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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Regulatory Viral and Cellular Elements Required for Potato Virus X Replication
Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 115~122
Potato virus X (PVX) is a flexuous rod-shaped virus containing a single plus-strand RNA. Viral RNA synthesis is precisely regulated by regulatory viral sequences and by viral and/or host proteins. RNA sequence element as well as stable RNA stem-loop structure in the 5' end of the genome affect accumulation of genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA). The putative sgRNA promoter regions upstream of the PVX triple gene block (TB) and coat protein (CP) gene were critical for both TB and CP sgRNA accumulation. Mutations that disrupted complementarity between a region at the 5' end of the genomic RNA and the sequences located upstream of each sgRNA initiation site is important for PVX RNA accumulation. Compensatory mutations that restore complementarity restored sgRNA accumulation levels. However, the extent of reductions in RNA levels did not directly correlate with the degree of complementarity, suggesting that the sequences of these elements are also important. Gel-retardation assays showed that the 5' end of the positive-strand RNA formed an RNA-protein complex with cellular proteins, suggesting possible involvement of cellular proteins for PVX replication. Future studies on cellular protein binding to the PVX RNA and their role in virus replication will bring a fresh understanding of PVX RNA replication.
Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides and Their Possible Utilization for Enhancing Agronomic Traits
Back, Kyoungwhan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 123~127
No Abstract.See Full-text
Histological and Ultrastructural Study of Susceptible and Age-related Resistance Responses of Pepper Leaves to Colletotrichum cocodes Infection
Hong, Jeum-Kyu ; Lee, Yeon-Kyeong ; Jeun, Yong-Chull ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 128~140
Infection of pepper leaves by Colletotrichum cocodes at the two- and eight-leaf stages caused susceptible and resistant lesions 96 h after inoculation, respectively. At the two-leaf stage, progressive symptom development occurred on the infected leaves. In contrast, localized necrotic spots were characteristic symptoms at the eight-leaf stage. Infected leaves at the two-leaf stage exhibited cell death accompanied by the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. At the eight-leaf stage, pepper leaves infected by the anthracnose fungus displayed localized autofluorescence from the symptoms. Infection of pepper leaves by C. cocodes at the two-leaf stage resulted in its rapidand massive colonization of all the leaf tissues including the vascular tissue, together with cytoplasmic collapse, distortion of chloroplasts, and disruption of host cell walls. However, penetration of C. cocodes was very limited in the older leaf tissues of pepper plants at the eight-leaf stage. Fungal hyphae grew only in the intramural spaces of the epidermal cell walls at this stage. Occlusion of amorphous material in xylem vessels, aggregation of fibrillar material in inter-cellular spaces, and deposition of protein bodies were found as resistance responses to C. cocodes.
Occurrence and Biological Control of Postharvest Decay in Onion Caused by Fungi
Lee, Joon-Taek ; Bae, Dong-Won ; Park, Seun-Hee ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 141~148
Postharvest decay of onion bulbs was examined by inspecting the commercial packages in the market or in storage. Bulb rot incidence was unexpectedly high, and onion bulbs with 1st quality grade were rotten most severely by 51%, followed by 32% for 2nd and 21% for 3rd grades. This indicates that larger bulbs had higher incidences of bulb rots. Major pathogens associated with basal and neck rots were Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus sp. or Botrytis allii, respectively, of which basal rot was most prevalent and damaging during storage. Among the epiphytic microorgani는 from onion plants, several Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and previously selected Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum had inhibitory efficacy against bulb rot pathogens. Among these B. amyloliquefaciens BL-3, Paenibacillus polymyxa BL-4, and P. putida Cha 94 were highly inhibitory to conidial germination of F. oxysporum and B. allii. P. putida Cha 94, B. amyloliquefaciens BL-3, P. polymyxa BL-4, and T. harzianum TM were applied in the rhizoplane of onion at transplanting. Initially antagonist populations decreased rapidly during the first one month. However, among these antagonists, rhizoplane population densities of BL-3, Cha 94, and TM were consistently high thereafter, maintaining about 10
cells or spores per gram of onion root up to harvest time. The other bacterial antagonist BL-4 survived only for two months. TM was the most effective biocontrol agent against basal rot, with the number of rotten bulbs recorded at 4%, while that of the control was 16%. Cha 94 was effective for the first 20 days, but basal rot increased thereafter and had about the same control efficacy as that of BL-3 and BL-4. When the antagonists were applied to the topping areas of onion bulbs at harvest, TM was the most effective in protecting the stored onion bulbs from neck rotting. The second effective antagonist was BL-3. TM and BL-3 completely suppressed the neck rot in another test, suggesting that biocontrol of postharvest decay of onion using these microorganisms either at the time of transplanting or at harvesting may be promising.
