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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Jan 2002
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In Vivo Expression Technology (IVET) and Its Application in Plant-Associated Bacteria
Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.057
In vivo expression technology (IVET) has been developed to study bacterial gene expression in Salmonella typhimurium during host infection. The expression of selected genes by IVET has been elevated in vivo but not in vitro. The selected genes turned out to be important for bacterial virulence and/or pathogenicity. IVET depends on a synthetic operon with a promoterless transcriptional fusion between a selection marker gene and a reporter gene. The IVET approach has been successfully adapted in other bacterial pathogens and plant-associated bacteria using different selection markers. Pseudomonas putida suppresses citrus root rot caused by Phytophthora parasitica and enhances citrus seedling growth. The WET strategy was adapted based on a transcriptional fusion, pyrBC`-lacZ, in P. putida to study the bacterial traits important far biocontrol activities. Several genes appeared to be induced on P. parasitica hyphae and were found to be related with metabolism and regulation of gene expression. It is likely that the biocontrol strain took a metabolic advantage from the plant pathogenic fungus and then suppressed citrus root rot effectively. The result was parallel with those from the adaptation of IVET in P. fluorescens, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Interestingly, genes encoding components for type III secretion system have been identified as rhizosphere-induced genes in the PGPR strain. The type III secretion system may play a certain role during interaction with its counterpart plants. Application of IVET has been demonstrated in a wide range of bacteria. It is an important strategy to genetically understand complicated bacterial traits in the environment.
Toward Functional Genomics of Plant-Pathogen Interactions: Isolation and Analysis of Defense-related Genes of Rot Pepper Expressed During Resistance Against Pathogen
Park, Do-Il ; Lee, Sang-Hyeob ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 63~67
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.063
To understand plant-pathogen interactions, a complete set of hot pepper genes differentially expressed against pathogen attack was isolated. As an initial step, hundreds of differentially expressed cDNAS were isolated from hot pepper leaves showing non-host resistance against bacterial plant pathogens (Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDDRT-PCR) technique. Reverse Northern and Northern blot analyses revealed that 50% of those genes were differentially expressed in pepper loaves during non-host resistance response. Among them, independent genes without redundancy were micro-arrayed for further analysis. Random EST sequence database were also generated from various CDNA libraries including pepper tissue specific libraries and leaves showing non-host hypersensitive response against X. campestris pv. glycines. As a primary stage, thousands of cDNA clones were sequenced and EST data were analyzed. These clones are being spotted on glass slide to study the expression profiling. Results of this study may further broaden knowledge on plant-pathogen interactions.
Influence of Fungicidal Spray on Powdery Mildew Epidemics and Major Yield-Attributing Characters of Mungbean
Saxen, Deep-Ratna ; Moly Saxena ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 68~73
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.068
The influence of fungicidal spray was assessed on powdery mildew epidemics caused by Erysiphe polygoni D.C. and on yield-attributing characters of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Mildew attack adversely affected the yield-attributing characters of mungbean and exhibited negative significant correlation with pod length (-0.57), pods/plant (-0.74), pod weight (-0.68), 100 seeds weight (-0.69), 100 seeds swell weight (-0.59), and seed germination (-0.71). These characters had direct or indirect effects on grain yield, which was also adversely affected due to mildew attack (-0.89). Powdery mildew was significantly retarded due to the single spray of carbendazim (0.05%) at 30-day-old crop, where the apparent rate of infection (r) was minimum at 0.0095/ unit/day and with low (11.44%) powdery mildew intensity. Other fungicides like tridemorph (0.075%) and penconazole (0.05%) were equally effective against the mildew disease where the disease intensity was less than 20% and the values of r were 0.0134 and 0.039/unit/day respectively, as compared with the control at 0.267/unit/day. Fungicide spray influenced the yield-attributing characters besides controlling the disease. Such effects were more pronounced in carbendazim (0.05%)-treated plots due to its phytotonic nature where pod length (7.59cm), pods/plant (29.75), pod weight (8.16 g), 100 grain weight (3.94 g), and swell weight of 100 seed (9.49 g) were maximum resulting to the highest yield (480 kg/ha) as compared with that of control (224 kg/ha). Spray of carbendazim also improved seed germination (74.5%). Spray of other fungicides like carbendazim with copper oxychloride in 1:1 ratio, tridemorph (0.075%), and penconazole (0.05%) was equally effective against powdery mildew of mungbean. These fungicides also exhibited positive effects on yield-attributing characters of the crop and finally increased yield. These systemic fungicides were more effective in controlling powdery mildew disease of V. radiata in the rainy season compared with wettable sulphur.
