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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
A Review of Orchid Mycorrhizae in Korea
Lee, Sang-Sun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 169~178
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.169
Orchids are evolutionally known to be the most advanced plants in the order Liliales, and comprise approximately 1,000 genera and 35,000 species world-wide. In Korea, more than 110 species of Orchidaceae have been reported to be cultivated or to be collected in the wild. Orchids aye mostly dependant on orchid mycorrhizae(OM) throughout or in part of their life cycle. The OM endomycorrhizae belonging to basidiomycetes or rarley ascomycetes are needed for orchid seed germination. Various fungi, including plant pathogenic, antagonistic and symbiotic fungi, were isolated from the roots of orchid native to Korea. The OM fungi collected from the roots of Cymbidium goeringii were three species of Rhizoctonia namely, R. repens (anamorph state of Tulsanella repens), R. endophytica (Ceratobasidium cornigerum), and an unidentified species (possibly an anamorph of T. calospora). These symbiotic fungi induced peloton in the cortical cells of orchid roots, and differed biologically and in 18s rDNA sequences from plant pathogenic Rhizoctonia species. Also, the mycorrhyzal fungi enhanced the orchid root absorption of nitrogen sources and minerals from the soil. The activity of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae in the roots caused prevention from pathogenic fungi. In nature, the peloton is observed in the cortical cells of Cymbidium goeriingii roots, indicating mycorrhizal colonization in the native orchid roots. On the other hand, pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium and/or Rhizoctonia species are mostly isolated from commercial orchid plants. These suggest that application of symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi should be needed for orchid cultivation in nurseries and at the time of transplanting.
Comparison of Resistance Level to Cotton leaf curl virus(CLCuV) Among Newly Developed Cotton Mutants and Commercial Cultivars
Akhtar, Khalid P. ; Khan, Azeem I. ; Hussain, M. ; Khan, M.S.I. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 179~186
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.179
Four newly developed cotton mutants (M-111, M-7662, M-358 and M-218) were compared for their resistance against Cotton leaf curl virus(CLCuV) together with commercial resistant (CIM-443, CIM-482, CIM-473, FH-900 and FH-901) and susceptible (5-12) varieties by artificial inoculation through grafting and under natural field conditions. Infectivity and success of grafting were 100% in all cases. None of the grafted plants were found immune or asymptomatic. All the grafted mutants and most of their single plant progeny rows (SPPRs) showed highly resistant responses as the symptoms displayed by these mutants were milder than the commercial cultivars. Grafted mutants also had delayed disease reactions as they took more time (25-30 days) to produce disease symptoms, as compared with resistant commercial varieties that produced disease 18-22 days after inoculation. Growth of the grafted SPPRs of tested mutants was normal, which is an indication that there will be no production losses. Observations under natural infestation of whitefly showed that two SPPRs of M-ll/CE and M-7662-1/2 and one resistant variety CIM-443 exhibited slight incidence of disease, while one SPPR of M-l1/59 and S-12 were moderately susceptible and highly susceptible with 21％ and 97.l％ disease incidence, respectively. This study also showed that plants displaying more disease symptoms through grafting were easily infected under natural conditions. These results suggest that preference should be given to those plants that exhibited highly resistant responses after artificial inoculation.
Cloning of the 5`-end and Amplification of Full-Length cDNA of Genomic RNA of Lily symptomless virus
Park, Seon-Ah ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 187~191
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.187
This paper describes the cloning and sequence analysis of the 5`-terminal region and full-length cDNA production of genomic RNA of Lily symptomless virus (LSV), a Species Of the genus Carlavirus. A sing1e DNA band about 600 bp harboring the 5`-end of genomic RNA of the virus was successfully amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and was cloned for nucleotide sequence determination. Sequence analysis of selected RACE cDNA clones revealed that the LSV 5`non-translated region consists of 67 nucleotides long of AT rich stretch followed GC rich from the 5`-end. To produce full-length cDNA products for the viral genomic RNA, a set of LSV-specific primers could be designed based on the obtained sequence in this study and the known sequences of 3`-terminal region for the virus. Full-length cDNA copies of LSV, an 8.4 kb long, were directly amplified by the long-template RT-PCR technique from the purified viral genomic RNA samples. This full-length cDNA copies were analyzed by restriction mapping. The molecules produced in this study can be useful for the production of in vitro infectious cDNA clone, as well as, for the completion of genomic RNA sequence and genome structure for the virus.
