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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
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Phytophthora Rot on Sword Bean Caused by Phytophthora nicotianae
Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Shen, Shun-Shan ; Park, Chang-Seuk ; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 235~239
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.235
Phytophthora rot on sword bean, Canavalia gladiata, which has not been reported yet in Korea, occurred in some fields of Jinju in 2003. The disease develops on the basal stem of the plant, but is also often observed on leaves and pods. Rot lesions begin with small dark brown spots and as these are water-soaked, they enlarge rapidly. The magnitude of at the field reached 40%. Abundant sporangia of Phytophthora were formed on the surface of diseased pods and were mummied later. The causal fungus was identified as P. nicotianae with the following mycological characteristics: Sporangium-readily formed in water, papillate, noncaducous, ovoid to spherical, 24-58 (L)
22-35 (W) in size; Oogonium-spherical, smooth walled, and 22-30; Oospore- aplerotic, spherical, and 18-24; Antheridium- amphigynous, unicellula, and spherical; Chlamydospore- abundant, spherical, and 25-35; Sexuality- heterothallic, and A1 or A2; Optimum growth temperature- about 28
The fungus showed strong pathogenicity to sword bean. Symptoms similar to those observed in the fields appeared 2 days and 4 days after inoculation with and without wound on pods. This is the first report of Phytophthora rot of sword bean in Korea.
A New Method for Sclerotial Isolation of Two Species of Sclerotium from Infested Soils
Kwon, Mi-Kyung ; Shim, Hong-Sik ; Yeh, Wan-Hae ; Kim, Taek-Soo ; Cho, Weon-Dae ; Kim, Choong-Hoe ; Kim, Yong-Ki ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 240~243
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.240
White rot on Allium crops recently had a high incidence with incrensed cultivating areas of tropical garlic types in Korea. Two types of Sclerotium have known as causal agents that produce different size and shapes of sclerotia in infested fields. Therefore, we developed a new method for isolation of sclerotia from infested field soils that can be used for ecological study of Sclerotium spp. and establishment of control strategy. Soil samples collected from heavily infested fields were evenly mixed and placed on a automatic sieve shaker connected with tap water, After 10 min of shaking, residues on 0.5 mm and 0.25 mm sieves were separately collected and suspended with 70% sugar solution, which method floats sclerotia in aqueous layer, Then, floated fraction was carefully separated and mixed with a same volume of 1% sodium hypochlorite solution to differentiate with organic materials. This method provides a direct count of sclerotia under a dissecting microscopy.
Sectors from Phyricularia grisea Isolates on Edifenphos and Iprobenfos-Amended Media
Kim, Yun-Sung ; Baik, Jong-Min ; Kim, Eui-Nam ; Kim, Ki-Deok ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 244~246
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.244
Sectors of rice blast fungus, Pyricularia grisea, frequently appeared on potato dextrose agar amended with edifenphos and iprobenfos. Thus, we assessed the sector-forming frequency of isolates of P. grisea and compared the fungicide sensitivity between wild types and sectors against the fungicides. The 905 isolates of the fungus were obtained from rice-growing locations in Korea from 1997-1998. When the isolates were grown on potato dextrose agar amended with minimal inhibitory concentrations of edifenphos (20
g a.i./ml)and iprobenfos (55
g a.i./ml), they produced sectors that overcame the effect of the fungicides. Among the 905 isolates tested, 9.0% produced sectors against edifenphos and 5.6%, against iprobenfos. Different sector-forming frequencies were also observed among the 11 locations of Korea. Sectors obtained from the fungicide-amended media generally grew more than their counterpart wild types grown on the media with either edifenphos or iprobenfos, regardless of their origins. In this study, greater relative growth of sectors over wild types of tested isolates can support the resistant characteristic of the fungus to survive against the fungicides. Therefore, the results indicate that the sectoring in rice blast fungus, P. grisea, may play a role in the occurrence of fungicide resistance.