A Deletion in Fungal Ras Promoter in Two Korean Strains of Oak Mushroom (Lentinula edodes)
Noh, Eun-Woon ; Lee, Jae-Soon ; Park, Young-Im ; Park, Won-Chull ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 74~76
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.074
This study unexpectedly detected a deletion in the promoter region of ras gene in two Korean strains of oak mushrooms, Lentinula edodes (Berk.). Sequencing of the promoter regions revealed that one type consisting of two strains had a 113 bp deletion in the region. The pas promoter region of Korean strains differed by 16 bases from that of the Japanese strains. Between the two types of Korean strains, except for the deleted portion, only a single site appeared to be different.
A Simple Method for Sporangial Formation of the Rice Downy Mildew Pathogen, Sclerophthora macrospora
Lee, Hyeong-Jin ; Han, Seong-Sook ; Kweon, Jin-Hyeuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 77~80
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.077
A simple method for sporangial formation of the rice downy mildew pathogen, Sclerophthora macrospora, on infected leaf tissues was developed to facilitate diagnosis of the disease. Freshly infected young leaves showing whitish to yellowish small spots were selected and cut into small pieces about 2-3 cm in length. About 10-20 pieces were surface sterilized in a 100 ml Duran bottle with 40 ml of 70% ethanol by vigorous shaking for 30 seconds. After washing three times with distilled water, the leaf cuts were submerged in 10 ml of Millipore-filtered paddy water and incubated at
in the dark. After 8-10 h of incubation, the bottle was vigorously agitated on a vortex mixer, Aliquot amount of the suspension, 0.1-1.0 m1, was spread on a slide glass and examined under a light microscope at 50 or 100x magnification. It was found that light and 1% NaClO strongly inhibit sporangial formation of S. macrospora. Meanwhile, the use of freshly infected young loaves and washing with 70% ethanol stimulated sporangial formation of the fungus on rice leaves.
Factors Affecting Sporulation of a Mycoherbicide, Epicoccosorus nematosporus, on the Lesion of Eleocharis kuroguwai
Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Hyun, Jong-Nae ; Cho, Jae-Min ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ; Kim, Soon-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 81~84
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.081
Effects of temperature and dew period on sporulation of a mycoherbicide, Epicoccosorus nematosporus, on the lesion of its host, Eleocharis kuroguwai were determined. Conidia formation was first observed after 10 days on plants incubated for either 12 or 16 h in a dew chamber at 28
; 16 h dew period resulted in more conidia formation. As the dew period was decreased to less than 8 h, fewer conidia formed. Conidial production was most abundant at 28
and produced as much as 3.3
conidia per lesion, while 0.1
conidia per lesion were produced at 16
, respectively. Alternating temperature regimes, i.e., 30/15, 30/20, 28/20, and 28/15
(day/night) were much better than constant temperature, i.e., 30/30, 28/28/, and 20/2
for sporulation. In the second sporulation, there were as much as 3.1
conidia per lesion (ca. <50% of the first sporulation). Then, sporulation dropped sharply to 6.2
conidia per lesion in the third sporulation. Results of this study suggest that temperature combined with dew period is the primary limiting factor in the use of E. nematosporus as a mycoherbicide off, kuroguwai.
Characterization and Sequence Analysis of a Lily Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Lithium tsingtauense
Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Park, Hye-Won ; Park, Jang-Kyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.085
A new isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), identified as Li-CMV was isolated from a diseased Korean native lily (Lithium tsingtauense Gilg). Biological and serological properties of Li-CMV were characterized, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, restriction enzyme profiling of RT-PCR products, and nucleotide sequence analysis of RNA3 of the virus were performed in this study. Remarkable differences in symptoms between Li-CMV and ordinary CMV strains were found in tobacco plants and Datura stramonium. Li-CMV-infected tobacco plants (cv. Xanthi-nc and cv. Samsun) induced chlorotic ringspots on uninoculated upper leaves, and the symptom expression was delayed or faint whereas, ordinary CMV strains induced green mosaic symptoms on the plant. Systemic infections were observed on Nicotiana benthamiana with severe mosaic symptom. Restriction mapping analysis of RT-PCR products using MspI showed that Li-CMV belonged to CMV subgroup I. A full-length CDNA copy of RNA3 for the virus was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The RNA3 of Li-CMV was 2, 232 nucleotides long, and consisted of two open reading frames of 843 and 657 bases encoding 3a protein (movement protein) and coat protein, respectively. Results of this study indicate that Li-CMV is a novel strain and belongs to subgroup I of CMV in the genus Cucumovirus.
