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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2001
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2001
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2001
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2001
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2001
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2001
Selecting the target year
Occurrence of Two Tobamovirus Diseases in Cucurbits and Control Measures in Korea
Park, Gug-Seoun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 243~248
Two Tobamoviruses, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV), occurred in Korea in 463 ha in 1998, 33.9 ha in 1999, and 44.2 ha in 2000. CGMMV was detected in watermelon, cucumber, oriental melon, and melon, whereas ZGMMV was mainly detected in zucchini squash. Thirty-six CGMMV isolates wee classified into three types by analysis of single strand cDNA conformational polymorphism (SSCP) of the coat protein gene. In a comparison of serological relationships among CGMMV, ZGMMV, and Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus (KGMMV), the three tobamoviruses specifically reacted with each homologous antibody in the double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid imunofilter paper assay (RIPA), although ZGMMV and KGMMV were slightly biologcially similar. In a survey of the three tobamoviruses in cucurbitgrowing field in Korea by RIPA, CGMMV and ZGMMV were detected but KGMMV was not found in commercially growing cucurbit crops so far. Seed contamination ratio of CGMMV in bottle gourd seeds tested was 84%, while seed trasmission ratio from the virus-contaminated seeds was 2.0%. Soil transmission ratio was 0-3.5% in fields naturally infested with CGMMV or ZGMMV. Control measures of the virus diseases are roguing and sanitation. These suggest that it is important to rogue the first infected crops, which include the seed and soil, especially early in the season. This may be practicable to control the diseases because CGMMV and ZGMMV have a narrow host range restricted to cucurbitaceous crops.
Effect of GlycinecinA on the Control of Bacterial Leaf Spot of Red Pepper and Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice
Jeon, Yong-Ho ; Moonjae Cho ; Cho, Yong-Sup ; Ingyu Hwang ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 249~256
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra produces a bacteriocin called glycinecinA, which specifically inhibits the growth of bacteria belonging to Xanthomonas species. GlycinecinA was produced by culturing Escherichia coli DH5 containing biosynthetic genes for glycinecinA, and was tested for its control effect against X. vesicatoria on red pepper and X. oryzae pv. oryzae on rice. The bacteriocin activity was much higher in the cell extract than in the supernatant. It reached a maximum level at the stationary phase, ws maintained up to 2 months at room temperature and approximately 10 months at
. The optimum concentration of glycinecinA for the control in the greenhouse and in the field was 12,800 AU/ml. In this study, the activity of glycinecinA on rice and red pepper leaves continued for 7-8 days, during which the pathogen populations remained at low levels. Bacterial leaf spot of red pepper and bacterial leaf blight of rice were significantly reduced by the bacteriocin treatments. The control efficacy was as high as, or even higher than, the chemical treatment of copper hydroxide. These results suggest that the bacteriocin is a potential control agent for bacterial diseases.
Potential Biological Control of Orobanche by Fungi Isolated from Diseased Specimens in Jordan
K. M. Hameed ; I. M. Saadoun ; Shyab, Zaineb-Al ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 257~263
Species of the genus Orobanche are parasitic flowering plants, holoparasites, which cling to the roots of green plants. Their tiny seeds (200 x
) germinate in response to chemical stimuli produced by host and some non-host plants. Successful contact with their host leads to development of haustoria for obtaining water and food. The shoots above the ground expose flowers and disseminate seeds. Several samples of Orobanche ramosa, O. crenata, O. cernua, and O. egyptiaca were collected from different localities in Jordan. These samples showed one of the following disease symptoms: dry rot at the base of the stem; general deterioration and expanded lesion from base upward; soft tissue maceration of stem; and black rot of flower parts with incomplete maturation of the ovary and seeds. Isolation from diseased stems and seeds was made on three different mycological media. Several fungi were isolated, mainly, Fusarium spp., Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia sp., Dendrophora sp., Chaetomium sp., and an ascomycetus fungus with a perithecium. Pathogenicity tests showed that Fusarium spp. and Alternaria alternata attacked healthy living tissue of Orobanche spikes. These fungi caused lesions of black soft rot and complete deterioration within 5-7 days. They also attacked Orobanche seeds, arresting their germination and causing maceration of non-germinated and germinated seeds after 5-7 days of incubation. Meanwhile, Dendrophora sp. and Chaetomium sp. caused limited lesion at first, but were able to colonize the tissue as it aged and senesced. This study showed the presence of a potential endogenous pathogenic fungi in Jordan, which can be investigated as a biological control for Orobanche.
