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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Effect of Triiodobenzoic Acid on Broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) Infection and Development in Tomato Plants
Harb, Amal M. ; Hameed, Khalid M. ; Shibli, Rida A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 81~84
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.081
Branched broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) is a holo-parasitic flowering plant that attaches to the root of its host, green plant, by means of a specialized structure known as haustorium. Following successful contact and penetration on susceptible plant root, complex tissue of Orobanche cells is formed which is known as the tubercle. Newly formed tubercles contain high activity ofindole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), as an inhibitor of IAA polar transport, was utilized to investigate the supply and requirement of auxin to the developing O. ramosa on tomato plant. There was no significant reduction in the incidence of O. ramosa per pot of different TIBA treatments. However, infection severity in terms of the number of O. ramosa shoots that emerged per plant and number of attachments per plant root system were significantly reduced by 60 % and 45 % on TIBA treated plants, respectively. Histo-logical studies revealed conspicuous delay in the initiation of xylem vessel differentiation inside tubercles of the TIBA treated tomato plants. Also, differentiated vessels showed thinner secondary wall deposition, and improper alignment within bundles inside those tubercles. They were wider and shorter in diameter in comparison to those of untreated plants. These findings were attri-buted to the short supply of IAA required for normal development, and to the xylem vessel differentiation of O. ramosa tubercles on infected tomato. Hence, this parasitic flowering plant seems to depend upon its host in its requirements for IAA, in a source to sink relation-ship.
Gray Leaf Spot in Peppers Caused by Stemphylium solani and S. lycopersici
Kim, Byung-Soo ; Yu, Seung-Hun ; Cho, Hyun-Jung ; Hwang, Hee-Suk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.085
A disease causing severe leaf spots in pepper plants has been observed in northern Gyeongbuk and Gangwon provinces in Korea since 1994. The current study diagnosed the disease as gray leaf spot caused by Stemphylium solani Weber and S. lycopersici (Enjoji) Yamamoto, both of which are pathogenic in pepper and tomato plants. Although the disease has been found in almost all areas where peppers are grown, it is more severe in mountain terrains where the nights are cool. Both species of pathogenic fungi were found to sporu-late profusely on V-8 juice agar in plastic or Pyrex glass Petri dishes, although not in domestically-produced glass Petri dishes, when cultured at
under irradi-ation from a daylight fluorescent lamp with a 12-hour light and dark alternation. The domestically-produced glass Petri dishes, which are made of window glass, were found to block near ultraviolet wavelengths, around and below 300 nm, which explained why the fungi did not sporulate. However, sporulation decreased at above
and most isolates failed to sporulate above
. The worst level of disease was obtained when the inoculated plants were incubated with a
day temperature regime relative to 4 night/day temperature combinations (15/20, 20/25, 25/30, and 30/35
Cultural and Rainfall Factors Involved in Disease Development of Fusarium Wilt of Sweet Potato
Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Cha, Kwang-Hong ; Lee, Doo-Goo ; Shim, Hyeong-Kwon ; Ko, Sug-Ju ; Park, In-Jin ; Yang, Kwang-Yeol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 92~96
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.092
Environmental factors such as soil moisture, land management, and weather conditions affecting Fusarium wilt of sweet potato were investigated in major sweet potato cultivation regions in Korea. Fusarium wilt occurred mainly in reclaimed terracing lands, which are flattened and located in hilly to mountainous areas at the base of the mountain, in early seasonal cultivation regions. Disease severity was lower in reclaimed fields with natural slope. The development of Fusarium wilt in the fields was highly correlated with precipitation during planting period (r=-0.96**). Fusarium wilt was more severe in fields with less than 20 cm of available soil depth than in fields with over 20 cm of available soil depth. Greenhouse studies were consistent with field studies that less soil moisture content caused severe Fusarium wilt of sweet potato. These results indicate that low rainfall and moisture of soil with low effective soil depth during planting period are important environmental factors influencing the development of Fusarium wilt.
Colonization and Population Changes of a Biocontrol Agent, Paenibacillus polymyxa E681, in Seeds and Roots
Park, Okhee ; Kim, Jinwoo ; Ryu, Choong-Min ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.097
Paenibacillus polymyxa E681, with its plant growth promotion and root colonization ability, has been proven to be a promising biocontrol agent of cucumber and barley. This study investigated the attributes related to the movement of bacteria from the seed to the radicle and to the whole root system. It also illustrated the existing form and population changes of the bacteria on seed and root using the scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The bacteria invaded and colonized the inside of the seed coat while the seeds were soaked in bacterial suspension. Almost the same number of bacteria on seed surface invaded the inside of the seed coat right after seed soaking. The population densities of E681 increased greatly inside as well as on the surface of the seed before the radicle emerged. The bacteria attached on the emerging radicle directly affected the initial population of newly emerg-ing root. The colonized cells on the root were arranged linearly toward the elongation of the root axis. In addition to colonizing the root surface, strain E681 was found inside the roots, where cells colonized the inter-cellular space between certain epidermal and cortical cells. When the cucumber seeds were soaked in bacterial suspension and sown in pot, the bacterial populations attached on both the surface and inside of the root were sustained up to harvesting time. This means that E681 successfully colonized the root of cucumber and sustained its population density up to harvesting time through seed treatment.
