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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Control of Pierce's Disease through Degradation of Xanthan Gum
Lee, Seung-Don ; Donald A. Cooksey ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.001
The diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa are associated with aggregation of the bacteria m xylem vessels, formation of a gummy matrix and subsequent blockage of water uptake. In the closely related pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris, xanthan gum is known to be an important virulence factor, probably contributing to bacterial adhesion, aggregation and plugging of xylem. Xanthan gum, produced by X. campestris, is an extra-cellular polysaccharide consisting of a cellulose backbone (
-1,4-linked D-glucose) with trisaccharide side chains composed of mannose, glucuronic acid and mannose attached to alternate glucose residues in the backbone. We had constructed a mutant of X. campestris lacking gumI gene that is responsible for adding the terminal mannose for producing modified xanthan gum which is similar to xanthan gum fromX. fastidiosa. The modified xanthan gum degrading endgphytic bacterium Acineto-bacter johnsonii GX123 isolated from the oleander infected with leaf scorch disease.
Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Bacterial Speck Disease Resistance of Tomato
Kim, Young-Jin ; Gregory B. Martin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 7~12
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.007
An important recent advance in the field of plant-microbe interactions has been the cloning of genes that confer resistance to specific viruses, bacteria, fungi or insects. Disease resistance (R) genes encode proteins with predicted structural motifs consistent with them having roles in signal recognition and transduction. Plant disease resistance is the result of an innate host defense mechanism, which relies on the ability of plant to recognize pathogen invasion and efficiently mount defense responses. In tomato, resistance to the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is mediated by the specific recognition between the tomato serine/threonine kinase Pto and bacterial protein AvrPto or AvrPtoB. This recognition event initiates signaling events that lead to defense responses including an oxidative burst, the hypersensitive response (HR), and expression of pathogenesis- related genes.
Post Genomic Approaches to Nodulation in Soybean
Hwang, Cheol-Ho ; Lim, Chae-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 13~17
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.013
An interaction between Legumes and Rhizobia establishes a symbiotic new organ, the nodule that supports atmospheric nitrogen fIxation. The specific communications between the microbes and legume plants are necessary for both nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Through genetic and biochemical analyses several genes playing pivotal roles in nodulation had been identified to be a receptor kinase like CALVATAl involved signal transduction for development. This emphasizes peptides as signals to be transmitted for a short or long distance transport for nodulation. In addition, a quorum sensing in rhizobia has become a focus as counterpart signal. In an attempt to reveal proteins factors and signaling molecules acting on nodulation, proteome analyses of nodule and the proteins in apoplast upon communication between Legumes and Rhizobia were performed.
The Regulation of Root Hair-specific Expansin Genes
Cho, Hyung-Taeg ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 18~21
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.018
The root hair provides a major entering spot for the symbiotic legume rhizobia. It is obvious that dynamic cell wall modification occurs in the plant root hair during the early microbe invasion. Expansins are nondestructive cell wall-modifying proteins that are involved in cell growth and differentiation. Among about 40 expansin genes in Arabidopsis, two expansin genes are expressed specifically in the root hair cell. Orthologous genes of this Arabidopsis root hair expansins have been found in other Brassica members, rice, and Medicago truncatula (a legume). In this review, I discuss the probable function of expansins during the early symbiotic process between the root hair and microbes and the regulation of root hair expansin genes in a comparative approach.
Relationship Between Plant Viral Encoded Suppressor to Post-transcriptional Gene Silencing and Elicitor to R Gene-specific Host Resistance
Park, Chang-Won ; Feng Qu ; Tao Ren ; T. Jack Morris ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 22~29
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.022
Many important horticultural and field crops are susceptible to virus infections or may possess a degree of resistance to some viruses, but become infected by others. Plant viruses enter cells through the presence of wounds, and replicate intracellularly small genomes that encode genes required for replication, cell-to-cell movement and encapsidation. There are numerous evidences from specific virus-host interactions to require the involvement of host factors and steps during viral replication cycle. However, viruses should deal with host defense responses either by general or specific mechanisms, targeting viral components or genome itself. On the other hand, the host plants have also adapted to defend themselves against viral attack by operating different lines of resistance responses. The defense-related interactions provide new insights into the complex molecular strategies for hosts for defense and counter-defense employed by viruses.
Recent Progress in Lichen Research in Korea - from Taxonomic Study to Environmental Application
Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Kang, Eui-Sung ; Kim, Minjin ; Oh, Soon-Ok ; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel ; Kim, Hyun-Woo ; Jung, Jae-Sung ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 30~40
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.030
Lichen is one of the most widely distributed eucaryotic organisms in the world. Lichen is the result of a symbiotic association between two unrelated organisms - a fungus and an alga (or cyanobacterium). In USA, Japan and European countries, there has been a resurgence of interest in lichens as source of novel, pharmacologically active molecules during the last 20 years. However, lichen researches in Korean lichens were mainly focused on investigation of Korean lichen flora and most of them were primitive and short-term based projects until 1990s. In this communication, general introduction of lichens was attempted to draw the attention of Korean researchers to Korean lichen bioresource. Research activities on Korean lichens during the past were also summarized. Recent progress in Korean lichen research is briefly discussed with emphasis of KoLRI (Korean Lichen Research Institute) activities and roles in national researches projects on bioresource development in Korea.
