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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Molecular Breeding for Plant Disease Resistance : Prospects and Problems
Park, Hyo-Guen ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 1~8
The technique of plant transformation has started to show off its great power in the area of plant breeding by commercially successful introduction of transgenic varieties such as herbicide tolerant soybean and insect resistant corn in USA with an unimaginable speed. However, in contrast with the great success in the commercialization of herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, the transformation works on disease resistance has not yet reached the stage of full commercialization. This review surveys the current status of molecular breeding for plant disease resistance and their limits and problems. Some novel ideas and approaches in molecular breeding for disease resistance are introduced.
Cytology, Physiology and Molecular Genetics of Resistance to Phytophthora Blight in Pepper Plants
Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 9~21
No Abstract.See Full-text
Role of Intergenic and 3'-Proximal Noncoding Regions in Coat Protein Expression and Replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV
Moon, Jae-Sun ; Nancy K. McCoppin ; Leslie L. Domier ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 22~28
Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (BYDV-PAV) has a 5.7-kb positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome that contains six open reading frames (ORFs). BYDV-PAV produces three subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs). The largest of which encodes the coat, 17-kDa, and readthrough proteins from two initiation codons. To investigate the role of intergenic and 3'-proximal noncoding regions (NCRs) in coat protein (CP) expression and BYDV-PAV replication, a full-length infectious cDNA of the RNA genome of an Illinois isolate of BYDV-PAV was constructed downstream of the Cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter. Linear DNA molecules of these cDNAs were infectious, expressed the 22-kDa CP, and produced both genomic RNA sgRNAs in ratios similar to those observed in protoplasts inoculated with viral RNA. The portion of 5'NCR of sgRNA1 between ORFs 2 and 3 was not required for, but enhanced translation of CP from ORF3. Mutants containing deletions in the NCR downstream of ORF5 failed to replicate in oat protoplasts. These results indicate that an intact 3
NCR is required for BYDV-PAV replication.
Ultrastructure of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Pumpkin Stems Infected with Phytophthora capsici
Lee, Byung-Kook ; Hong, Jeum-Kyu ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 29~35
Early infection process of Phytophthora capsici in pumpkin stems was similar in the compatible and incompatible interactions 24 h after inoculation. Intercellularly growing hyphae penetrated host parenchyma cells by growing hyphae penetrated host parenchyma cells by forming haustoria. An extrahaustorial matrix was found around the haustoria in both compatible and incompatible interactions. No wall appositions were observed at the infection sites in the parenchyma cells. In the compatible interaction, infecting hyphae grew well in the intercellular spaces between xylem vessels in stem tissues. Degraded host cell wall, plasmolysis of plasma membrane, and degenerated chloroplasts were pathological features of pumpkin stem tissues in both compatible and incompatible interactions. A characteristic host response in the resistant pumkin cultivar Danmatmaetdol was rapid cytoplasmic movement of host cells toward the oomycete haustoria.
The Secondary Effects of Pencycuron on the Formation of Giant Protoplasts and the Lipid Peroxidation of Rhizoctonia solani AG4
Kim, Heung-Tae ; Isamu Yamaguchi ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 36~39
The secondary effects of pencycuron on cell membrane of Rhizoctonia solani AG4 were investigated by the observation of giant protoplast formation and lipid peroxidation. Compared to protoplasts of R. solani R-C (sensitive strain) and Rh-131 (non-sensitive strain) increased in their size by 2.0-3.5 times 12 h after incubation in potato-dextrose broth containing novozyme (7 mg/
) with 0.6 M mannitol (pH 5.2). The increase of protoplast size in R-C was slightly inhibited from
without pencycuron to 10.3
of pencycuron. However, the size of giant protoplast of Rh-131 was not affected by the pencycuron treatment. Both strains R-C and Rh-131 did not exhibit the lipid peroxidation 12 h after the application of 1.0
pencycuron. The remarkable peroxidation of membrane lipid was observed only in R-C 24 h after pencycuron application, but not in Rh-131. Althought the inhibition of giant protoplast formation and the membrane lipid peroxidation were observed only in the sensitive strain R-C by pencycuron, it is difficult to conclude that these are the primary mechanism of pencycuron. The mild activity of pencycuron on the inhibition of giant protoplast formation and late membrane lipid peroxidation in the fungicide-sensitive strain did not noincid with the dramatic activity of pencycuron in R. solani. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of giant protoplast formation and membrane lipid peroxidation is the secondary effect of pencycuron.
Seasonal Occurrence and Development of Gray Blight of Tea Plants in Korea
Koh, Young-Jin ; Shin, Gil-Ho ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 40~44
Disease occurrence and development of gray blight of tea (Camellia sinensis) were investigated. Higher incidences and more severe damage by gray blight were found in Japanese tea variety Yabukita than the Korean local variety. In Yabukita, Pestalotiopsis longiseta was more frequently observed on the diseased leaves than P. theae but vice versa in the Korean local variety. This indicates that there was the varietal difference in the distribution of fungal species of gray blight pathogens. Both varieties were most severely damaged during the third harvest period with weather conditions of high temperature and humidity favorable to the disease. Presence of the tea brown blight fungus Glomerella cingulata on the margin of gray blight lesion at the late stahe suggested that the pathogenic fungi of tea gray blight were replaced by the brown blight fungus during the disease development.