Elimination of Aster Yellows Phytoplasma from Dendranthema grandiflorum by Application of Oxytetracycline as a Foliar Spray
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Park, Gug-Seoun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.093
Aster yellows phytoplasma-infected chrysanthemums showing stunt, rosette, and excessive branching were treated with a foliar spray of 400 mg/I oxytetracycline at three-day interval for 1,2,3 and 4 months. Two months after the final treatment, new shoots from the recovered chrysanthemums showed the recurrence of the disease symptoms. However, cuttings from chrysanthemums treated with oxytetracycline did not express any photoplasma infection symptoms for more than 10 months. Also, chrysanthemums dipped in 100 mg/I oxytetracycline solution combined with a foliar spray of 400 mg/I oxytetracycline for 4 weeks showed the same results. Using an electron microscope, ultrathin sections of leaf midribs of chrysanthemum cuttings treated with oxytetracycline for 4 months did not show phytoplasma bodies 10 months after treatment. Nucleic acids from chrysanthemums, which did not express phytoplasma infection symptoms for more than 10 months, did not amplify 16S rRNA gene of phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction. These results may have implications in the propagation of phytoplasma-free healthy stocks for a wide range of plant species.
Genetic Similarity Between Jujube Witches¡？Broom and Mulberry Dwarf Phytoplasmas Transmitted by Hishimonus sellatus Uhler
Cha, Byeongjin ; Han, Sangsub ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 98~101
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.098
Using phytoplasma universal primer pair Pl and P7, a fragment of about 1.8 kb nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, and a portion of 23S rRNA gene of jujube witches`broom (JWB) and mulberry dwarf(MD) phytoplasmas were determined. The nucleotide sequences of JWB and MD were 1,850 bp and 1,831 bp long, respectively. The JWB phytoplasma sequence was aligned with the homologous sequence of MD phytoplasma. Twenty-eight base insertions and nine base deletions were found in the JWB phytoplasma sequence compared with that of MD phytoplasma. The similarity of the aligned sequences of JWB and MD was 84.8%. The near-complete 16S rRNA gene DNA sequences of JWB and MD were 1,529 bp and 1,530 bp in length, respectively, and revealed 89.0% homology. The 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region DNA sequences were 263 bp and 243 bp in lengths respectively, while homology was only 70% and the conserved tRNA-lle gene of JWB and MD was located into the intergenic space region between 16S-23S rRNA gene. The nucleotide sequences were 77 bp long in both JWB and MD, and showed 97.4% sequence homology. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the two phytoplasmas, the JWB phytoplasma belongs to the Elm yellow phytoplasma group (16S rV), whereas, the MD phytoplasma belongs to the Aster yellow group (16S rI).
Verlamelin, an Antifungal Compound Produced by a Mycoparasite, Acremonium strictum
Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Park, Gyung-Ja ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Kim, Heung-Tae ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 102~105
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.102
A strain of Acremonium strictum, the mycoparasite of Botrytis cinerea, showed strong antifungal activities both in vitro and in vivo against several phytopathogenic fungi. An antifungal substance was purified from the liquid cultures of A. strictum and identified as verlamelin by instrumental analyses. Verlamelin exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against some phytopathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe grisea, Bipolaris maydis, and Botrytis cinerea, while it was net active against all the bacteria tested. In viva, verlamelin exhibited strong protective and curative activities, particularly against barley powdery mildew. At 100 μg/ml, it inhibited the development of barley powdery mildew with control values of more than 90% in 7-day protective and 2-day curative applications. This is the first report on the production of verlamelin by Acremonium species.
Occurrence of Tulip Fire Caused by Botrytis tulipae in Korea
Hong, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Cho, Weon-Dae ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 2, 2002, Pages 106~108
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.2.106
Severe spotted lesions were observed on tulip plants grown in Asan, Yongin, and Icheon areas in Korea during a disease survey in 2000 and 2001. Diseased plants with severe symptoms were blighted and rotted at the late stage of disease development. A total of 15 isolates was obtained from the infected plant parts of tulip. All the isolates were identified as Botrytis tulipae based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Three isolates of B. tulipae were tested for their pathogenicity to tulip by artificial inoculation. Spotted lesions similar to those observed in the fields were induced on tulip leaves. This is the first report of tulip fore disease caused by B. tulipae in Korea.