Stem Rot of Strawberry Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Shen, Shun-Shan ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 103~105
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.103
A destructive stem rot of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa cv. Akihime) sporadically occurred in farmers' fields in Daegok-myon, Jinju city, Gyeongnam province in Korea. The infected plants showed stem and crown rot, with occasional blighting of the whole plant. White mycelia appeared on stems of infected clones and sclerotia formed on the old lesions near soil surface. The fungus formed white colony on PDA and showed maximum mycelial growth and sclerotial formation at
. The fungus usually have many narrow hyphal strands, 2.6-10.0
in width, in the aerial mycelium. Typical clamp connections were formed on the mycelium. Sclerotia were spherical and 1.0-2.4 mm in size. The fungus was repeatedly isolated from infected tissues and identified as Sclerotium rolfsii. Its patho-genicity was confirmed when inoculated onto straw-berry. This is the first report on the stem rot of strawberry caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.
Leaf Blight of Ailanthus altissiman Caused by Phytophthora boehmeriae
Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Kim, Byung-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 106~109
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.106
A leaf blight disease was found on Ailanthus altissiman growing in the Manchon Mountain Park in Daegu city. When isolated, the causal fungus readily formed sex organs, being homothallic. Oogonia were spherical, 19.5-42.9
in diameter with an average of 29.4
. Antheridia were amphigynous, round to ovoid, and measured 11.3-15.0
long and 12.5-14.5
wide. Oospores in the oogonia were spherical, 26.1-29.0
in diameter. Sporangia that formed in water were spherical to sub-spherical with a conspicuous papilla and measured 19.5-56.6
with an average of 44.0
. The mean length/breadth (I/b) ratio was 1.35. Papillae were 3.9-11.7
l high and 3.9-9.8
wide. Sporangia formed slowly on V8 juice agar medium when cultured under fluorescent light at 12-hour alternation. The sporangia that formed on the agar medium were more spherical and measured 26.5-39.0
with an average of 33.6
and I/b ratio of 1.19. Disease symptom was repro-duced by artificial inoculation of the healthy plants with the isolate. The causal organism was identified as Phyto-phthora boehmeriae on the basis of its morphological characteristics.
In Vivo Screening for Biocontrol Agents (BCAs) against Streptomyces scabiei Causing Potato Common Scab
Lee, Hyang-Burm ; Cho, Jong-Wun ; Park, Dong-Jin ; Li, Chang-Tian ; Ko, Young-Hwan ; Song, Jeong-Heub ; Koh, Jeong-Sam ; Kim, Bum-Joon ; Kim, Chang-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 110~114
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.110
Through in vitro screening for biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Streptomyces scabiei causing potato (Solanum tuberosum) common scab, 19 streptomycete and 17 fungal isolates with antagonistic activity were selected as BCA candidates. For the selection of BCA candidates which are highly resistant to 10 kinds of antibiotics or pesticides, chemical susceptibility testing was initially performed in vitro. A remarkable degree of variation in susceptibility to antibiotics or pesticides was observed among the isolates tested. Streptomycete A020645 isolate was highly resistant to all the tested chemicals except neomycin up to 5,000 ppm. On the other hand, out of 36 antagonistic microbes subjected to in vivo pot tests using cultivar Daejima, four streptomycete isolates namely, A020645, A010321, A010564, and A020973, showed high antagonistic activity with >60% and 55% control value, respectively, and high chemical resistance to 10 kinds of chemicals. Therefore, these isolates were selected as potential BCAs for the control of potato common scab.
