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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Dec 2003
Volume 19, Issue 5 - Oct 2003
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2003
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2003
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2003
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2003
Selecting the target year
Use of Quantitative Models to Describe the Efficacy of Inundative Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber
Singh, Pushpinder P. ; Benbi, Dinesh K. ; Young, Ryun-Chung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 129~132
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.129
Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. cucumerinum is a serious vascular disease worldwide. Biological control of Fusarium wilt in several crops has been accomplished by introducing non-pathogenic Fusarium sup. and other biocontrol agents in soil or in infection courts. In this study, quantitative models were used to determine the biocontrol efficacy of inundatively applied antagonist formulations and the length of their effectiveness in controlling Fusarium wilt of cucumber. Quantitative model of the form [Y=L (1
)] best described the relationship between disease incidence (Y, %) and inoculum density (X) of isolates F51 and F55. Isolate F51 was selected as a more virulent isolate based on the extent of its effectiveness in causing the wilt disease. The degree of disease control (Xi/X) obtained with the density of the biocontrol agent (Z), was described by the model [Xi/X=A (1
)]. The zeolite-based antagonist formulation amended with chitosan (ZAC) was better at lower rates of application and peaked at around 5 g/ kg of the potting medium, whereas the peat-based antagonist formulation (PA) peaked at around 10 g/kg of the potting medium. ZAC formulation provided significantly better suppression of Fusarium wilt as described by the curvilinear relationship of the type Y= a+bX+c
, where Y represents percent disease incidence and X represents sustaining effect of the biocontrol agent.
A Seedborne Fungus Bipolaris spicifera Detected from Imported Grass Seeds
Chun, Se-Chul ; Loo, Han-Mo ; Lee, Sang-Hun ; Jung, Il-Min ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 133~137
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.133
Seedborne fungus Bipolaris spicifera, which has not been previously reported in Korea, was detected from import-ed grass seeds in the country. The most frequently detected fungi from the seeds were Fusarium species, Ulocladium atrum, B. spicifera, Alternaria, and Cuvularia lunata among 17 different seed samples of the family Gramineae. Detection frequencies of B. spicifera were 11,8,5% in Bermuda grass, tall fescue, and mixed lawn grass imported from USA, respectively, and 9％ in mixed lawn grass imported from Italy. This suggests that important seedborne pathogen could be spread between countries through seed sources. The pathogen was seed-transmitted causing damping-off of Bermuda grass seedlings and showed strong pathogenicity to vice, corn, Bermuda grass, sorghum, and tall fescue. However, it did not infect wheat and blue grass
Efficacy of Soil Amendment with Medicinal Plant Materials for the Control of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Tomato
Kim, Young-Ho ; Hafeez, U.Khan ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Jeon, Yong-Ho ; Lee, Eun-Jung ; Chang, Sung-Pae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 138~142
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.138
Soil amendments with oriental herbal medicines such as fruit of Anethum graveolens, flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum, rhizome of Cnidium officinale, rhizome of Coptis chinensis, root bark of Paeonia suffructicosa, stem bark of phellodendron amurense, and stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia at the rate of 0.2％ (weight by volume of soil) significantly reduced Meloidogyne incognita infection (root gall formation) of tomato seedlings compared with the control. The most effective treatments were root bark of p. suffructicosa and stem bark of C. cassia as they gave minimum numbers of galls on tomato roots (4.7% and 8.9%, respectively, relative to control) as compared to other treatments. Another study with root bark of p. suffructicosa and C. cassia at different application doses also showed consistent results in reducing gall number. The control efficacy decreased as the application doses were lower-ed, indicating their dose-dependent control activities. These treatments significantly enhanced aboveground plant growths (total masses).
Sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans Isolates to Fungicides Metalaxyl and Ethaboxam in Korea
Kim, Byung-Sup ; Zhang, Xuan-Zhe ; Chung, Eun-Kyoung ; Kim, Dal-Soo ; Chun, Sam-Jae ; Park, Woo-Bong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 143~147
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.143
Sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans isolates to fungicides metalaxyl and ethaboxam in Korea was examined with 260 isolates for 3 years (9 isolates in 2000,93 isolates in 2001, and 158 isolates in 2002). Both Al and A2 mating types were found from the isolates collected for 3 years. Al mating type was dominant in the population with 8 isolates (88.9%) in 2000, 84 isolates (89.4%) in 2001, and 138 isolates (87.3%) in 2002. Only some isolates from diseased tomatoes in Buyergun and diseased potatoes in Pyeongchanggun were of the A2 mating type. As for metalaxyl sensitivity, 77.0% of the isolates were moderately resistant with 8 isolates (88.9%) in 2000, 73 isolates (77.7%) in 2001, and 120 isolates (75.9%) in 2002. Meanwhile, those found resistant were 1 isolate (11.1%) in 2000, 16 isolates (17.0%) in 2001, and 33 isolates (20.9%) in 2002. Only 5 isolates (3.2%) were sensitive to metalaxyl in 2002. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity among years. As for ethaboxam, no isolate was able to grow at 5.0
/ml, and only four isolates (1.5 %) grew at 1.0
/ml with heavy retardation compared with the untreated control. Based on these 3-year results, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethaboxam to p. infestans was determined to be 0.2-1.0
/ml. Results indicate that resistance development by p. infestans to ethaboxam is not likely to occur in the natural condition. furthermore, there was no indication of cross resistance between metalaxyl and ethaboxam because all the isolates, regardless of classification for their sensitivity to metalaxyl, were not able to grow at 5.0
/ml of ethaboxam.
Effect of Salinity on Orobanche cernua Seed Germination
Al-Khateeb, W.M. ; Hameed, K.M. ; Shibli, R.A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 148~151
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.148
Seeds of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) were exposed to 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM NaCl solutions during their preconditioning period (14 days of moisture) under laboratory conditions and induced to germinate by synthetic germination stimulant (GR24). There was significant reduction in seed germination with increased salt concentration as shown in 35.2, 32.5, 23.6, 14.3, and 9.2% germination, respectively. Exposure of Orobanche cernua seeds to 0.0, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 M levels of NaCl for 9 hours resulted in 29.4, 21.3, 20.5, and 17.4% germination, respectively. Water preconditioned seeds showed Heavier protein profile bands of 6.5-14.2 KDa than those of dry seeds. Seeds treated with 0.75 M NaCl showed profile similar with that of water preconditioned ones, plus an extra band at 29-36 KDa. The protein profiles of 1.0 and 1.5 M NaCl treated seeds showed weaker bands with the absence of 29-36 KDa band.
Formation of Teleomorph of the White Root Rot Fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, and the Potential Role of its Ascospores as Inocula
Lee, J.S. ; Han, K.S. ; Park, J.H. ; Park, Y.M. ; Naoyuki, Matsumoto ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 152~158
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.152
Stromata of the white root rot fungus, Rosellinia necatrix, were produced on diseased roots although they were reported to develop rarely in nature. Forty-two (42) out of 47 samples produced synnemata while 23 developed stromata. Forty-seven (47) isolates obtained from diseased root samples were divided into 24 mycelium compatibility groups (MCGs). Sixteen (16) out of 24 MCGs produced stromata. Single ascospore isolates from 10 stroma samples produced dsRNA-containing isolates from diseased tissue beneath stromata. The frequency of synnema production on axenic culture varied among isolates with different origin. The dsRNA was not transmitted vertically to the ascospore offspring despite the infection of various dsRNA in the parental isolates. The dsRNA was absent in 35 ascospore isolates in two stroma samples that originated from the isolates, in which dsRNA was not eliminated by hyphal tip isolation. Consequently, sexual reproduction in the white root rot fungus was suggested to produce propagules as a new infection source and to have the function to eliminate infectious factors such as mycoviruses.