Early Detection of Epiphytic Anthracnose Inoculum on Phyllosphere of Diospyros kaki var. domestica
Lee, Jung-Han ; Han, Ki-Soo ; Lee, Sun-Cheol ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Bae, Dong-Won ; Kim, Dong-Kil ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 247~251
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.247
We developed a polyclonal antibody (PAh) based- ELISA system to accurately and rapidly monitor inocula on plant surface before onset of anthracnose. Titer of mouse antisera against conidia of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was determined by using indirect ELISA. It was high enough to be detectable up to
12,800 dilutions. Absorbance readings exceeded (1.5even at a 10
dilution. Sensitivity of PAb was precise enough to detect spore concentration as low as 50 conidia/well by indirect ELISA. PAb1 and PAb2 proved to be very sensitive and highly specific to the target pathogen, C. gloeosporioides, apparently discriminating other unrelated pathogens, or epiphytes. Absorbance values for original isolate exceeded 1.0, but no reaction was detected with other isolates, except three other anthracnose fungi: C. gloeosporioides (pepper strain), Glomerella cingulata (apple strain) and C. lagenarium. Our data suggest that PAb1 and PAb2 bind with the protein epitope that partially contains residues of amino acid, arginine, and Iysine. This kit fulfills the require-ments for detecting inoculums before infection and during onset of anthracnose on sweet persimmon.
Developing Polyclonal Antibody-based Indirect-ELISA to Detect Anthracnose Inocula Prior to Soybean Sprout Rot
Park, Soo-Bong ; Lim, Young-Ji ; Lee, Jung-Han ; Han, Ki-Soo ; Lee, Sun-Cheol ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kang, Jin-Ho ; Bae, Dong-Won ; Kim, Dong-Kil ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 252~257
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.252
We developed a polyclonal antibody based-ELISA system to monitor inocula accurately and rapidly before onset of anthracnose on soybean sprouts. Titer of mouse antisera against conidia of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, determined by indirect ELISA, was high enough to be detectable up to
25,600 dilutions. Both PAb1 and PAb2 had the highest level of reactivity to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Absorbance readings exceeded 0.15. Sensitivity of PAb to C. gloeosporioides was precise enough to detect spore concentration as low as 500 conidia/well by indirect ELISA. Both antibodies are very sensitive and highly specific to the target pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, apparently discriminating other unrelated pathogen, or epiphytes. This kit fulfills the requirements far detecting inocula before infection and onset of anthracnose. Our ELISA system should also be feasible to detect C. acutatum (Mungbean sprouts rot) and G. cingulata (C. gleosporioides), (apple, pepper). It was remarkable that absorbance value was not reduced even after 4 consecutive washings (Fig.4), suggesting that antigenic determinants are on the surface of conidia. Antigenic determinant was characterized by heating and enzyme treatment: Both PAb1 and PAb2 bind to protein epitope that does not contain residue of amino acid, arginine, and Iysine, even though more work needs to be done.
Differential Induction of PepTLP Expression via Complex Regulatory System against Fungal Infection, Wound, and Jasmonic Acid Treatment during Pre-and Post-Ripening of Nonclimacteric Pepper Fruit
Jeon, Woong-Bae ; Kim, Kwang-Sang ; Lee, Hyun-Hwa ; Cheong, Soo-Jin ; Cho, Song-Mi ; Kim, Sun-Min ; Pyo, Byoung-Sik ; Kim, Ynung-Soon ; Oh, Boung-Jun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 258~263
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.258
Ripe fruit of pepper (Capsicum annuum) showed resistance to Colletotrichum gloeoporioides, but unripe fruit was susceptible. We previously isolated the PepTLP gene that induced in both unripe and ripe fruit by fungal infection and wound, and only in ripe fruit by jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. To examine further regulation of PepTLP, the action of specific agonist and antagonists of known signaling effector on the .PepTLP expression by fungal infection, wound, and JA was investigated. A similar dephosphorylation event negatively activated all the PepTLP expression in the ripe fruit by fungal infection, wound, and JA. The induction of PepTLP expression by wound is differentially regulated via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation step during pre- and post-ripening, respectively. In addition, the induction of PepTLP expression in the ripe fruit by wound and JA is differentially regulated via dephosphorylation and phosphorylation step, respectively. Only both wound and JA treatment has synergistic effect on the PepTLP expression in the unripe fruit. Both SA and JA treatments on the unripe fruit, and both wound or JA and SA on the ripe fruit could not do any effect on the expression of PepTLP. These results suggest that the induction of PepTLP expression is differentially regulated via complex regulatory system against fungal infection, wound, and JA treatment during pre- and post-ripening of pepper fruit.