Control of Late Leaf Spot of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) by Extracts from Non-Host Plant Species
Kishore, G.Krishna ; Pande, S. ; Rao, J.Narayana ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 264~270
The effects of leaf extracts of 14 different non-host plant species on in vitro conidial germination of Phaeoisariopsis personata, the causal organism of late leaf spot(LLS) of groundnut were evaluated. Aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of Datura metel, Lawsonia inermis and aqueous leaf extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus at 25%(w/v) concentration completely inhibited the conidial germination of P. personata both at 24h and 48h after incubation. Aqueous leaf extracts of Blumea bifoliata, Eucalyptus globules, Ocimum sanctum and Pongamia pinnata, and ethanol leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica and S. indicus inhibited the conidial germination by >90%. Aqueous and ethanol leaf extract of L. inermis and S. indicus were highly inhibitory to conidial germination up to 1% concentration. Aqueous and ethanol leaf extracts of D. metel and ethanol leaf extract of A. indica were highly inhibitory to P. personata even at 0.01% (100 ppm) concentration. Ethanol leaf extract of A. indica up to
, aqueous leaf extracts of D. metel and S. indicus up to
, and L. inermis up to
, were highly stable and retained their fungitoxic effects. Extract of D. metel was antifungal even after 180 days when it was stored both at room temperature and
. Aqueous leaf extract of D. metel at 2% concentration effectively reduced the development of LLS by >60%, under greenhouse conditions both in prophylactic and simultaneous applications. Extracts of D. metel could be a potential economical and an eco-frendly alternative for control of late leaf spot, and its efficacy under field conditions is further being evaluated.
Histological Detection of Phytoalexin Scoparone from Heat-Treated and UV-Illuminated Lemon Fruits After Inoculation with Penicillium digitatum
Kim, Jong-Jin ; Yehoshua, Shimshon-Ben ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 271~275
Phytoalexin scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin) was induced in flavedo tissue of lemon fruit inoculated with Penicillium digitatum during heat treatment for 3 days at
. The compound was also induced in the flavedo tissue after UV illuminatiion. Induction of scoparone was deteected in the flavedo tissue by histological analysis. This fluorescent scoparone accumulated only on the 4-5 layers of cells adjacent to the inoculation site. Preinoculation with P. digitatum and subsequent heat-treatment induced resistance in the lemon fruit tissues after challenge-inoculation at the site of the first infection. the data obtained in the study suggest that lemon fruit acquired resistance against P. digitatum parallel with the scoparone production at the infection site.
Mating Behavior, Mycotoxin Production, and Vegetative Compatibility of Gibberella fujikuroi Species Complex from Sorghum in Korea
Lim, Sun-Hee ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ; Lee, Yin-Won ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 276~280
Fusarium isolates of Gibberella fujikuroi species complex were obtained from sorghum grown in five provinces of Korea in 1996 and 1997. These isolates were characterized based on their mating behavior, mycotoxin production, and vegetative compatibility. Only three mating populations (A, D, and F) were recovered from a total of 155 isolates examined. The relative frequency of the mating populations was significantly different: F was predominant (80%), while D and A were observed at low frequencies of 9% and 3%, respectively. Female fertile isolates were more common within F (44 our of 124) than D (2 out of 14), while none of the five A isolates were female fertile. The inbreeding effective population sizes (
)for mating type and male/hermaphrodite ratios in mating populations A and D produced significant amounts of fumonisins, while F isolates produced none or only traces of fumonisin B
. In contrast. F isolates produced higher amounts of moniliformin (average of 3,820 ppm) than A and D isolates (averages of 77 and 1,819 ppm, respectively). Fifty-one isolates were tested for vegetative compatibility using nitrogen non-utilization mutants of each isolate, and 44 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) were identified. A single VC type (VC1) was found in all of the five A isolates examined. Six of the D isolates examined consisted of three VC types: two for VC2, two for VC3, and the rest for VC4. All of the F isolates tested were incompatible in every combination and , thus, each constituted a unique VCG.
