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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Recent Progress in the Evolution and Ecology of Actinorhizal Symbioses
Jeong, Soon-Chun ; David D. Myrold ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.001
WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Plant Defense Mechanism
Moon, Jae-Sun ; Leslie L. Domier ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 9~12
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.009
Characterization of Streptomyces Species Causing Potato Scab in Korea: Distribution, Taxonomy, and Pathogenicity
Lim, Chun-Keun ; Park, Duck-Hwan ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Cho, Jun-Mo ; Kwon, Soon-Wo ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 13~18
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.013
From 1996 to 1999, potato-growing areas in Korea were surveyed for identification and distribution of potato scab pathogens. Potato scab was widely distributed in the mass cultivation areas, especially in Jriu island, southern areas of Chonnam and Gyounggi provinces, and the alpine area of Gangwon province. Jeju island was the most affected area by this disease. A total of 55 Streptomyces strains were isolated from potato scab lesions, among which 40 strains were pathogenic on progeny tubers. Among the pathogenic strain, 21 strains were identified as previously described S. scabies, 7 Strains as S. turgidiscabies, and 5 Strains as S. acidiscabies, while 7 strains were observed as having distinct phenotypic properties. These strains were classified into six distinct clusters based on phenotypic characteristics and selected representative strains for each cluster. S. scabies (S33) had grey spores in a spiral chain. Mean-while, S. turgidiscabies (S27) had grey spores, S. acidiscabies (S71) had white spores, S. luridiscabiei (S63) had yellow-white spores, S. puniciscabiei (S77) had purple-red spores, and S. niveiscabiei (S78) had thin and compact white spores, all in a rectiflexuous chain. Pathogenicity was determined by the production of thaxtomin A and homologs of necl and ORFtnp genes. In TLC, representative strains S27, S71, S63, S77, and S78 produced a yellow band that co-migrated with the authentic thaxtomin A. However, thaxtomin A was not detected in chloroform extracts from oatmeal broth culture and Slice tuber tissue of S. luridiscabiei (S63) and S. puniciscabiei (S77) by HPLC analysis. In addition, no homologs of necl and ORFtnp genes in S. acidiscabies (S71), S. luridiscabiei (S63), S. puniciscabiei (S77), and S. niveiscabiei (S78) were detected by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis.
HRT-mediated Turnip crinkle virus Resistance in Arabidopsis
Park, Jeong-Mee ; Daniel F. Klessig ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 19~23
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.019
Turnip crinkle vims (TCV) inoculation onto resistant Arabidopsis ecotype Dijon（Di-17) leads to a hypersensitive response (HR) on the inoculated leaves. A dominant gene, HRT, which confers an HR to TCV, has been cloned from Di-17 plants by map-based cloning. HRT is a LZ-NBS-LRR class resistance gene and it belongs to a small gene family that includes RPP8, which confers resistance to Peronospora parasitica Emco5. Outside of the LRR region, HRT and RPP8 proteins share 98% amino acid identity while their LRR regions are less conserved (87% identity). HRT-transformed Arabidopsis plants developed an HR but generally remained susceptible to TCV due to a dominant RRT allele, which is not compatible with resistance. However, several transgenic plants that over-expressed HRT much higher than Di-l7 showed micro-HR or no HR when inoculated with TCV and were resistant to infection. Both the HR and resistance are dependent on salicylic acid but independent of NPRI, ethylene, or jasmonic acid. Arabidopsis plants containing both TCV coat protein gene and HRT developed massive necrosis and death in seedlings, indicating that the TCV coat protein is an avirulence factor detected by the HRT.
Molecular Characterization of Hypernodulation in Soybean
Van, Kyu-Jung ; Ha, Bo-Keun ; Hwang, Eun-Young ; Kim, Moon-Young ; Heu, Sung-Gi ; Lee, Suk-Ha ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 24~29
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.024
SS2-2, a hypernodulating soybean mutant was isolated by EMS mutagenesis from Sinpaldalkong 2. This auto-regulation mutant showed greater number of nodules and smaller plant size than its wild type Sinpaldalkong 2. SSR markers were used to identify DNA variation at SSR loci from different soybean LG. The only SSR marker that detected a length polymorphism between SS2-2 and its wild type ancestor was Satt294 on LG C1 instead of LG H, locating a hypernodulating gene. Sequencing data of flanking Satt294 indicated that the size variation was due to extra stretch of TTA repeats of the SSR motif in SS2-2, along with
G transversion. In spite of phenotypic differences between the wild type and its hypernodulating mutants, genomic DNA poly-morphisms at microsatellite loci could not control regulation of nodule formation. The cDNA-AFLP method was applied to compare differential display of cDNA between Sinpaldalkong 2 and SS2-2. After isolation and sequence comparison with many AELP fragments, several interesting genes were identified. Northern blot analysis, immunolocalization and/or the yeast two-hybrid system with these genes might provide information on regulation of nodule development in SS2-2.