AP2/EREBP Transcription Factors in Rice
Kim, Yun-Ju ; Jung, Eui-Whan ; Hwang, Seon-Hee ; Go, Seong-Joo ; Hwang, Duk-Ju ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 41~45
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.041
Plants have the ability to defend themselves against pathogens by activating a series of defense responses. SA is known to be a signal molecule in plant defense responses. Nevertheles, SA is not the only one signal mediating defense responses. In addition to SA, ethylene and jasmonic acid have also been known to mediate plant defense responses against pathogens. The activation of a series of plant defense responses is known to be through varieties of transcription factors. Specially AP2/EREBP transcription factors are involved in ethylene mediated defense signaling. In this review, recent progress on AP2/EREBP transcription factors in arabidopsis, tomato and tobacco and a few of AP2/ EREBP transcription factors in rice related to biotic stresses will be discussed.
Platform of Hot Pepper Defense Genomics: Isolation of Pathogen Responsive Genes in Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Non-Host Resistance Against Soybean Pustule Pathogen (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines)
Lee, Sang-Hyeob ; Park, Do-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 46~51
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.046
Host resistance is usually parasite-specific and is restricted to a particular pathogen races, and commonly is expressed against specific pathogen genotypes. In contrast, resistance shown by an entire plant species to a species of pathogen is known as non-host resistance. Therefore, non-host resistance is the more common and broad form of disease resistance exhibited by plants. As a first step to understand the mechanism of non-host plant defense, expressed sequence tags (EST) were generated from a hot pepper leaf cDNA library constructed from combined leaves collected at different time points after inoculation with non-host soybean pustule pathogen (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Glycines; Xag). To increase gene diversity, ESTs were also generated from cDNA libraries constructed from anthers and flower buds. Among a total of 10,061 ESTs, 8,525 were of sufficient quality to analyze further. Clustering analysis revealed that 55 ％ of all ESTs (4685) occurred only once. BLASTX analysis revealed that 74％ of the ESTs had significant sequence similarity to known proteins present in the NCBI nr database. In addition, 1,265 ESTs were tentatively identified as being full-length cDNAs. Functional classification of the ESTs derived from pathogen-infected pepper leaves revealed that about 25％ were disease- or defense-related genes. Furthermore, 323 (7％) ESTs were tentatively identified as being unique to hot pepper. This study represents the first analysis of sequence data from the hot pepper plant species. Although we focused on genes related to the plant defense response, our data will be useful for future comparative studies.
Isolation and Partial Characterization of Phytotoxic Mycotoxins Produced by Sclerotinia sp., a Potential Bioherbicide for the Control of White Clover(Trifoliorum repens)
Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Lee, Bong-Choon ; Jung, Won-Kwon ; Bae, Soon-Do ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.052
Sclerotinia sp. (isolate BWC98-105) causes stem blight and root rot in Leghum sp., and is presently being evaluated as a potential mycoherbicide for the control of Trifoliorium repens. Bioassays have shown that Sclerotinia sp. produces phytotoxic substance which is biologically active against T. repens. Two biologically active compounds, designated as compoundsI and II, were produced in vitro from the culture filtrate of BWC98-105 isolate Sclerotium sp. Compounds I and II were purified by means of liquid-liquid extraction and
open column chromatography (300
30 mm, i.d). To determine the purity, the purified compounds were analyzed by RP-HPLC. The analytical RP-HPLC column was a TOSOH ODS-120T (150
4.6 mm i.d, Japan), of which the flow rate was set at 0.7 mL/min using the linear gradient solvent system initiated with 15 % methanol to 85 % methanol for 50 min with monitoring at 254 nm. Under these RP-HPLC conditions, compounds I and II eluted at 3.49 and 4.13 min, respectively. Compound II was found to be most potent and host specific. However, compound I had a unique antibiotic activity against phytopathogenic bacteria like bacterial leaf blight (Xanthomonas oryzae) on rice, where it played a less important role in producing toxicity on T. repens. No toxin activity was detected in the water fraction after partitioning with several organic solvents. However, toxin activity was detected in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. In the leaf bioassay using compound II, the disease first appeared within 4-5 h as water soaked rot, which subsequently developed into well-defined blight affecting the whole plant.