Isolation and Antifungal and Antioomycete Activity of Streptomyces scabiei Strain PK-A41, the Causal Agent of Common Scab Disease
Han, Won-Choon ; Lee, Jung-Yeop ; Park, Duck-Hwan ; Lim, Chun-Keun ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 115~126
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.115
The actinomycete strain PK-A41 was isolated from a soil sample from pepper fields in Ko-yang, Korea. The strain PK-A41 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi and oomycete, Alternaria mali, Colletotrichum orbiculare, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Magnaporthe grisea, Rhizoctonia solani, and Phytophthora capsici. The presence of LL-diaminopi-melic acid in the cell wall extract and the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA region of the strain PK-A41 was assigned to Streptomyces scabiei. Further morpho-logical, biochemical, and pathological analyses also confirmed the strain PK-A41 to be S. scabiei, which is pathogenic to potato tubers. The maximum antibiotic production of the strain PK-A41 was achieved when grown on the glycerol peptone broth (GPB) medium for 9 days.
Identification of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 Ampelovirus from Grapevines in Korea
Kim, Hyun-Ran ; Lee, Sin-Ho ; Lee, Bong-Choon ; Kim, Yeong-Tae ; Park, Jin-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 127~130
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.127
Grapevine leaf roll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) is one of the most important viral diseases of grapevine in the world. In this study, GLRaV-3 Ampelovirus was identi-fied from grapevines in Korea by analyzing viral coat protein size, nucleotide, and amino acid sequences. The molecular weight of viral coat protein from virus-infected in vitro plantlets was determined by western blot using a commercial GLRaV-3 polyclonal antibody. Western blot analysis showed a coat protein of about 43 kDa. RT-PCR product of about 942 bp which encoded the coat protein (CP) gene was amplified with specific primers. When the viruses existed at low titers in the host plant, the dsRNA had very specific template in RT- PCR amplification of fruit tree viruses. Especially, small-scale dsRNA extraction method was very reliable and rapid. Sequence analysis revealed that the CP of the GLRaV-3 Ko consisted of 942 bp nucleotide, which encoded 314 amino acid residues. The CP gene of GLRaV-3 Ko had 98.9% nucleotide sequence and 98.7% amino acid sequence identities with earlier reported GLRaV-3. This is the first report on molecular assay of GLRaV-3 Ampelovirus identified from Korea. The GLRaV-3 Ko CP clone would be very useful for breeding of virus resistant grapevines.
Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Water Chickweed(Stellaria aquatica)
Park, Gug-Seoun ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Park, Jang-Kyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 131~134
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.131
A strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was isolated from a weed, water chickweed (Stellaria aquatica), growing in the pepper field in Chunchon, Korea. This isolate, CMV-Sa, was differentiated from other CMVs based on biological properties and nucleotide sequence analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene. CMV-Sa showed different reactions to all the tested plants, except Capsicum annuum and Cucumis sativus, when compar-ed with those of CMV-Mf (subgroup I) and CMV-PaFM (subgroup II). Remarkably, in Nicotiana tabacum cvs. Samsun, Xanthi-nc and Ky-57, CMV-Sa induced local necrotic ring spots on the inoculated leaves and venal wave pattern and mosaic on the upper leaves. RNA analysis, serology, and RT-PCR of CP gene showed that CMV-Sa belonged to subgroup I of CMV. However, restriction enzyme analysis of the cDNA using AluI, HhaI, HincII, HindIII, HinfI and MspI showed that CMV-Sa was distinct from that of CMV-Mf. Based on comparison of the nucleotide of CP gene and deduced amino acid sequences between other CMV strains, CMV-Sa was closely related to CMV-Mf with 93.7% and 97.2 % identity, respectively.
Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Dasheen mosaic virus Isolated from Taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott) in Korea
Kim, Min-Kyu ; Kwon, Soon-Bae ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Heo, Su-Jeong ; Hong, Jeong-Ki ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Park, Jang-Kyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 135~141
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.135
A filamentous virus was isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta Schott) showing mosaic and chlorotic feather-ing symptoms in Chuncheon, Gangwon province in 2002. Based on ELISA, its appearance in electron microscope, serological relationships, and RT-PCR using specific primer and nucleotide sequence analysis of the CP gene, the isolated virus was identified as Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) and designated as Korean isolated (DsMV-Kr). DsMV was not serologically related to Zantedeschia mosaic virus (ZaMV), which has been reported to infect an Araceae plants. Since the coat protein revealed electrophoretic heterogeneity, about 42 kDa, 39 kDa and 31 kDa by SDS-PAGE, an improved purification method was established for the production of antisera against DsMV-Kr. The purification method used in this study may be effectively applied to the purification of other filamentous viruses.
