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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
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Molecular Genetics of the Model Legume Medicago truncatula
Nam, Young-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 67~70
Medicago truncatula is a diploid legume plant related to the forage crop alfalfa. Recently, it has been chosen as a model species for genomic studies due to its small genome, self-fertility, short generation time, and high transformation efficiency. M. truncatula engages in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing soil bacterium Rhizobium meliloti. M. truncatula mutants that are defective in nodulation and developmental processes have been generated. Some of these mutants exhibited altered phenotypes in symbiotic responses such as root hair deformation, expression of nodulin genes, and calcium spiking. Thus, the genes controlling these traits are likely to encode functions that are required for Nod-factor signal transduction pathways. To facilitate genome analysis and map-based cloning of symbiotic genes, a bacterial artificial chromosome library was constructed. An efficient polymerase chain reaction-based screening of the library was devised to fasten physical mapping of specific genomic regions. As a genomics approach, comparative mapping revealed high levels of macro- and microsynteny between M. truncatula and other legume genomes. Expressed sequence tags and microarray profiles reflecting the genetic and biochemical events associated with the development and environmental interactions of M. truncatula are assembled in the databases. Together, these genomics programs will help enrich our understanding of the legume biology.
Retrotransposon-Mediated Mutation of Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-b
Jwa, Nam-Soo ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 71~76
No Abstract.See Full-text
Molecular Basis of the Hrp Pathogenicity of the Fire Blight Pathogen Erwinia amylovora : a Type III Protein Secretion System Encoded in a Pathogenicity Island
Kim, Jihyun F. ; Steven V. Beer ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 77~82
Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous trees and shrubs such as apple, pear, and raspberry. To successfully infect its hosts, the pathogen requires a set of clustered genes termed hrp. Studies on the hrp system of E. amylovora indicated that it consists of three functional classes of genes. Regulation genes including hrpS, hrpS, hrpXY, and hrpL produce proteins that control the expression of other genes in the cluster. Secretion genes, many of which named hrc, encode proteins that may form a transmembrane complex, which is devoted to type III protein secretion. Finally, several genes encode the proteins that are delivered by the protein secretion apparatus. They include harpins, DspE, and other potential effector proteins that may contribute to proliferation of E. amylovora inside the hosts. Harpins are glycine-rich heat-stable elicitors of the hypersensitive response, and induce systemic acquired resistance. The pathogenicity protein DseE is homologous and functionally similar to an avirulence protein of Pseudomonas syringae. The region encompassing the hrpldsp gene cluster of E. amylovora shows features characteristic of a genomic island : a cryptic recombinase/integrase gene and a tRNA gene are present at one end and genes corresponding to those of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome are found beyond the region. This island, designated the Hrp pathogenicity island, is more than 60 kilobases in size and carries as many as 60 genes.
New Aspects of Gene-for-Gene Interactions for Disease Resistance in Plant
Nam, Jaesung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 83~87
Disease resistance in plants is often controlled by gene-for-gene mechanism in which avirulence (avr) gene products encoding by pathogens are specifically recognized, either directly or indirectly by plant disease resistance (R) gene products. Recent studies arising from molecular cloning of a number of R genes from various plant species that confer resistance to different pathogens and corresponding avr genes from various pathogens resulted in the accumulation of a wealth of knowledge on mode of action of gene-for-gene interaction. Specially, members of the NBS-LRR class of R genes encoding proteins containing a nucleotide binding site (NBS) and carboxyl-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) confer resistance to very different types of phytopathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, viruses, nematodes and aphids. This article reviewed the molecular events that occur up-stream of defense response pathway, specially, bacterial avr gene protein recognition mediated by NBS-LRR type R gene product in plant based on current research results of well studied model plants.
Development of Environmental Stress-Tolerant Plants by Gene Manipulation of Antioxidant Enzymes
Kwon, Suk-Yoon ; Lee, Haeng-Soon ; Kwak, Sang-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 88~93
Oxidative stress is one of the major limiting factor in plant productivity. Reactive oxygens species (ROS) generated during metabolic processes damage cellular functions and consequently lead to disease, senescence and cell death. Plants have evolved an efficient defense system by which the ROS is scavenged by antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Attempts to reduce oxidative damages under the stress conditions have included the manipulation of 갠 scavenging enzymes by gene transfer technology. Increased SOD activities of transgenic plants lead to increased resistance against oxidative stresses derived from methyl viologen (MV), and from photooxidative damage caused by high light and low temperature. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing APX showed reduced damage following either MV treatment of photooxidative treatment. Overexpression of glutathion reductase (GR) leads to increase in pool of ascorbate and GSH, known as small antioxidant molecules. These results indicate through overexpression of enzymes involved in ROS-scavenging could maintain or improve the plant productivities under environment stress condition. In this study, the rational approaches to develop stress-tolerant plants by gene manipulation of antioxidant enzymes will be introduced to provide solutions for the global food and environmental problems in the
Ultrastructural Changes of Chinese Cabbage Root Tissues Associated with Pathogenesis of Plasmodiophora brassicae
Sung, Mi-Joo ; Kim, Young-Soon ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 94~100
Roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var. chinensis) seedlings infected with Plasmodiophora brassicae were examined by light and electron microscopy to reveal histopathological changes related to pathogenesis in the susceptible host. The pathogen colonized the cortex and partly the stele as well, invading up to the xylem. Gall tissues could be differentiated from the initially infected tissues, involving less compact organization and new vascular development. The infected cells were much hypertrophied, and contained one to several plasmodia. Except cellular hypertrophy, no pathological ultrastructural modification was noted in the infected calls. Infected cytoplasm became dense with ground cytoplasm, inconspicuous central vacuole, and increased cellular organelles such as mitochondria and dictyosomes. There were two types of nuclear states of plasmodium, uninucleate and multinucleate. Both plasmodia were structurally similar, filled with lipid droplets, bounded with envelope, and containing mitochondria, endo-plasmic reticulum, and sometimes small vacuoles. Plasmodial fragmentation, which may be regarded as a way to discharge plasmodial materials into host cytoplasm, commonly occurred, forming plasmodial fragments by outgrowth of plasmodial cytoplasm and regional compartmentalization. Plasmodial fragments were degenerated sometimes followed by forming chains of spherical vesicles especially in the uninucleate plasmodial state. These ultrastructural features indicate the biotrophic nature of the pathogen associated with its pathogenesis in the susceptible host.