Pathogenicity and Host Range of a Potential Mycoherbicide, Isolate BWC98-105, Causing White Root Rot on Trifoliorum repens
Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Cho, Jae-Min ; Lee, Bong-Choon ; Song, Seok-Bo ; Park, Sung-Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 58~62
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.058
White root rot of wild white clover (Trifoliorum repens) caused by isolate BWC98-105 has been first reported in Korea. Typical symptoms on root include water-soaked and dark-brown rot, resulting in complete blight of the whole plant. The fungus grew well at
and produced abundant sclerotia at 10-15 days after full mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar. Sclerotia were brown to dark-brown in color and 1-3 mm in length. When white clover plants were inoculated with mycelial suspension (
cfu/ml) of isolate BWC98-105, the plant shoots were killed within 4-6 days and the roots were completely blighted. Sclerotia were also formed on the surface of the root covered with whitish mycelia within 10-15 days in the field. All nine isolates developed high incidences of white root rot disease on white clover seedlings, of which the symptoms were similar to those observed in the fields. Hence, their pathogenicity was confirmed on white clover. The infection rate of the fungal isolates varied from 78.5% to 95.2%, among which BWC98-105 was the most virulent isolate. The weeding efficacy of the fungus was maintained until the following year, leading to a significant reduction of reshooting. The fungus was specifically parasitic to white clover, but not to four lawn species including zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) under greenhouse test. The fungus also had no response to some Gramineae species including rice, but caused little damage to five species of Leguminosae.
Bacillus spp. as Biocontrol Agents of Root Rot and Phytophthora Blight on Ginseng
Bae, Yeoung-Seuk ; Park, Kyungseok ; Kim, Choong-Hoe ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 63~66
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.063
Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is one of the most widely cultivated medicinal herbs in Korea. However, yield losses reached up to 30-60％ due to various diseases during 3 or 5 years of ginseng cultivation in the country. Therefore, successful production of ginseng roots depends primarily on the control of diseases. The objective of this study was to select potential biocontrol agents from rhizobacteria isolated from various plant internal root tissues for the control of multiple ginseng diseases as an alternative to fungicides. Among 106 Bacillus strains, two promising biocontrol agents, Bacillus pumilus strain B1141 and Paenibacillus lentimobus strain B1146, were selected by screening against root rot of ginseng caused by Cylindrocarpon destructans in a greenhouse. Pre-inoculation of selected isolates to seed or l-year-old root of ginseng resulted in stimulation of shoot and/or root growth of seedlings, and successfully controlled root rot caused by C. destructans (P<0.05). Furthermore, drenching of cell suspension of the selected isolates on seedling-growing pots reduced the incidence of Phytophthora blight after the seedlings were challenged with zoospores of Phytophthora cactorum (P<0.05). P. lentimorbus strain B1146 showed antifungal activity against various soil-borne pathogens in vitro, while B. pumilus strain B1141 did not show any. Results of this study suggest that some rhizobacteria can induce resistance against various plant diseases on ginseng.
Effect of Temperature and Leaf Wetness Period on the Components of Resistance to Late Leaf Spot Disease in Groundnut
Pande, Suresh ; Rajesh, T.Ratna ; Kishore, G.Krishna ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.067
A complete understanding of the epidemiological factors required for optimum for disease development facilitates the design of effective and reliable screening techniques and also disease prediction models. An attempt was made to study the effects of different temperatures (
) and leaf wetness periods (4-24 h) on the development of late leaf spot (LLS) in three groundnut genotypes differing in their susceptibility to LLS infection. Irrespective of the genotype, the disease progress evaluated based on different components of resistance was maximum between
and minimum between
. At temperatures
, LLS development was insignificant. The overall severity of LLS increased with an increase in the leaf wetness period from 4 h to 12 h a day. Further increase of wetness period to 16 h resulted in a rapid increase in the severity. Thereafter, the disease severity gradually decreased with an increase in the wetness period. The effect of temperature and wetness periods on the individual component of disease quantification was not uniform compared between genotypes with different levels of susceptibility/resistance to LLS infection. The results of this study indicate that temperature and leaf wetness period are critical in late leaf spot screening programs since the expression of disease symptoms measured from disease initiation till defoliation, varied differently in the test genotypes with respect to change in these two parameters.
Combined Application of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride has an Improved Biocontrol Activity Against Stem Rot in Groundnut
Manjula, K. ; Kishore, G.Krishna ; Girish, A.G. ; Singh, S.D. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 1, 2004, Pages 75~80
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.1.075
In an attempt to develop effective biocontrol system for management of stem rot disease in groundnut, 57 bacterial isolates and 13 isolates of Trichoderma spp. were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii. The antagonists were selected based on their ability to inhibit the external growth of S. rolfsii from infected groundnut seeds. Four isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens, GB 4, GB 8, GB 10 and GB 27, and T. viride pq 1 were identified as potent antagonists of S. rolfsii. T. viride pq 1 produced extracellular chitinase and parasitized the mycelium of S. rolfsii. Under controlled environment conditions, P. fluorescens GB 10, GB 27, T. viride pq 1 and the systemic fungicide Thiram(equation omitted) reduced the mortality of S. rolfsii inoculated to groundnut seedlings by 58.0％, 55.9％, 70.0％ and 25.9％, respectively compared to control. In vitro growth of P. fluorescens GB 10 and GB 27 was compatible with T. viride pq 1 and Thiram(equation omitted). Integrated use of these two bacterial isolates with T. viride pq 1 or Thiram(equation omitted) improved their biocontrol efficacy. Combined application of either GB 10 or GB 27 with T. viride pq 1 was significantly effective than that with Thiram(equation omitted) in protecting groundnut seedlings from stem rot infection.