Soil-Environmental Factors Involved in the Development of Root Rot/Vine on Cucurbits Caused by Monosporascus cannonballus
Kwon, Mi-Kyung ; Hong, Jeong-Rae ; Kim, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Ki-Chung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 45~51
A root rot/vine decline disease occurred naturally on bottle gourd-stocked watermelon, melon, oriental melon and squash grown in greenhouses, but not on these plants grown in fields. Self-rooted watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin and luffa were also proven to be hosts of the pathogen by artificial inoculation in this experiment. The pathogen was identified as Monosporascus cannonballus by comparing microscopic characteristics of fungal structures with those of previously identified fungal strains. Our field investigations showed that the temperature and electric conductivity of soil in infected greenhouses were higher and the soil moisture content was lower than in noninfected greenhouses. To investigate soil-environmental factors affecting disease development, greenhouse trials and inoculation experiments were conducted. The host plants inoculated and grown under conditions of high soil temperature and electrical conductivity (
, 3.2-3.5 mS) and with low soil moisture content (pF 3.0-4.5) were most severely damaged by the fungal disease. Since plants growing in greenhouses ae usually exposed to such environmental conditions, this may be the reason why the monosporascus root rot/vine decline disease has occurred only on cucurbits cultivated in greenhouses but not in field conditions.
Purification and Antifungal Activities of an Antibiotic Produced by Gliocladium virens G1 Against Plant Pathogens
Jang, Kyeong-Su ; Kim, Hong-Mo ; Chung, Bong-Koo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 52~56
This study was undertaken to separate and identify antifungla substances produced by Gilocladium virens G1, a biocontrol agent used for the control of plant diseases caused by Rhizoctonea solani. The culture of G. virens G1 effectively inhibited the growth of R. solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Phytophthora capsici, but less that of Fusarium oxysporum. The n-hexane extract of the G. virens culture, which was used for the purification of responsible substances, strongly inhibited R. solani and C. gloeosporioides, but not P. capsici, although the n-butanol extract was effective on all of the pathogens tested. An antifungal substance was purified using the n-hexane extract by Silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The substance was examined for purity by HPLC and for nature by UV spectrometry, which differed from known antibiotic compounds such as gliotoxin, viridin and gliovirin. The antifungal substance was very liphophilic based on its solvent-solubility and Rf values on TLC, and more inhibitory to C. gloeosporioides than other fungal pathogens tested.
Identification of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma in Dendranthema grandiflorum
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Park, Gug-Seoun ; Kim, Hyun-Ran ; Park, Yong-Mun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 57~61
Phytoplasmas were identified from two chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) plants showing different symptoms ; one with stusting, rosette, and excessive branching (Ph-ch1), and the other with stunting and chlorosis (Ph-ch2). Electron microscopy of midrib of the plants with the symptoms revealed that numerous phytoplasmas were localized in the phloem cells. The disease was transmitted from infected plants to healthy ones by grafting. Phytoplasma-specific DNA was detected in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with template DNA extracted from the leaves of Ph-ch1 and Ph-ch2, both of which yielded a same DNA band corresponding to 1.5 kb. Using a specific primer pair (R16F1/R1) synthesized based on aster yellows (AY) phytoplasma, a DNA fragment of 1.1 kb was amplified by PCR. Endonuclease restriction patterns of the 1.1 kb PCR products from Ph-ch1 and Ph-ch2, which were dgeste with each of the restriction endonucleases Sau3A, Hha, Alu and Rsa, were same as those of AY phytoplasma from periwinkle. This suggests that the chrysanthemum plants (Ph-ch1 and Ph-ch2) be infected with a phytoplasma belonging to AY phytoplasma.
Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on Citrus Fruits Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Jin, Kyoung-Sik ; Kang, Ik-Beom ; Ko, Kyoung-Il ; Lee, Eun-Seob ; Heo, Jong-Young ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Kim, Byung-Ki ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 1, 2001, Pages 62~66
Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) on citrus fruits for exporting is usually made by bacteriophage test (BPT) to demonstrate the pathogen-free status. BPT has rather time-consuming and complicate procedures for dealing with massive samples to be inspected. In this study, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect Xac on fruits, and compared with BPT. In ELISA, positive reactions occurred in the bacterial densities of
cells/ml or more. To detect the bacterial infection on citrus fruits with a density of lower than
cells/ml, the bacterial suspensions were mixed with fruit rinse water and incubated in broth medium. Ordinary peptone sucrose broth (PSB) was not a proper medium for increasing Xac density specifically enough to be detect by ELISA. On the other hand, modified PSB (MPSP) amended with Fe-EDTA (0.25 g/
) and 2.5% potato-dextrose broth sufficed to differentiate uninfected and infected citrus fruits by ELISA after 24 h incubation of the fruit rinse water. Using various citrus samples from infected and uninfected fields, efficiencies in detecting Xac on fruits were compared between ELISA and BPT. For infected fruits samples, ELISA detected Xac by 100%, while BPT by about 44%, indicating that the detection efficiency was improved by 23.5% by ELISA, compared to BPT. In addition, ELISA has simpler procedures for testing and is less time-consuming than BPT, suggesting that ELISA may be accurate and simple method to detect Xac on citrus fruits.