Genetic Variation in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fagariae Populations Based RAPD and rDNA RFLP Analyses
Nagaraian, Gopal ; Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Song, Jeong-Young ; Yoo, Sung-Joon ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 264~270
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.264
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae is a fungal pathogen causing strawberry wilt disease. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of intergenic spacer (IGS) region of rDNA were used to identify genetic variation among 22 F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae isolates. All isolates could be distinguished from each other by RAPD analysis and RFLP of 2.6 kb amplified with primer CNS1 and CNL12 for IGS region of rDNA. Cluster analysis using UPGMA showed eight distinct clusters based on the banding patterns obtained from RAPD and rDNA RFLP. These results indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae isolates are genetically distinct from each other, There was a high level genetic variation among F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae.
Aphelenchus avenae and Antagonistic Fungi as Biological Control Agents of Pythium spp.
Jun, Ok-Kyoung ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 271~276
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.271
To examine the control effect of damping-off on radish caused by Pythium spp., researchers used the isolates of a fungivorous nematode, Aphelenchus avenae, and antagonistic fungi, Trichoderma spp. These were used as biocontrol agents, either alone, or in combination. Growth rates of the A. avenae isolates and fungal damages by the nematodes varied depending on Trichoderma spp., which contained lower T. koningii and T. virens cultures than other Trichoderma cultures. Phythium spp. were damaged by all five Aphelenchus isolates, but the multiplication rate of nematode isolate Aa-3 was very poor. Antibiotic activity of T. virens and T. harzianum to Pythium spp. was stronger than that of T. koningii. Control efficacy against damping-off of radish was most enhanced under the treatment using the nematode-T. harzianum combination. On the contrary, the combinations of the nematodes and T. virens or T. koningii mostly did not increase or decreased their control effect vis-
-vis that of the nematodes or antagonistic fungi being used alone. The results suggest that the fungivorous nematodes may play a leading role in the disease control, and that the activity of the fungivorous nematodes may be activated by T. harzianum, but inhibited by T. koningii and T.virens.
Effect of Potassium Silicate Amendments in Hydroponic Nutrient Solution on the Suppressing of Phytophthora Blight (Phytophthora capsici) in Pepper
Seo, Sang-Tae ; Wang, T.C. ; Jang, Han-Ik ; Pae, Do-Ham ; Engle, L.M. ; Lee, Jung-Sup ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 277~282
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.277
Amendments of a recirculating nutrient solution with potassium silicate were evaluated as a means to control Phytophthora capsici infections on pepper plant(Capsicum annuum L.). Supplying the solutions with 100 or 200 ppm of silicate significantly reduced motility, root decay, and yield losses attributed to infection of P. capsici. Treating inoculated plants with potassium silicate increased root dry weights and number of fruit, especially high-grade fruit. Results were slightly superior to non-inoculated controls. The two varieties, PBC 137 and PBC 602, responded similarly to the treatments. No significant differences were observed between the 100- and 200 ppm silicate treatments. Results were better when greenhouse conditions favored the spread of P. capsici. Silicon alone did not increase pepper yield, suggesting that it acts as a disease suppression agent rather than as a fertilizer, The phenomena by which silicon confers protection against P. capsici infection and disease development are not fully understood, but our results indicate that mechanisms other than a mechanical barrier to fungal penetration are involved.