Ultrastructural Aspects of Mixed Infections with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV- ACl8 and -C5) and Ribgrass mosaic virus (RMV-CA1) in Oriental Cabbage
Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Park, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; La, Yong-Jun ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 192~198
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.192
Mixed infections of two economically important viruses, Turnip mosaic virus(TuMV) in the family Potyviridae and Ribgrass mosaic virus(RMV) in the genus Tobamo-virus, were studied ultrastructurally on oriental cabbage. TuMV-ACl8 (alpine isolate in Korea) induced chlorotic spots on inoculated leaves of both ‘SSD63’ inbred line known as susceptible to TuMV, and ‘Tambok’ commercial cultivar, known as resistant to the virus, in the early stages of infection. TuMV-C5 (Taiwan isolate) caused severe mosaic and malformation on the upper leaves of ‘SSD63’, and necrotic spots in both inoculated and upper leaves of ‘Tambok’. RMV-CA1 (oriental cabbage isolate from alpine in Korea) induced vein chlorosis, leaf malformation, and midrib necrotic streak in the upper leaves of both ‘SSD63’ and ‘Tambok’. Both oriental cabbages infected with a combination of TuMV-ACl8 and RMV-CA1 showed synergistic symptoms of severe yellowing, severe mosaic, and necrotic spot or vein necrosis on their leaves. A combination of TuMV-C5 and RMV-CA1 produced synergistic symptoms only in ‘SSD63’. In ‘Tambok’ infected with the combination of TuMV-C5 and RMV-CA1, the number of necrotic spots on the inoculated leaves was one half lesser than that on singly infected with TuMV-C5. A few necrotic spots progressed systemically. In cells infected with a combination of TuMV-ACl8 and RMV-CA1 or TuMV-C5 and RMV-CA1, the particles of the two viruses made nonagon-like rings(NLR); one TuMV particle was surrounded loosely by nine RMV particles. Two unrelated viruses of TuMV and RMV were compacted in the central part of the spiral aggregates(SA) that was induced strikingly in cells by the mixed infections. The SA showed NLR in its center of the cross-sectioned side. Many particles of RMV of Tobamovirus were closely associated with Potyvirus-characteristic cylindrical inclusions. The SAs in the mixed infections were formed easily by the Potyvirus of TuMV-ACl8 or -C5 isolates.
Soft Rot of Onion Bulbs Caused by Pseudomonas marginalis Under Low Temperature Storage
Kim, Yong-Ki ; Lee, Seung-Don ; Park, Chung-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Sang-Yeob ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 199~203
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.199
Soft rot occurred severely in onion bulbs stored under low temperature (
) in storage houses at Changyoung, Kyungnam province, Korea in early 2000. Water-soaking and yellowish-brown lesions initially appeared on the outside scales of diseased onion bulbs, gradually progressing into the inside scales. Among the bacterial isolates obtained from the lesions, K-2 isolate was found to be responsible for the disease, which grew at a temperature range of from
with optimum temperature of
. However, it showed strong pathogenicity to onion bulbs at
at 3 days and 2 months, respectively. The bacterium also caused soft rot on potato and showed hypersensitive reactions to tobacco and potato. The causal bacterium of onion soft rot was identified as Pseudomonas marginalis based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics including LOPAT, Soft rot in onion under low temperature storage caused by P. marginalis has not been previously reported.
Occurrence of Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds in Andhra Pradesh, India
Kishore, G.Krishna ; Pande, S. ; Manjula, K. ; Rao, J.Narayana ; Thomas, D. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 204~209
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.204
Andhra Pradesh is one of the major groundnut growing states in India. A total of 182 groundnut samples collected at harvesting from farmers fields in five districts, namely; Anantapur, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Kurnool, and Mahaboobnagar, during 1999 and 2000 rainy seasons were evaluated for the presence of mycotoxins (both aflatoxins and zearalenone) and toxigenic fungi. In samples collected from each district, average seed infection by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium spp. was 11.9-18.3% and 5.6-12.8% in 1999, and 9.5-14.1% and 9.4-11.9% in 2000, respectively. Among the samples collected, 20.3% and 16.5% were contaminated with aflatoxin in 1999 and 2000, respectively, and in 11.4% and 8.7% of the seed samples collected in two seasons, the aflatoxin content was >30
/kg. An alarming aflatoxin content of 851.9
/kg was found in samples collected from Anantapur district during the rainy season in 1999. Zearalenone was not detected in any of the samples collected in 1999, while 2 out of 103 samples collected in 2000 were contaminated with 35.1 and 129.4
/kg. Under in vitro cultural conditions, 35.8% of the 173 A. flavus isolates collected from the groundnut samples produced aflatoxins at concentrations of 94.3-1598.6 ng/
and 3% of the 266 Fusarium spp. isolates produced 98.1-847.3
/g of zearalenone. The results emphasize the need for a more systematic and regular monitoring of pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination.
