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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Dec 2002
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Aug 2002
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Jun 2002
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Apr 2002
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2002
Volume 18, Issue 5 - Jan 2002
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Transmission of an Indonesian Isolate of Tobacco leaf curl virus (Geminivirus) by Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Noor, Aidawati ; Sri, Hendrastuti Hidayat ; Rusmilah, Suseno ; Soemartono, Sosromarsono ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 231~236
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.231
Bemisia tabaci Genn. is an important pest worldwide because of its ability to cause damage by direct feeding and its role as a vector of some viruses including geminiviruses. The first report of Tobacco leaf curl virus (TLCV), a Geminiviruses, in Indonesia was in 1932 when the virus was found infecting tobacco plants in Central Java. The characteristic symptoms of TLCV included upward curling of the leaf edge, vein thickening, and sometimes the occurrence of enation on the underside of the leaves. Basic studies were carried out to elucidate the characteristics of TLCV transmission by its vector, B. tabaci. A single whitefly was able to transmit the virus and the efficiency of transmission was increased when the number of adult whiteflies was increased up to 20 per plant. Inoculation access period of 1 h could cause transmission up to 20% and the optimum inoculation access period was 12 h. Acquisition access period of 30 minutes resulted in 70% transmission while 1(10% transmission occurred with a 24-h acqui-sition access period. The virus was proven to be persistently but not transovarially transmitted. Discrete fragments of 1.6 kb were observed when polymerase chain reaction method was applied to detect the virus in viruliferous nymphs and individual adults of B. tabaci, while no bands were obtained from non-viruliferous nymphs and adults.
Survey of Garlic Virus Disease and phylogenetic Characterization of Garlic Viruses of the Genus Allexivirus Isolated in Korea
Koo, Bong-Jin ; Kang, Sang-Cu ; Chang, Moo-Ung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 237~243
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.237
A survey of virus infection in garlic plants cultivated in Korea was conducted for three years. Most virus-infected garlic plants (Allium sativum) showed typical symptoms on the leaves such as yellow mosaic, stripes, and distortion. Through immunosorbent electron micro-scopy and RT-PCR analysis, the complex mixtures of viruses including garlic viruses of the genus Allerivirus, gaylic strain of Leek yellow stripe virus of the genus Potyvirus, and Garlic latent virus of the genus Carlavirus were identified in the virus-infected garlic plants. Among these viruses, Allexivirus was the most frequently detect-ed in the regions surveyed. Using sets of differential primers for Allexivirus genomes, two members of the genus were amplified and sequenced from the purified viruses. The deduced amino acid sequences for the coat proteins and the nucleic acid binding proteins of two viruses showed high homologies to Garlic virus A (CarV-A) and Garlic virus D (GarV-D) of Allekivirus. This is the first report of GarV-A and GarV-D in Korea. This suggests that Allexivirus in gavlic plants in Korea was mixed and varied. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the genus Allexivirus was diversi(ied by the processes of accumulation and evolution of viruses in garlic plants due to the long period of repeated vegetative propagation.
Biological Assay and Cytopathological Characteristics of Grapevine leafroll-associated 3 virus (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV)
Kim, Hyun-Ran ; Park, Yong-Mun ; Chung, Bong-Nam ; Park, Gug-Seoun ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 244~250
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.244
Grapevine leafroll-associated 3 virus (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) are important viral diseases of grapevine in the world. In this study, the most reliable woody indicator plants were selected for virus indexing. Two grapevines, LN33 (Couderc 1613x vitis berlandieri) and Vitis riparia Gloire, were selected for CLRaV-3 and CFLV graft indexing, respectively. The specific characteristics of Closterovirus isolated from grapevines cultivated in Korea were identified. filamentous virus-like particles only existed in the phloem parenchyma cell. In particular, the vesiculation of mitochondria was observed. This mitochondrial vesicu-lation was considered to be one of the most reliable cytopathic features of Closterovirus. During observation of GFLV-infected Chenopodium quinoa sections, virus-like particles arranged consistently were found forming several layers in cytoplasm. Moreover, virus-like particles in tubules were observed and were associated with plasmodesmata in cytoplasm. This is the first report on cytopathological characteristics of Closterovirus and Nepovirus identified from grapevines in Korea.