Rapid Screening of Apple mosaic virus in Cultivated Apples by RT-PCR
Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Park, Sun-Hee ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 159~161
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.159
The coat protein (CP) gene of Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the genus Ilarvirus, was selected for the design of virus-specific primers for amplification and molecular detection of the virus in cultivated apple. A combined assay of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed with a single pair of ApMV-specific primers and crude nucleic acid extracts from virus-infected apple for rapid detection of the virus. The PCR product was verified by restriction mapping analysis and by sequence determination. The lowest concentration of template viral RNA required for detection was 100 fg. This indicates that the RT-PCR for detection of the virus is a 10
times more sensitive, reproducible and time-saving method than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specificity of the primers was verified using other unrelated viral RNAs. No PCR product was observed when Cucumber mosaic virus (Cucumovirus) or a crude extract of healthy apple was used as a template in RT-PCR with the same primers. The PCR product (669 bp) of the CP gene of the virus was cloned into the plasmid vector and result-ant recombinant (pAPCP1) was selected for molecule of apple transformation to breed virus-resistant transgenic apple plants as the next step. This method can be useful for early stage screening of in vitro plantlet and genetic resources of resistant cultivar of apple plants.
Transformation of Fuji Apple Plant Harboring the Coat Protein Gene of Cucumber mosaic virus
Lee, C.H. ; Hyung, N.I. ; Lee, G.P. ; Choi, J.Y. ; Kim, C.S. ; Choi, S.H. ; Jang, I.O. ; Han, D.H. ; Ryu, K.H. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 162~165
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.162
Transformation of Fuji apple (Malus domestica 'Fuji') was performed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a coat protein (CP) gene of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). A plasmid DNA containing the virus CP and NPT II genes was introduced into the loaves of apple by th e Agrobacterium - mediated transformation procedure. Regenerated transformants of the apple were obtained by kanamycin resistance conferred by the introduced NPT II gene. PCR analysis showed that 3 out of 20 putatively selected R0 plant lines contain the CMV-CP gene. Nine putative transgenic lines out of 20 lines were investigated with the PCR analysis; 5 regenerants produced a 450 bp DNA band and 3 regenerants showed a 671 bp DNA band for the NPT II and CMV-CP genes, respectively. Southern hybyidization results demonstrate the successful integration of the CMV-CP gene into the genome of the apple. This is the first report on the generation of useful vius resistance source of transgenic apple for molecular breeding program.
Cowpea mosaic virus from Vegetable Soybeans in Korea
Cho, Eui-Kyoo ; Lee, Sin-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 166~170
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.166
Ninety samples showing mosaic symptoms on soybean (Glycine max) cv. Sukryangputkong were collected from the Cheongsongkun area, Kyungbuk province in Korea. Initially, DAS-ELISA was conducted far detection of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV). Negative samples were chosen at random and mechanically inoculated on soybean cv. Buffalo, which reported not to produce mosaic symptoms when mechanically inoculated with SMV. An isolate of SMV, designated as B-1, from Buffalo showing mosaic and mottle symptoms was used for identification and biological characterization of the causal vim. The purified B-1 isolate had spherical particles of approximately 24nm. It positively reacted with the antiserum against Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) but not with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and SMV antisera. CPMV was newly isolated from soybean and had been characterized by host range and by serological and electron microscopic methods. Results of this study suggest that CPMV is the possible cause of mosaic disease in vegetable soybean and that based on sympto-matology, a difference between the typical mosaic and rugose symptoms caused by SMV and CPMV was observed. This is first report of CPMV from soybean in Korea.
Complete Genome Sequences of the Genomic RNA of Soybean mosaic virus Strains G7B and G5
Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Lim, Won-Seok ; Kim, Yul-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 171~176
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.171
The complete nucleotide sequences of the genomic RNAs of Soybean mosaic virus strains GS (SMV-G5) and G7H (SMV-G7H) were determined and compared with sequences of other SMV strains. Each viral RNA was determined to be 9588 nucleotides in length excluding the poly (A) tail and contained an open reading frame to encode a polyprotein subsequently processed into up to ten proteins by proteolytic cleavage. Com-parison of the amino acid sequences with those of other SMV strains showed high percentage of amino acid sequence homology with the same genome organization. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences between SMV-G5 and SMV-G7H were greater than 99% identity. When compared with those of other SMV strains in a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, they formed a distinct virus clade showing over 97％ amino acid identity, but were more distantly related to the other potyvirus (44.1-69.6% identity). Interestingly, SMV G7H strain caused a severe mosaic or necrosis symptom in soybean cultivars including Jinpum-1, Jinpum-2, and Sodam, whereas, no symptom was observed in SMV-G5 inoculation. Complete nucleotide sequences of these strains will give clues for determining symptom determinant(s) in future research.
Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita in Lettuce and Oriental Melon by Pasteuria penetrans KW1
Lim, Chun-Keun ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Cho, Myoung-Rea ; Zhu, Yong-Zhe ; Park, Duck-Hwan ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 177~180
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.177
Pasteuria penetrans KW1 (PP), parasitic bacterium of nematode, was isolated from oriental melon greenhouse soil in Korea and evaluated for the suppression effect on the reproduction of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (MI), in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Chungchima) and oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. Eunchun). Pot experiments were conducted by planting the lettuce seedlings in medium inoculated with 5,000 MI juveniles/pot (J), J +100,000 PP endospores/l g medium, and J +200,000 PP endospores/1 g medium. After 11 weeks of plantation, number of root galls in J +200,000 PP endospores/1 g medium was decreased to 92/root (38.9%, control effect), compared to the J of 150/root. In the second plantation of lettuce in the same pots, the numbers of root gall were significantly decreased in PP treated pots with 75 (77.2%, control effect) and 150/root (54.4%, control effect) in J +200,000 and J +100,000 PP endospores/1 g medium, respectively, compared to the J of 330/root when harvested at 10 weeks after planting. In oriental melon, root gall percentages were 32.1 (60.2%, control effect) and 52.9％ (34.5%, control effect) in J +200,000 and J + 1(10,000 endospores/l g medium which were significantly lower than that of 80.7％ in J.
Corky Root of Tomato Caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici in Korea
Kim, Jong-Tae ; Park, In-Hee ; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ; Cheon, Jeong-Uk ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 181~183
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.181
Corky root symptoms caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici were observed on the roots and stem base of tomato plants in Korea. Symptoms on infected plants typically appeared as stunting and generally lacking vigor, and infected plants die back from the foliage tips after fruits have set. Brown lesions appearing with bands around the roots were characteristic symptoms of the disease. The lesions become swollen and cracked along the length of the root with corky appearance. Based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the fungus from the diseased plants was identified as Pyrenochaeta lycopersici. Pycnidia were solitary, globose to subglobose, brown to black, darker around the neck region, and measured 173-215
in diameter with septate setae up to 102-132
. Conidia were hyaline, unicellular, and 4.2-4.7
long. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth of the p. lycopersici isolates ranged from
. Fifteen isolates off lycopersici were tested for pathogenicity to susceptible and tolerant cultivars of tomato plants by artificial inoculation. Three isolates of P. lycopersici induced typical corky root discoloration on susceptible tomato cultivars but not on tolerant tomato. This is the Erst report in Korea of tomato corky root disease caused by P. lycopersici.
Verticillium Wilt of Potato Caused by Verticillium albo-atrum in Daegwallyong Area in Korea
Kim, Jong-Tae ; Ryu, Kyoung-Yul ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Hahm, Young-Il ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 19, issue 3, 2003, Pages 184~187
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2003.19.3.184
Verticillium wilt was first observed in 2001 on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Superior at Daegwallyong area, one of the major seed potato producing areas in Korea. The wilted potato plants showed typical symptoms including gradual yellowing and interveinal necrosis. There was discoloration in the vascular tissues of the infected stems which turned light brown. Fungal isolates from discolored vascular tissues were whitish to creamy with folding on potato dextrose agar medium, where they used to produce resting dark mycelia but no micro-sclerotia. Conidiophores were septate with side branches, swelled at the base, and arranged in a whorl. Conidia were 2.5-11.2
um in size and were borne in small clusters at the tips of phialides. Optimal temperature range for mycelial growth was
. Based on these cultural and morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Verticillium albo-atrum Reink & Berth. Pathogenicity tests by root dipping method revealed that the fungus caused the same symptoms as observed in naturally infected potato plants. This is the first report of Verticillium wilt on potato caused by Verticillium albo-atrum in Korea.