Characterization of Korean Erwinia carotovora Strains from Potato and Chinese Cabbage
Seo, Sang-Tae ; Koo, Jun-Hak ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Lim, Chun-Keun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 283~288
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.283
Four Erwinia carotovora strains isolated from potatoes showing blackleg symptoms and rotted Chinese cabbage were analysed by biochemical tests and sequence analysis of 16S rDNA and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS) regions, and the data were compared to related E. carotovora strains. Based on the results of the biochemical tests and sequence analysis, 2 of the 4 strains were identified as E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc), whereas the rest strains were distinct from Ecc. The last two strains, HCC3 and JEJU, were biochemically similar to E, carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Eca). However, the results of sequence analysis and Eca-specific PCR assays showed that the strains were distinct from Eca. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis, HCC3 and JEJU strains were placed in E. carotovora subsp. odorifera and E. carotovora subsp. wasabiae, respectively. The results of sequence analysis and specific PCR assay for Eca indicated that Asian Eca strains were distinct from European Eca strains, although they were phenotycally homogeneous.
Relationship between the Population of Ralstonia solanacearum in Soil and the Incidence of Bacterial Wilt in the Naturally Infested Tobacco Fields
Chung, Yun-Hwa ; Yu, Yun-Hyun ; Kang, Yue-Gyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 289~292
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.289
The population of Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) in soil is very important as a primary inoculum source of bacterial wilt in tobacco fields. To investigate the population of Rs, physical properties and chemical components during the tobacco growing season, soil samples were taken from the fifteen fields which were located in the flue-cured tobacco growing area, Ansung, Kyunggi province and Wonju, Kangwon province. Two fields of the fifteen were bacterial wilt free. Six fields had less than 10% plants being diseased and seven over 10%. The Rs population level determined by using SMSA medium generally showed an up-and-down pattern being low in May, high in Jun and July and low in August. The soil population in May and June showed a positive correlation with the incidence of bacterial wilt (r=0.571
), but P
, content of soil was negatively correlated with the disease incidence (r=-0.539
). These results suggest that Rs population in soil examined in May or in June, and the P
content in soil should be key factors to determine the bacterial wilt potential of tobacco fields.
Inhibitory Effects of Acinetobacter sp. KTB3 on Infection of Tobacco mosaic virus in Tobacco Plants
Kim, Young-Sook ; Hwang, Eui-ll ; O, Jeong-Hun ; Kim, Kab-Sig ; Ryu, Myong-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 293~296
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.293
During the screening of antiviral substances having inhibitory effects on Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection on tobacco plants, we found a bacterial isolate KTB3, and identified it as Acinetobacter sp. which strongly inhibited the infection of TMV When the culture filtrate from KTB3 was applied on the upper surface of the Xanthi-nc tobacco leaves at the same time, or 24 hours before TMV inoculation, almost complete inhibition was achieved. Likewise, 86% inhibition was achieved, when the culture filtrate was applied on the underside of the leaves. In field trials, transmission of TMV from diseased seedlings to healthy ones during transplanting work was reduced by 92%, when the culture filtrate was sprayed onto the tobacco seedlings, cv. NC82, 24 hours before transplanting. No toxic effect was observed on the tobacco plants. Antiviral substance from the culture filtrate was purified by ethanol precipitation, dialysis, DEAE-cellulose, and Sephadex G75 gel column chromatography. The partially purified active material which showed positive color reaction to sugar and protein inhibited TMV infection by 60% at 1
Characterization of Tomato spotted wilt virus from Paprika in Korea
Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 297~301
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.297
A Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV-KP) was isolated from Paprika (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) showing necrosis spot on the leaves and malformation of the fruit in Yesan, Korea. The virus infected Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Petunia hybrida, Nicotiana glutunosa, Gomphrena globosa, and Physalis floridana. Ten plants including tomato were observed to have systemic TWSV-KP infection. The virus produced necrosis or necrotic ring spots on the inoculated leaves and mosaic, vein necrosis or death on the upper leaves of Datura stramonium, N. clevarandii, N. rustica, and N.tabacum cvs. Thin sections of the infected leaf tissue contained spherical to oval particles, a characteristic of a Tospovirus. The virion contained three molecules of genomic RNAs, which were approximately 9.0, 4.9 and 3.0 kb. The nucleocapsid (N) protein of the purified virion migrated as a single band with molecular weight of about 29 kDa in SDS-PAGE. The N gene of TSWV-KP showed 96.5-97.2% and 97.7-98.5% identities to the three different TSWV isolates of Genbank Database at the nucleotide and amino acid, respectively.