Stub Dieback of Carnation Caused by Fusarium graminearum
Han, Kyoung-Suk ; Park, Jong-Han ; Park, Yong-Mun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 101~105
A disease survey on the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) wilt was conducted during the high temperature period (June through August) and the low temperature period (February through May) in 58 greenhouses of its major cultivation areas, including Pusan, Kimhae, and Changwon in Korea from 1998 to 1999. The disease incidence was averaged 5.4% and 11.9% in the low and high temperature periods, respectively. Severe damage was found in summer with high incidences of around 50% in some greenhouses. Close examination of the symptoms and isolation of the causal agent revealed that there was a new disease different from Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, which was determined as the stub dieback caused by F. was cetermined as the stub dieback caused by F. graminearum (teleomorph : Gibberella zeae). The stub dieback symptoms involved brown rot of stem that started usually from the portion of cutting without discoloration of inner vascular tissues. Seven out of 38 isolates from the wilted plants were identified as F. graminearum, while the others as F. oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. Mycological characteristics of the stub dieback pathogen including colony color, absence of microconidia, and the shape of macroconidia, were consistent with F. graminearum previously described. This is the first report of the carnation stub dieback in Korea.
Simultaneous Detection of Three Tobamoviruses in Cucurbits by Rapid Immunofilter Paper Assay
Park, Gug-Seoun ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Chung, Bong-Nam ; Kim, Hyun-Ran ; Park, Yong-Mun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 106~109
A multi-rapid immunofilter paper assay (multi-RIPA) system was prepared for simultaneous diagnosis of three Tobamoviruses, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV), and Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV) in cucurbitaceous crops. Each of these viruses was specifically detected by the multi-RIPA from cucumber, watermelon, zucchini, and bottle gourd inoculated with the three Tobamoviruses singly or in combination. The three viruses could infect cucumber, watermelon, and bottle gourd ; however, CGMMV could not infect zucchini as the latex-coated CGMMV antibody showed a negative reaction in the multi-RIPA of the virus-infected plant extract. When the minimum detection level of multi-RIPA was compared with that of double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) using CGMMV, the latter was 10 times more sensitive than the former. The detection limit of the multi-RIPA for the purified CGMMV was 50 ng/ml. In a survey of the threeviruses in cucurbits growing in commercial fields in 1999 and 2000, CGMMV was detected in watermelon and cucumber, and ZGMMV was detected only in zucchini growing in plastic houses at the suburbs of Chonju, Korea. However, KGMMV was not found in the commercially growing cucurbit crops in our study, The results suggest that the multi-RIPA can be a simple, rapid, specific and convenient tool to detect simultaneously the Tobamoviruses.
First Report of Diaporthe actinidiae, the Causal Organism of Stem-end Rot of Kiwifruit in Korea
Lee, Jae-Goon ; Lee, Dong-Hyun ; Park, Sook-Young ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 2, 2001, Pages 110~113
Post-harvest diseases of kiwifruit caused severe damages on the fruits during storage, transportation, marketing and consumption. Phomopsis sp. was reported to be one of the major causal organisms of post-harvest fruit rots of kiwifruit. Symptoms of stem-end rot caused by Phomopsis sp. appeared at the stem-end area of the fruit as it ripened. The brown pubescent skin at the area became soft and lighter in color than the adjacent firm healthy tissues. A watery exudate and white mycelial mats were frequently visible at the stem-end area forming a water-drop stain down the sides on the dry brown healthy skin. When the skin was peeled back, the affected flesh tissue was usually watersoaked, disorganized, soft and lighter green than the healthy tissue. Phomopsis sp. was consistently isolated from the diseased fruits, and its pathogenicity was confirmed by an artificial inoculation test on healthy fruit of kiwifruits. The mycological characteristics of the telemorph state of the fungus produced on potato-dextrose agar were in accordance with those of Diaporthe actinidiae. This is the first report on the occurrence of a telemorph state of D. actinidiae as the causal organism of stem-end rot of kiwifruit in Korea.