Modulation of a Fungal Signaling by Hypovirus
Kim, Dae-Hyuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 30~33
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.030
The chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and its hypovirus aye a useful model system in the study of the mechanisms of hypoviral infection and its consequences, such as a biological control of fungal pathogens. Strains containing the double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 show characteristic symptoms of hypovirulence and display hypovirulence-associated changes, such as reduced pigmentation, sporulation, laccase production, and oxalate accumulation. Interestingly, symptoms caused by hypoviral infection appear to be the result of aberrant expression of a number of specific genes in the hypovirulent strain. Several viral regulated fungal genes are identified as cutinase gene, Lac1, which encodes an extracellular laccase, Crp, which encodes an abundant tissue-specific cell-surface hydrophobin that mediates physical strength, and Mf2/1 and Mf2/2, which encode pheromone genes involved in poor sporulation in the presence of hypo-virus. Since the phenotypic changes in the fungal host are pleiotropic, although coordinated and specific, it has been suggested that the hypovirus disturbs one or several regulatory pathways (Nuss,1996). Accordingly, several studies have shown the implementation of a signal transduction pathway during viral symptom development. Although further studies are required, hypovirulence and its associated symptom development due to the hypoviral regulation of a fungal hetero-trimeric G-protein have been suggested. In addition, recent studies have shown the presence of a novel protein kinase gene cppk1 and its transcriptional upregulation by hypovirus. In this review, the presence of important components in signal transduction pathway, their putative biological function, and viral-specific regulation will be addressed.
Global Approaches to Identify Genes Involved during Infection Structure Formation in Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe grisea
Park, Woo-Bong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 34~42
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.034
The ascomycete Magnaporthe grisea is a pathogen of rice blast and is known to form specialized infection structures called appressoria for successful infection into host cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying infection process, appressorium-related genes were identified through global approaches including EST sequencing, differential hybridization, and sup-pression subtractive hybridization. EST database was generated on >2,000 cDNA clones randomly selected from appressorium stage cDNA library. Large number of ESTs showed homology to known proteins possibly involved in infection-related cellular development (attachment, germination, appressorium formation, and colonization) of rice blast fungus. The 1051 ESTs showing significant homology to known genes were assigned to 11 functional categories. Differential hybridization and suppression subtractive hybridization were applied to identify genes showing an appressorium stage specific expression pattern. A number of genes were selected as up-regulated during appressorium formation compared with the vegetative growing stage. Clones from various cDNA libraries constructed in different developmental stages were arrayed on slide glass for further expression profiling study. functional characterization of genes identified from these global approaches may lead to a better understand-ing of the infection process of this devastating plant disease, and the development of novel ways to protect host plant.
Occurrence of Bacterial Soft Rot of Lily Bulb Caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas marginalis in Korea
Hahm, Soo-Sang ; Han, Kwang-Seop ; Shim, Myoung-Yong ; Park, Jong-Jin ; Kwon, Kyeong-Hak ; Park, Jae-Eul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 43~45
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.043
Soft rot symptom was observed on lily bulb in the fields and at a low temperature storage house from 1999 to 2000 in Korea. The small dark-brown lesion appeared on the bulb, and enlarged and developed into the inner scales of the bulb. The bulb became water soaked and gave out unpleasant odor. Two different pathogenic bacteria were isolated from infected tissues. The causal bacteria were identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) and Pseudomonas marginalis based on bacteriological characteristics. Pathogenicity of the bacteria was proven by Koch's postulations. This is the first report of bacterial soft rot of lily bulb in Korea caused by the two bacteria.
Distribution of Monilinia fructicola Isolates Resistant to Dicarboximide or to both Procymidone and Carbendazim in Korea
Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Lim, Tae-Heon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 46~50
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.046
To evaluate the sensitivity of Monilinia fructicola to dicarboximides used in controlling brown rot of peach, the fungus was isolated from commercial peach orchards in Chochiwon (CH), Chongdo (CD), Gyeongsan (GY), and Youngduk (YO) in Korea. The population shift of dicarboximide-resistant isolates of M. fructicola was investigated for 3 years starting 1998. The frequency of procymidone-resistant isolates (PRI) was higher in CD and GY than in CH and YO. The frequency of PRI was higher in the mid season (July-August) than in the rest of the year. Cross-resistance rate of PRI to iprodione was over 87.8% during the investigation, and double-resistance to both procymidone and carbendazim was less than 10%. However, the rate of cross-resistant isolates to vinclozolin was low. In the orchards in GY and CH without any fungicide spray, the PRI population was persistent and did not vary for 3 years. The results suggest that dicarboximide resistance of M. fructicola could be a problem in controlling brown rot and blossom blight on peach trees because it may take a long time to recover the population with sensitive isolates even in the absence of these fungicides.
