucleotide and peptide sequence of viral CP gene showed that strain KR1, KR2, and Az shared highest nucleotide sequence identities with AIMV strain 425-M at 97.7%, 98.2%, and 97.2%, respectively. CP gene sequences of two strains were almost identical compared with each other. Altogether, physical, serological, biological and molecular properties of the purified virus.
Leaf Blight of Chinese Chive Caused by Stemphylium vesicarium in Korea
Chang, Seog-Won ; Kim, Hee-Dong ; Kang, Hyo-Jung ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 280~282
A leaf spot disease occurred on Allium tuberosum Roth. (Chinese chive) in Korea. All the isolates of Stemphylium sp. from the lesions of the diseased plant parts were identified as S. vesicarium (Waller.) Simmons, based on the morphological characteristics of conidia and conidiophores. Pathogenicity of the fungus was proved by artificial inoculation on Chinese chive plants. This is the first record of leaf blight on Chinese chive caused by S. vesicarium in Korea.
Effects of Composts and Soil Amendments on Physicochemical Properties of Soils in Relation to Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot of Bell Pepper
Kim, Ki-Deok ; Nemec, Stan ; Musson, George ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 283~285
Two field tests were conducted in 1995 to examine the effects of composts and soil amendments on physicochemical properties of soil in relation to Phytophthora root and crown rot of bell pepper. Chitosan, crab shell waste, humate, sewage sludge-yard trimmings, and wood chips were applied to test plots, some of which affected the levels of P, K, Mg, pH, and H. Physicochemical properties were not related with disease incidence, but percent organic matter, estimated nitrogen release, K, and Mg were correlated with total microbial activity. The elements K and Mg were especially responsible for the increased soil microbial activity that could affect development of root and crown rot of pepper.
Antimicrobial Properties of Cold-Tolerant Eucalyptus Species against Phytopathogenic Fungi and Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens
Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Ahn, Sam-Young ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Lee, Choong-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 286~289
Mechanol extracts of three cold-tolerant eucalyptus trees-Eucalyptus darlympleana, E. gunnii and E. unigera were screened for antimicrobial activity against twenty two phyto-pathogenic fungi and six food-borne bacterial pathogens. E. unigera showed the antagonistic activity against all the tested pathogens. Among the tested fungal pathogens, Pythium species were highly sensitive to the leaf extracts. Especially, P. vanterpoolii, a causal agent of leaf blight in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris), was completely inhibited by the extracts. The eucalyptus extracts were also effective in inhibiting the fungal growth of Botrytis cinerea and Phomopsis sp. isolated from the lesions of kiwifruit soft rot during post-harvest storage. Escherichia coli O-157 was less sensitive to the inhibition than the other bacterial pathogens tested. It was likely that Gram positive bacteria-Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus mutans were more sensitive to the eucalyptus extracts than Gram negative bacteria-Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our findings suggest that the cold-tolerant eucalyptus species have antimicrobial properties that can serve the development of novel fungitoxic agents or food preservatives.
Incidence of Severe Crown Gall Disease on Tetraploid Cultivars of Grape in Korea
Park, Kwang-Hoon ; Jeong, Kyu-Sik ; Cha, Jae-Soon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 290~293
The main grape producing regions in Korea were surveyed for the occurrence and relative incidence of crown gall disease on grapevine. The results of the survey showed that the disease tended to affect tetraploid cultivars, which produce a large and sweet fruit but are very weak to cold weather. Incidence of crown gall disease was high on the tetraploid cultivars, Kyoho (Gerbong), Daebong, and Black Olympia while it was low on the diploid cultivars, Cambell Early and Sheridan. The disease incidence was very high on Anseong, Cheonan, and Chincheon, where the major growing areas of tetraploid cultivars and grapevines were burried in the winter to protect from freeze injury, whereas it was low in Yungdong, Kimcheon, and Nonsan. Crown gall disease did not increased with grapevine age on both Cambell Early and Kyoho. It remained low in Cambell Early, but high for all ages on Kyoho, Galls were found on the crown region and mid part of the trunk, but more galls were on small branches and canes on Kyoho grapevines. More than one third of ZKyoho grapevines inspected had galls on multiple locations on grapevines. On Kyoho, 56.3% of the galls covered more than 50% of the crown gall disease affects severely on the cultivar.
Occurrence of Anthracnose on Indian Fig Cactus Caused by Glomerella cingulata and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Cho, Weon-Dae ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Hong, Soon-Yeong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 16, issue 5, 2000, Pages 294~296
Anthracnose symptoms were frequently found on stems of Indian fig cactus in Cheju island of Korea in 1998 and 1999. Typical symptoms were gray to black dry rot of stems with concentric arrays of dot-like spots. A Glomerella sp. or a Colletotrichum sp. was frequently isolated from the symptoms, both of which were identified as Glomerella cingulata and its anamorph, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Out of 31 isolates obtained from the symptoms, 12 isolates were the anamorph producing only conidia, four isolates the telemorph producing only ascospores, and 15 isolates the holomorph producing both spores on potato dextrose agar. Stem rots similar to the original anthracnose symptoms were induced by wound inoculation of conidia and ascospores but not by non-wound inoculation. The anamorphic isolates caused more extensive stem rot than the telemorphic and holomorphic ones.