Molecular Identification and Sequence Analysis of Coat Protein Gene of Ornithogalum mosaic virus Isolated from Iris Plant
Yoon, Hye-In ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 251~258
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.251
A potyvirus was isolated from cultivated Iris plants showing leaf streak mosaic symptom. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) product of 1 kb long which encoded partial nuclear inclusion B and N-terminal region of viral coat protein (CP) genes for potyviruses was successfully amplified with a set of potyvirus-specific degenerate primers with viral RNA samples from the infected leaves: The RT-PCR product was cloned into the plasmid vector and its nucleotide sequences were determined. The nucleotide sequence of a CDNA clone revealed that the virus was an isolate of Ornithogalum moseic virus (OrMV) based on BLAST search analysis and was denoted as OrMV Korean isolate (OrMV-Ky). To further characterize the CP gene of the virus, a pair of OrMV-specific primers was designed and used for amplification of the entire CP gene of OrMV-Kr, The virus was easily and reliably detected from virus-infected Iris leaves by using the RT-PCR with the set of virus-specific primers. The RT-PCR product of the CP gene of the virus was cloned and its sequences were determined from selected recombinant CDNA clones. Sequence analysis revealed that the CP of OrMV-Kr consisted of 762 nucleotides, which encoded 253 amino acid residues. The CP of OrMV-Ky has 94.1-98.0% amino acid sequence identities (20 amino acid alterations) with that of other three isolates of OrMV, Two NT rich potential N-glycosylation motif sequences, NCTS and NWTM, and a DAC triple box responsible for aphid transmission were conserved in CPs of all the strains of OrMV. The virus has 58.5-86.2% amino acid sequence identities with that of other 16 potyviruses, indicating OrMV to be a distinct species of the genus. OrMV-Ky was the most related with Pterostylia virus Yin the phylogenetic tree analysis of CP at the amino acid level. This is the first report on the occurrence of OrMV in Iris plants in Korea. Data in this study indicate that OrMV is found in cultivated Iris plants, and may have mixed infection of OrMV and Iris severe mosaic virus in Korea.
Cloning and Phylogenetic Characterization of Coat Protein Genes of Two Isolates of Apple mosaic virus from ¡？Fuji¡？ Apple
Lee, Gung-Pyo ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Hyun-Ran ; Kim, Chung-Sun ; Lee, Dong-Woo ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Park, Min-Hye ; Noh, Young-Mi ; Choi, Sun-Hee ; Han, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Chang-Hoo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 259~265
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.259
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the genus Ilarvirus, was detected and isolated from diseased 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica) in Korea. The coat protein (CP) genes of two ApMV strains, denoted as ApMV-Kl and ApMV-K2, were amplified by using the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and were analyzed thereafter. The objectives were to define the molecular variability of genomic information of ApMV found in Korea and to develop virus-derived resistant gene source for making virus-resistant trans-genic apple. RT-PCR amplicons for the APMVS were cloned and their nucleotide sequences were determined. The CPs of ApMV-Kl and ApMV-K2 consisted of 222 and 232 amino acid residues, respectively. The identities of the CPs of the two Korean APMVS were 93.1% and 85.6% at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. The CP of ApMV-Kl showed 46.1-100% and 43.2-100% identities to eight different ApMV strains at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. When ApMV-PV32 strain was not included in the analysis, ApMV strains shared over 83.0% and 78.6% homologies at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. ApMV strains showed heterogeneity in CP size and sequence variability. Most of the amino acid residue differences were located at the N-termini of the strains of ApMV, whereas, the middle regions and C-termini were remarkably conserved. The APMVS were 17.(1-54.5% identical with three other species of the genus Ilarviyus. ApMV strains can be classified into three subgroups (subgroups I, II, and III) based on the phylogenetic analysis of CP gene in both nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, all the strains of subgroup I were isolated from apple plants, while the strains of subgroups II and III were originated from peach, hop, or pear, The results suggest that ApMV strains co-evolved with their host plants, which may have resulted in the CP heterogeneity.
Genetic Mapping of Resistant Genes in Brassica pekinensis Against Plasmodiophora brassicae Race 6
Lee, Gung-Pyo ; Baek, Nam-Kwon ; Park, Kuen-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 266~270
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.266
Inbred lines of Chinese cabbage KU-101 (resistant line against Plasmodiophora brassicae race race 6) and CS-113 (susceptible line) were crossed and their progeny lines F
, and F
were produced for the construction of the genetic linkage map of R brassicae race 6-resistant Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis genome. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was applied to compare between parents and their f
progenies with a total of 192 probes and 5 restriction enzymes. The constructed RFLP map covered 1,104 cM with a mean distance between genetic marker of 8.0 cM, and produced 10 linkage groups having 121 genetic loci. The loci of P. brassicae race 6 (CR6)-resistant Brassica genome were determined by interval mapping of quan-titative trait loci (QTL), which resulted from bioassay using the same race of the fungi in P3 population. Resistant loci were estimated in numbers 1 (Gl) and 3 (G3) linkage groups. In the regression test, Gl had a value of4.8 logarithm of odd (LOD) score, while C3 had values of 4.2-7.2. Given these results, the location of the CR6-resistant loci within the Brassica genome map can now be addressed.
Effect of Plant Population Densities on the Severity of tate Leaf Spot and Rust of Groundnut
Pande, S. ; Rao, J.Narayana ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 271~278
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.271
The effect of five plant population densities [5 (D
), 10 (D
), 20 (D
), 30 (D
), and 40 (D
] of four groundnut cultivars [ICGV 86699, ICG (FDRS) 10, ICGS 11 and TMV 2] and fungicide application (Kavach, chlorothalonil) to manage late leaf spot (LLS) and rust were studied in a field experiment during the 1995 and 1996 rainy seasons. LLS and rust severities were low in fungicide sprayed plots in all the cultivars irrespective of plant densities. Severities of LLS and rust, and percentage defoliation caused by LLS were significantly more in higher plant densities (D
) than in lower plant densities (D
) in fungicide sprayed and unsprayed plots in all the cultivars. All the cultivars gave significantly higher haulm and pod yields in fungicide sprayed plots than in unsprayed plots. Haulm and pod yields were significantly higher in higher plant densities than in lower plant densities. A combination of higher plant densities (D
) and fungicide protection against LLS and rust gave maximum yield.yield.
Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt Disease of Pigeonpea
Rajesh Singh ; B.K. Singh ; R.S. Upadhyay ; Bharat Rai ; Lee, Youn-Su ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 279~283
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.279
Biological control of Fusarium udum causing wilt disease of pigeonpea was studied in vitro, as well as, in vivo. Aspergilluspavus, Anergillus niger, Bacilius licheniformis (strain-2042), Gliocladium virens, Peniciliium citrimum, and Trichoderma harzianum, which were found to be the most potent ones in inhibiting the radial colony growth of the test pathogen, were used as biological control by amending their inocula at diffeyent concentrations in pots and in pathogen-infested soil in the fields. Maximum reduction of the wilt disease was observed with G. vireos both in pots and in the fields. The population of E. udum was found to be markedly reduced when the antagonists were applied in the soil. The study establishes that G. virens can be exploited for the biological control of wilt disease at field level.
Inhibitory Effects of Super Reductive Water on Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Kim, Hae-Jin ; Oh, Soon-Ok ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Kwak, Young-Se ; Lee, Choong-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 284~287
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.284
The antifungal activity of super reductive water (SRW) against plant pathogenic fungi was examined to extend its application to integrated pest management (IPM) for plant diseases. Diluted solutions (
1/50) of SRW inhibited fungal growth of kiwifruit soft rot pathogen, Diaporthe actinidiae, in a concentration dependent manner, When kiwifruits were inoculated on wounds with mycelium blocks, stock and diluted solutions successfully inhibited the disease development. In addition to the high pH of the SRW, fungistatic activity was also considered as the cause of the antifungal effect against the pathogen. Whereas conidial germination of Magnaporthe grisea was not affected by the diluted SRW solutions, appressorium formation was significantly inhibited in a concentration dependent manner, With little harmfulness to human health and environment SRW could be used to control plant pathogenic fungi, particularly appressorium-forming fungal pathogens.
Identification and Biological Characteristics of an Antifungal Compound Extracted from Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) against Phytophthora drechsleri
Kim, Dong-Kil ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Bae, Dong-Won ; Kawk, Yeon-Sik ; Yang, Min-Suk ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 288~292
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.288
Crude extract of Xanthium strumarium inhibited mycelial growth and zoospore germination of Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal agent of Atractylis rot, in vitro. Fresh sap from X. strumarium at 50-fold dilution was highly effective in controlling the disease Incidence in pot and field trials. Purified extracts from cocklebur Inhibited mycelial growth and zoospore germination in vitro at a concentration of 12.5
/ml and 15.6
/ml, respectively. Hyphal tips affected by the compound showed malformation. The antifungal compound puri- fied fromX. strumarium was identified as 4-oxo-1 (5), 2,11, (13)-xanthatriene-12,8-olide, known as "deacetyl xanthumin".min".uot;.
Wilt of Perilla Caused by Fusarium spp.
Kim, Woo-Sik ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Cho, Weon-Dae ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 18, issue 5, 2002, Pages 293~299
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2002.18.5.293
A survey of Fusarium wilt of perilla was conducted in 12 locations in Korea from 1999 to 2001. The disease occurred in 74 out of 187 fields in the 12 locations surveyed, and incidence of the disease reached up to 30% at its maximum in some perilla fields in Seosan and Dangjin. Incidence of the disease in the other locations ranged from 0.2 to 20%. A total of 327 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained from stems and roots of the diseased perilla plants. The isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics. Out of the 327 isolates of Fusarium, 277 isolates from 12 locations were identified as F. oxysporum, 11 isolates from three locations as F. solani,17 isolates from two locations as F. equiseti, 4 isolates from one location as F. avenaceum and 6 isolates from one location as F. subglutinans. The other 12 isolates of Fusarium from four locations were unidentified. Twelve isolates of F. oxysporum and two isolates each of the other Fusarium spp. were tested for their pathogenicity to five cultivars of perilla. Seven isolates of F. oxysporum were strongly pathogenic to some perilla cultivars, but the other five isolates were weakly or not pathogenic. One isolate of F. solani was strongly pathogenic to all the perilla cultivars tested, but another isolate was not pathogenic. All the isolates of F. equiseti, F. avenaceum, and F. Subglutinans tested were not pathogenic to any of the perilla cultivars tested. Symptoms on the perilla plants induced by artificial inoculation with strongly pathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum and F. solani appeared as wilt, stem blight, and root yet, which were similar to those observed in the fields. The isolates which induced symptoms by artificial inoculation were re-isolated from the lesions of the perilla plants inoculated. All the isolates of F. oxysporum tested were not pathogenic to eight other crops inoculated. Results of this study reveal that F. oxysporum is the main pathogen of perilla wilt and that it is host specific to perilla. forma specialis of F. oxysporum causing wilt of perilla is proposed as perillae.