Antifungal Gene (Rs-AFP) Introduction into Rehmannia glutinosa and Gene Expression Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Lee, Youn-Su ; Lim, Jung-Dae ; Seong, Eun-Soo ; Chae, Young-Am ; Yu, Chang-Yeon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 51~56
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.051
Rehmannia glutinosa is one of the most important medicinal crops in Korea. However, various plant pathogens, including Fusatium spp., cause great damage on R. glutinosa and result in enormous economic losses. This study was conducted to breed Fusarium-resistant plants by using Agrobacterium tumefaciences and AFP (anti-fungal protein) gene. The plant material used was a native accession of R. glutinosa. The PCR analysis was conducted to verify transgenicity. Based on the PCR analysis, nptII band was observed in transgenic plant genome. Southern blot and AFP protein analyses also showed the expression of this gene in transgenic plants. Expression of AFP in transgenic plants offers the possibility of developing resistance to fungal infection.
Identification and Characterization of New Copia-like Retrotransposon Osr1 in Rice
Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Jwa, Nam-Soo ; Park, Sook-Young ; Park, Chan-Ho ; Han, Seong-Sook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.057
An insertion sequence identified as a solo long terminal repeat (LTR) of a new rice copia-like retrotransposon was detected in the ORE of the Pi-b gene from the rice cv. Nipponbare, and was designated as Osr1. Osr1 consists of a 6386 bp nucleotide sequence including 965 bp LTRs on both ends with an 82％ nucleotide sequence identity to the wheat Tarl retrotransposon on reverse transcriptase. Nucleotide divergence was noted among the individual LTRs, as well as the coding region of Osr1. Various restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of LTR were detected in indica cultivars, whereas, only a few could be detected in the japonica cultivars. The population of Osr1 is lower in the wild-type rice compared with that in the domesticated cultivars. The insertion of LTR sequence in the h-b gene in the susceptible cultivar suggested that retro-tyansposon-mediated insertional mutation might play an important role in the resistance breakdown, as well as in the evolution of resistance genes in rice.
Occurrence of Clubroot in Cruciferous Vegetable Crops and Races of the Pathogen in Korea
Cho, Weon-Dae ; Kim, Wan gyu ; Kenji Takahashi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 64~68
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.064
Cruciferous vegetable crops grown in several locations in Korea were surveyed from 1996 to 2000. Clubroot severely occurred up to a maximum of 100％ in Chinese cabbage fields in 15 out of 42 locations, and in cabbage fields in 5 out of 13 locations surveyed. The disease also severely occurred up to a maximum of 40％ in radish fields in 6 out of 35 locations, and up to a maximum of 40% and 100％ in turnip and brown mustard fields in one each out of the few locations surveyed, respectively. The disease occurred less than l％ in one kale field in one out of two locations surveyed. A total of 268 isolates of Plasmodiophora brassicae was obtained from six cruciferous vegetable crops. The isolates were classified into 13 races based on their pathogenicity to the differential varieties of cabbage and rutabaga. There were 13 races found in isolates from Chinese cabbage, while 6 races each were found in isolates from cabbage and radish. There were five and three races found in turnip and brown mustard isolates, respectively. One isolate from kale was identified as race 8. Race 8 was the most frequently isolated from five cruciferous vegetable crops, except brown mustard. Races 3 and 14 were isolated only from Chinese cabbage.
Occurrence of Sclerotinia Rot in Cruciferous Crops Caused by Sclerotinia spp.
Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Cho, Weon-Dae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 1, 2003, Pages 69~74
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.1.069
Cruciferous crops grown in greenhouses and fields in Korea were surveyed from 1995 to 2000. Sclerotinia rot most severely occurred up to 30％ in cabbage. Incidence of the disease was as high as 20% at its maximum in Chinese cabbage and rape and 10％ in radish, but as low as less than 1 or 2％ in broccoli and kale. Symptoms of Sclerotinia rot commonly developed on loaves and stems of the crucifers, but rarely on rachises of broccoli. A total of 112 isolates of sclerotinia species was obtained from the diseased crucifers. Out of the isolates, 103 isolates were identified as S. sclerotiorum, and the rest as 5. minor based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. S. sclerotiorum was isolated from all the crucifers, while S. minor was isolated from Chinese cabbage, broccoli, and kale. Six isolates of S. sclerotiorum and three isolates of S. minor were tested for their pathogenicity to the crucifers by artificial inoculation. All the isolates of the two Sclerotinia spp. induced rot symptoms on the plants of the crucifers tested, which were similar to those observed in the fields. The pathogenicity tests revealed that there was no significant difference in the susceptibility of the crucifers to the isolates of S. sclerotiorum. However, in case of S. minor, radish was relatively less susceptible to the pathogen.