Population Genetic Analyses of Gibberella fujikuroi Isolated from maize in Korea
Park, Sook-Young ; Seo, Jeong-Ah ; Lee, Yin-Won ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 281~289
We analyzed 88 strains of Gibberella fujikuroi (Analmorph: Fusarium section Liseola) from maize in Korea for mating population, mating type, fumonisin production vegetative compatibility, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. We found 50 strains that were MATA-2, 22 that were MATA-1, 1 that was MATD-1, and 15 that were not reproducibly fertile with any of the mating type testers. Of the 50 MATA-2, 15 were female fertile, while 10 of the 22 MATA-1 strains were female fertile. A total of 1,138 nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were recovered from a total of 88 strains. These strains were grouped into 39 vegetative compatability groups (VCGs) by demonstrating heterokaryosis between nit mutants. A single maize ear could be infected by more than one VCG of F. moniliforme. RAPD analysis measured genetic diversity among 63 strains of F. moniliforme. Several VCGs were distinguished by RAPD fingerprinting patterns. Most strains produced significant levels of fumonisins. However, 6 MATA-2 strains from a single VCG produced higher levels of fumonisin
than that of fumonisin
. From these data, we concluded that most Korean strains of F. moniliforme associated with maize belonged to mating population A and produced significant levels of fumonisins. Futhermore, RAPD analysis could differentiate strains associated with different VCGs.
Crown and Root Rot of Greenhouse Tomato Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in Korea
Kim, Jong-Tae ; Park, In-Hee ; Hahm, Young-Il ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 290~294
Forty(40) isolates of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from wilting tomato plants at Buyeo of Korea in 1997 were inoculated to four tomato cultivars (Ponderosa, Okitsu 3, Walter, and Zuiken) to examine pathogenic reactions. Isolation rates of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) races 1 and 2, and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici(FORL) were 3.5%, 24.5%, and 57.5%, respectively. Mycelial growth on potato-dextrose agar at different temperature for the three pathogens was
. In the pathogenicity tests, however, the range of optimum temperature for disease development for FORL was between 15 and
, while that for races 1 and 2 of FOL were specifically pathogenic to tomato only. This suggests that host ranges of FORL and FOL differ significantly.
Changes in Phytoplasma Densities in Witches' Broom-Infected Jujube Trees over Seasons
Yi, Jae-Choon ; Lim, Tae-Heon ; Byeongjin Cha ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 295~299
The relative density of phytoplasmas in witches'broom (WB)-infected jujube trees was investigated using compatitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During dormant and defoliating seasons, the densities of phytoplasmas were about the same in roots and twigs. In early growing season, the density showed the highest rates in roots, then in twigs and in petioles. however, the density was highest in petioles and the lowest in roots during actively growing season. Throughout the year, root samples did not show any serious fluctuation compared with that of t2wigs and petioles. Density was lowest during actively growing season in root samples. In contrast, petiole sample densities varied to a great extent depending on the season, very high during actively growing season, but very low during the early growing season, In twig samples, the densities were very high and almost the same in both defoliating and dormant seasons. Among the parts of the trees, phytoplsma density was the most stable in root samples throughout the year. The highest densities of phytoplasmas were about the same in all tree parts. These results suggest that the phytoplasmas may overwinter not only in roots but also in twigs, and that multiplication rate of phytoplsma becomes very high right after the early growing season.