Improvement of RT-PCR Sensitivity for Fruit Tree Viruses by Small-scale dsRNA Extraction and Sodium Sulfite
Lee, Sin-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Ran ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 142~146
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.142
Woody plant tissues contain great amounts of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides. These substances inhibit the activation of reverse transcriptase and/or Taq polymerase in RT-PCR. The commonly used multiple-step protocols using several additives to diminish polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are time consuming and laborious. In this study, sodium sulfite was evaluated as an additive for nucleic acid extraction from woody plants and the efficiency of RT-PCR assay of commercial nucleic acid extraction kits and small-scale dsRNA extraction was compared. Sodium sulfite was used as an inhibitor against polyphenolic oxidases and its effects were compared in RNA extraction by commercial extraction kit and small-scale double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extraction method for RT-PCR. During nucleic acid extraction, addition of 0.5%-1.5%(w/v) of sodium sulfite to lysis buffer or STE buffer resulted in lighter browning by oxidation than extracts without sodium sulfite and improved the RT-PCR detection. When commercial RNA extraction kit was used, optimal concentrations of sodium sulfite were variable according to the tested plant. However, with dsRNA as RT-PCR template, sodium sulfite 1.5% in STE buffer improved the detection efficiency of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) in fruit trees, and reduced the unspecific amplifications signi-ficantly. Furthermore, when viruses existed at low titers in host plant, small-scale dsRNA extractions were very reliable.
RT-PCR Detection of Three Non-reported Fruit Tree Viruses Useful for Quarantine Purpose in Korea
Park, Mi-Ri ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 147~154
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.147
A simple and reliable procedure for RT-PCR detection of Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV), and Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) was developed. Two virus specific primer sets for each virus were found to specifically detect each virus among fourteen sets of designed oligonucleotide primers. Total RNAs extracted from healthy and from ASPV-,CRLV- and CNRMV-infected plant tissues were used to synthesize cDNA using oligo dT primer and then amplified by virus-specific primers for each virus. Each primer specifically amplified DNA fragments of 578 bp and 306 bp products for ASPV (prAS CP-C and prAS CP-N primers, respectively); 697 bp and 429 bp products for CRLV (prCR4 and prCR5-JQ3D3 primers, respectively); and 370 bp and 257 bp products for CNRMV (prCN4 and prCN6-NEG 1 primers, respec-tively) by RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of amplified DNA fragments confirmed the nature of each amplified DNA. Altogether, these results suggest that these virus specific primer sets can specifically amplify viral sequences in infected tissues and thus indicate that they can be used for specific detection of each virus.
dsRNA Analysis and Sequence of S12 to Rice dwarf virus Korean Isolate
Lee, Bong-Choon ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ; Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Cho, Hyun-Je ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Kim, Soon-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 155~157
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.155
We isolated Rice dwarf virus (RDV) from infected plants in rice fields (Korea, Japan, China, the Philippines and Nepal) and analyzed their genomic dsRNAs by polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis. The genomic dsRNAs of the isolates showed distinct electrophoretic mobility profiles. The S12 coding to nonstructural protein of Korean isolate (RDV-Kr) was further analyzed by sequencing. The S12 of RDV-Kr was 1,066bp long and coded for a protein composed of 312 amino acids including three open reading frames of P12, P120Pa and P120Pb. The sequence identities were 96% and 98.6% with Japanese isolates (H, AN), 94.7% with Nepalese isolate (NEL), 94% with Chinese isolate (CK) and the Philippines isolate (P).
Application of a Promoter Isolated from Chlorella Virus in Chlorella Transformation System
Park, Hyoun-Hyang ; Park, Tae-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 2, 2004, Pages 158~163
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.2.158
Chlorella is a eukaryotic microalgae which shares metabolic pathways with higher plants. These charac-teristics make chlorella a potential candidate for eukaryotic overexpression systems. Recently, a foreign flounder growth hormone gene was stably introduced and expressed in transformed Chlorella ellipsoidea by using a modified plant transformation vector that contains cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S pro-moter and the phleomycin resistant Sh ble gene as a selection marker. In this study, this same vector was modified by incorporating a promoter and a 3' UTR region of the 33kDa peptide gene from a chlorella virus that was isolated in our laboratory. The 33kDa gene promoter was used to replace the 35S promoter and the 3' UTR was introduced to separate the target gene and downstream Sh ble gene. Three different chlorella transformation vectors containing human erythropoietin (EPO) gene were constructed. The mp335EPO vector consists of a promoter from the 33kDa peptide gene, whereas the mp3353EPO vector contains the same promoter from the 33kDa peptide gene and its 3' UTR. The mp35S33pEPO vector contains the 35S promoter and the 3' UTR from the 33 kDa peptide gene. There was no significant difference in the expression levels of EPO protein in chlorella cells transformed with either of three of the transformation vectors. These data indicate that the promoters from the chlorella virus are comparable to the most common CaMV 35S promoter. Furthermore, these data suggest that other promoters from this virus can be used in future construction of chlorella transformation system for higher expression of target proteins.