Development of Molecular Detection of Three Species of Seed-Transmissible Viruses Useful for Plant Quarantine
Lee, Bo-Young ; Lim, Hee-Rae ; Choi, Ji-Yong ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 302~307
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.302
Three pairs of specific primers were developed for rapid and precise RT-PCR detection of three seed-transmissible viruses, namely Peanut clump virus (PCV, Pecluvirus), White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV, Potexvirus) and Carrot red leaf virus (CaRLV, Luteovirus). Each primer set was found in conserved region through multiple sequence alignment in the DNAMAN. Total nucleic acids extracted from PCV-, WCMV-, and CaRLV-infected seeds and healthy plants were used for RT-PCR detection using each virus-specific primer, Sizes of PCV, WCIMV, and CaRLV PCR products were 617bp (PCV-uni5 and PCV-uni3 primers), 561bp (WCMV-CP5 and WCMV-CP3 primers), and 626bp (CL1-UP and CL2-DN primers); which corresponded to the target sizes. Nucleotides sequences of each amplified cDNA were confirmed which belonged to the original virus. This study suggests that these virus-specific primer sets can specifically amplify viral sequences in infected seeds. Thus, they can be used for specific detection of three viruses (PCV, WCMV and CaRLV) from imported seed samples for plant quarantine service.
The Application of RNA Transcript Conformation Polymorphism in Resolving Mixed Infection of PVY Isolates
Maslenin, Ludmila ; Rosner, Arie ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 308~312
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.308
A method based on RNA-transcript conformation polymorphism (TCP) was tested for detection of two PVY isolates in a mixed infection. Differences in electrophoretic mobility of RNA transcripts copied from PCR products of each virus isolate enabled the distinction between the two virus isolates in a mixed infection. The identities of the RNA transcripts and hence of the infecting virus isolates were determined by annealing to reference oligonucleotides containing unique strain-specific sequences visualized by retardation of transcript mobility in gel. The ratio at which both virus isolates could be detected was as low as 1:10. The suitability of this procedure for the study of mixed virus infections is discussed.
Cloning and Sequencing of Coat Protein Gene of the Korean Isolate of Rice stripe virus
Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Kwak, Do-Yeon ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Choi, Jo-Im ; Lee, Key-Woon ; Lee, Bong-Choon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 20, issue 4, 2004, Pages 313~315
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2004.20.4.313
The coat protein gene of Korean isolate of Ricer stripe virus (RSV-Kr) was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Total RNA was extracted from infected leaves and RSV viral RNA was detected by using RT-PCR with specific primer of coat protein gene. The result of RT-PCR showed a specific band. Purified RT-PCR products of coat protein gene were ligated into the pGEM-T Easy plasmid vector and cloned cDNA was obtained for nucleotide sequence determination. Coat protein gene of RSV-Kr consisted of 969 bp long encoding a protein of 322 amino acids. RSV-Kr showed 94%-99% sequence identities to that of Japanese- and Chinese isolates.