Occurrence of Apple scar viroid-Korean strain (ASSVd-K) in Apples Cultivated in Korea
Lee, Ju-Hee ; Park, Jean-Kyung ; Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ; Lee, Jai-Youl ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 300~304
Apple is the most economically important fruit in Korea. The suspected viroid disease of dapple apple was found in apple fruits cultivated in Kyungpook province. Symptoms begin in mid-July as small circular spots, which stand out against the background color on the young fruit. Dappling of the fruit becomes more intense and easier to detect as the fruit approaches maturity; the affected spots remain yellowish as the fruit matures. no leaf or bark syndromes have been associated with this disease. The infected fruits are downgraded considerably during quality grading. The low molecular weight RNA containing viroid RNA molecules were extracted from the peels of the apples with dapple symptoms. The RNA molecules were extracted from the apples using Qiagen column chromatography. The purified RNAs were used for the synthesis of cDNA with RT-PCR. The PCR products were then ligated into a pGEM-T Easy vector, cloned and sequenced. The sequence of the viroid RNA molecule shows 331 nucleotides with one base difference ("G" insertion between the position of 133 and 134) compared with that of the Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd) reported by Hashimoto and Koganezawa in Japan. This is the first report on the occurrence of the ASSVd in apple trees cultivated in Korea, as well as the identification of a new Korean strain of the ASSVd.the ASSVd.
Gray Mold of Day Lily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) Caused by Botrytis elliptica in Korea
Chang, Seog-Won ; Kim, Sung-Kee ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 305~307
In March 2000, gray mold was found on day lily (Hemerocallis fulva L.) in Korea. Among the symptoms observed was blight or early rot with chlorotic halo of the leaves. All the isolates obtained from the lesions of the diseased plant parts were identified as Botrytis elliptica, based on the morphological characteristics of conidia. Conidia that formed on conidiogenous cells were not in chains, hyaline to pale brown, unicellular, ellipsoidal to obovate with a single hilum at the base, entirely verruculose, and 21-31 x 12-
in size. Pathogenicity of the fungus was established by artificial inoculation on day lily plants. This is the first record of gray mold on day lily caused by B. elliptica in Korea.
Downy Mildew of Astragalus membranaceous Burge Caused by Peronospora trifoliorum de Bary
Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Hahm, Young-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 308~310
A severe down mildew of Astragalus membranaceus occurred in Gangwon province in 1999 and 2000. Symptoms developed on young leaves and shoots, showing grayish white mycelium on the lower leaves. The infected plants had reduced internodes and twisted leaflets when the disease was severe. Peronospora trifoliorum was identified as the causal agent of the disease based on mycological characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed by artificial inoculation. This is the first record of downy mildew on astrgal plant caused by Peronospora trifoliorum in Korea.
Severe Root Rot on Hydroponically-Grown Lettuce Caused by Phytophthora drechsleri
Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Nam, Ki-Woong ; Cho, Weon-Dae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 17, issue 5, 2001, Pages 311~314
Phytophthora root rot of lettuce, which has not been reported in Korea before, occurred severely in liquid hydroponic culture. The disease occurred in all seasons and was most severe in summer from June to August, showing over 90% infection rate in some farms. A total of 51 isolates collected from various farms were all identified as Phytophthora drechsleri. The fungus showed strong pathogenicity to lettuce and Chinese cabbage, moderate pathogenicity to cucurbits and tomato, and weak pathogenicity to pepper. However, the fungus was not pathogenic to other leafy vegetables namely: chicory, kale, endive, garland chrysanthemum, spinach beet, and perilla. Among 10 species of Phytophtora inoculated to lettuce, only P. drechsleri and P. cryptogea were found pathogenic.