Population Dynamics and Fitness Comparison of Sensitive and Resistant Phenotypes of Botrytis cinerea to Benzimidazole, Dicarboximide, and N-phenylar-bamate Fungicides
Kim, Byung-Sup ; Park, Eun-Woo ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 149~153
A total of 2109 isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected from infected plants fo strawberry, tomato, and cucumber in Korea from 1994 to 1996. Based on in virtotests for mycelial growth on potato-dextrose agar containing fungicides, the esolates were classified into six phenotypic groups : SSR, SRR, RSS, RRS, RSR, and RRR, representing sensitivity (S) or resistance (R) to carbendazim, procymidone, and diethofencarb. In that order the isolation frequencies of the SSR, SRR, RSS, RRS, RSR, and RRR phenotypes were 28.7, 1.1, 28.8, 39.4, 1.0, and 0.9%, respectively. Three isolates from each SSR, SRR, RSS, RRS, and RSR and an isolate of RRR phenotype were selected and evaluated for their fitness-related characteristics such as pathogenic aggressiveness, mycelial growth rate, sporulation, and sclerotial formation. Competitive abilities of the SSR, SRR, RSS, RRS, and RSR phenotypes were also compared by inculating mixtures of conidial suspensions of two phenotypes to cucumber plant, and then determining re-isolation frequencies from lesions. In general, significant differences in fitness-related characteristics, except pathogenic aggressiveness, were found not only between but also within phenotype groups. In the competitiveness tests, carbendazim-sinsitive phenotypes (SSR and SRR) were found to be more competitive than the resistant ones (RSS and RSR), whereas, the procymidone-resistant phenotypes (SRR and RRS) appeared to be more competitive than the sensitive ones (SSR, RSS, and RSR). There was no consistent dominance in competitiveness between the diethofencarb-resistant and sensitive phenotypes. The RSR phenotype was the least competitive among the five phenotypes.
Occurrence of Phytophthora Root Rot on Kiwifruit in Korea
Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Cha, Kwang-Hong ; Ko, Sook-Joo ; Park, Ki-Beum ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 154~158
A severe root rot of kiwifruit caused by a species of Phytophthora occurred in 1-to 5-year-old vines at the south coast region of Korea in 1997. Infected vines exhibited leaf chlorosis, scorch and defoliation, root and stem rot, and eventual death. The disease was relatively severe in poorly drained lowlands, of which 19 out of 23 fields were damaged by the disease. Meanwhile, only one among 58 upland fields was infected by the disease. Incidence of infected vines reached over 80% in heavily damaged fields and a species of Phytophthora was isolated from inner tissues of roots, stems, and rhizosphere soils of the plants. The causal pathogen was identified as P. drechsleri based on its mycological characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by artificial inoculation to seedlings of kiwifruit 'Hayward'. The pathogen was re-isolated from the inoculated plants showing symptoms similar to those observed in the fields. Root rot of kiwifruit caused by P. drechsleri has not been reported previously in Korea.
Development of Meloidogyne arenaria on Oriental Melon (Cucumis melo L.) in Relation to Degree-day Accumulation Under Greenhouse Conditions
Kim, Dong-Geun ; Yeon, Il-Kwon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 159~163
Influence of soil temperature [accumulated degree-day for the base temperature
)] on the development of Meloidogyne arenaria were studied in a winter grown oriental melon greenhouse in Seongju, Korea. Egg masses were first observed on roots at the accumulation of 565
(40 days after transplanting), suggesting that the nematode has completed the first generation in 40 days. Second-stage juveniles (J2) densities were lowest at 863
in April, first increased at 1,334
in May, peaked at 2,951
in July, and decliner thereafter. Development of egg masses and J2 density in soil revealed that M. arenaria could develop in 7-8 generations in a year in the greenhouse. Degree-day monitoring, therefore, could aid to predict nematode development in soil and can be valuable tool a to develop root-knot nematode control strategies.
Molecular Diagnosis of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus in Japan and Korea
Masamichi Isogai ; Ichiro Uyeda ; Park, Jang-Kyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 164~168
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) are closely related viruses. Since the two viruses produce identical symptoms on maize, barley, and wheat, diagnosis of infected plants is difficult. Previously, we reported that partial cDNA clones of RBSDV S5 and S6 from the Japanese isolate (RBSDV-H) have lower sequence homology to MRDV than do cDNA clones from other genomic segments. In order to test whether cDNA clones of RBSDV-H S5 and S6 can be used for molecular diagnosis, RBSDV field isolates from Korea and from Hokkaido, Japan were tested in dot blot hybridizations probed with RBSDV-H S5 and S6 cDNA colnes. Hybridization with these probes was more intense against the RBSDV genome than against the MRDV genome. Therefore, RBSDV-H S5 and S6 cDNA clones can be used to differentiate between the two viruses. Furthermore, RBSDV-H S5 and S6 clones reacted more strongly against the viruses from stunted maize plants from Korean fields than to MRDV, indicating that RBSDV may be the causal disease agent in maize plants in Korea.
Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus-CARNA5 Causing Bud Necrosis on Table Tomato
Park, Hong-Soo ; Ryu, Jae-Ki ; Ahn, Kyung-Ku ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 169~173
Virus disease occurred up to 62% in average in the greenhouse production of table tomato Seokwang in Suwon, Korea. From symptomatic transition of the labeled tomatoes, two different symptoms, mosaic and bud necrosis, were developed independently. Cucumber mosaic virus necrosis strain (CMV-N) was isolated from table tomato showing bud necrosis symptoms. The isolate caused the bud necrosis on four tomato cultivars and locally infected Chenopodium spp. and Vicia faba by mechanical inculation. The 5th RNA segment, satellite RNA, was identified from CMV-N-infected plants by dsRNA analysis. Crystals of virus particles were observed in cytosols and vacuoles. The virus particles of CMV-N presented abundantly in xylem vessel.
Factors Relating to Induced Systemic Resistance in Watermelon by Plant Growth-Promoting Pseudomonas spp.
Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Lee, Wang-Hyu ; Lee, Du-Ku ; Shim, Hyeong-Kwon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 174~179
The plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas strains, WR8-3 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), WR9-11 (Pseudomonas sp.) and WR9-16 (P.putida), which induced resistance systematically in watermelon to gummy stem rot were investigated on their induced systemic resistance(ISR)-related characteristics. The pyoverdine production was repressed in the standard succinate medium by increasing the concentration of
. But the iron-binding ability on chrome azurol S agar media (CAS) was observed only in the strains, WR8-3 and WR9-16. When the two strains were mutated, the resulting iron-binding siderophore-negative mutants, WR8-3m and WR 9-16m, failed to promote the growth of watermelon and to induce resistance. The strains, WR8-3 and WR 9-16, slightly inhibited the growth of Didymella bryoniae at a low concentration of
on Kong's medium B, but not to exert control dffect. The strain WR9-11 showed antagonism in the concentration of
from 0 to
. When the crude lipoplysaccharide of each strain was treated in the rhizosphere of watermelon, mean lesion area was similar to that of the untreated control. The strains, WR9-11 and WR9-16 produced some level of hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Salicylic acid production was not detected in all of the strains.
First Report of Corynespora Leaf Spot in Pepper Caused by Corynespora cassicola in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Kang, Soo-Woong ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 180~183
A corynespora leaf spot of pepper, which has not been reported previously in Korea, occurred severely at the major pepper cultivation area of Chinju, Gyeongnam province in 2001. Infection rate ranged from 48.2 to 84.7% in eight fields surveyed. The causal fungus was identified as Corynespora cassicola based on the following cultural and morphological characteristics. The fungi grew well on potato dextrose agar, showing gray to brown color with cultural age. Conidia formed solitary or catenary were obclavate to cylindrical in shape, and pale olivaceous brown or brown in color. They had 420 pseudoseptate and isthmus, and measured 42.7-197.6 x 9.3-
. Septate conidiophores were pale to light brown in color, and measured 116.5-836.0 x 4.2-
. Conidia germinated as a bi-polar type. Optimal temperature for mycelial growth and conidial germination was
, respectively. The fungus showed strong pathogenicity to pepper plant, and the symtoms on pepper by the artificial inoculation were similar to those observed in the field. This is the first report on the corynespora leaf spot on pepper (Capsium annuum) caused by Corynespora cassicola in Korea.
Phytophthora-Induced Diseases on Citrus in Jeju Island
Hyun, Jae-Wook ; Lee, Seong-Chan ; Kim, Kwang-Sik ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 3, 2001, Pages 184~188
Phytophthora-induced diseases on citrus in Jeju island have been considered of minor importance because of the use as root stock of trifoliate orange, which is immune to Phytophthora. However, brown rot on fruit, which severely occurred in 1998 and 1999, has become a great threat to citrus production in the island. About one-half of the surveyed orchards were infected in 1998 and 4 out of 19 infected fields showed over 20% fruit infection rate. The disease was less severe in 1999, with an estimated infected area and total fruit reduction of 3,155 ha and 15,300 tons, respectively. Typical gummosis was also occasionally observed on cv. Shiranugi, which is mostly cultivated under plastic film houses. Two types of Phytophthora were consistently isolated from various plant parts, identified as P. citrophthora and P. nicotianae. The former was isolated from the aerial parts of the fruit, young leaf, and shoot in the fields. Meanwhile, the latter was only isolated from the basal stem showing gummosis in plastic film houses.