Interactions Between Leafminer Damage and Leaf Necrosis Caused by Alternaria alternata on Potato in the Sultanate of Oman
Deadman, M.L. ; Khan, I.A. ; Thacker, J.R.M. ; Al-Habsi, K. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 210~215
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.210
Four field experiments were carried out from 1998 to 1999 and from 1999 to 2000 growing seasons of potato to investigate the relationship between leafminers and Alternaria alternata. The experiments established differential susceptibility among potato varieties to alternaria leaf necrosis, relationship between leafminer infestation and the level of necrosis, use of insecticides to reduce leafminer and leaf necrosis damages, and use of polyester fleece to eliminate leafminer and eventually reduce leaf necrosis. Results of the study indicate that control of leafminer is of primary importance because this will automatically lead to control of the damage caused by A. alternata.
Efficacy of Fluazinam and Iprodione+Propineb in the Suppression of Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum truncatum and Cercospora kikuchii, the Causal Agents of Seed Decay in Soybean
Oh, Jeung-Haing ; Kang, Nag-Won ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 216~220
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.216
Seed decay of soybean caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum truncatum and Cercospora kikuchii is a serious disease when soybean is harvested under warm and wet weather conditions. Benomyl has been used for controlling the disease, however, benomyl application may be limited due to common occurrence of resistance. The efficacy of 21 fungicides against the pathogens was evaluated in vitro. Among the fungicides tested, benomyl, carbendazim, fluazinam, iprodione+propineb, thiophanate-methyl, and triflumizole were found effective and were evaluated for their ability to control the seed pathogens. Fluazinam completely inhibited mycelial growth at a concentration of 100
for D. phaseolorum; and at a concentration of 500
for C. truncatum and C. kikuchii.
values of fluazinam were similar to that of benomyl. Because fluazinam, iprodione+propineb, and triflumizole were found effective against the seed pathogens, these were subjected for field-testing. Suppression of pod and seed infection by fluazinam and iprodione+propineb was as high as that of benomyl without any reduction in agronomic characters of soybean. This study shows that fluazinam and iprodione+propineb may be used in combination with benomyl to control seed pathogens, manage resistance, and ensure production of high quality soybean seeds.
In vitro and In vivo Activities of a Biocontrol Agent, Serratia plymuthica A2l-4, Against Phytophthora capsici
Shen, Shun-Shan ; Park, Ok-Hee ; Lee, Sun-Mi ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 221~224
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.221
In vitro and in vivo activities of a biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica strain A2l-4, was evaluated for the control of Phytophthora blight of pepper, Strain A2l-4 inhibited mycelial growth, germination of zoosporangia and cystospores, and formation of zoospore and zoosporangia of Phytophthora capsici in vitro. In the pot experiment, incidence of Phytophthora blight of pepper in non-treated control was 100% at 14 days after inoculation, while no disease was observed in the plot treated with S. plymuthica A2l-4. In the greenhouse test, infection rate of pepper in the non-treated plots was 74.5%, while it was only 12.6％ in the plots treated with A2l-4. Results indicate that S. plymuthica A2l-4 is a potential biocontrol agent for Phytophthora blight of pepper.
Root Rot of Moth Orchid Caused by Fusarium spp.
Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Lee, Byung-Dae ; Kim, Woo-Sik ; Cho, Weon-Dae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 225~227
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.225
Moth orchid plants with yellowing blight and root rot symptoms were collected, and a total of 54 isolates of Fusarium spp. was obtained from roots and leaf bases of the diseased plants. The isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Out of the 54 isolates of Fusarium spp., 42 isolates were identified as F. solani, 5 isolates as F. oxysporum, and 7 as F. proliferatum. Isolates of the three Fusarium spp. were tested for pathogenicity to moth orchid plants by artificial inoculation. All the Fusarium spp. induced root rot of the host plants. The symptoms progressed up to the basal part of the leaves, which later caused yellowing blight. The symptoms induced on the plants by artificial inoculation with the Fusarium spp. isolates were similar to those observed in greenhouses. The present study reveals that F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, and F. solani cause root rot of moth orchid, and that F. solani is the main pathogen of the disease.
Anthracnose of Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides for, grandiflora Makino) Caused by Glomerella cingulata
Kim, Gyoung-Hee ; Lee, Jae-Goon ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 4, 2002, Pages 228~230
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.4.228
Anthracnose symptoms caused by Glomerella cingulata were observed on leaves and stems of gardenia in Sunchon, Jeonnam in Korea in 2000. Symptoms on infected plants typically appeared as irregularly circular, dark-brown ring spots and water-soaked brown lesions. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the fungus (G-00-03 isolate) from the diseased plants was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and its teleomorph stage was Glomerella cingulata. Healthy gardenia artificially inoculated with fungal spores showed anthracnose symptom 7 days after inoculation. This is the first report of gardenia anthracnose caused by Glomerella cingulata in Korea.