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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jan 2005
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Damage Analysis of Rice Panicle Blast on Disease Occurrence Time and Severity
Shim, Hong-Sik ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Yeh, Wan-Hae ; Han, Seong-Sook ; Sung, Jae-Mo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 87~92
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.087
The structural differences between healthy and diseasedpanicle necks caused by Pyricularia oryzae were observed using electron-microscope. In the diseased panicle neck, the infection hyphae of the rice blast pathogen grew through the sclerenchymatous fiber tissue and reached to the central internal lacuna. Since the pathogen grew through the sclerenchymatous fiber tissues, the vascular bundle composed with xylem and phloem had been destroyed and finally the nutrients from the leaf and stem were not able to be transported into the grains. Infection of panicle base by the blast pathogen until 20 days after heading caused more than 50% of yield loss in both Jinmibyeo and Chucheongbyeo. There was a positive correlation between incidence of the panicle blast and rice yield losses. The regression equations between incidence of the panicle blast and yield losses were y= -3.61+496.7 (
=0.70) in Jinmibyeoand y=-3.93+520.2 (
=0.82) in Juanbyeo. The panicleblast caused deterioration of grain quality. Healthy grain rate was reduced by increase of panicle blast infection.
Metagenome, the Untapped Microbial Genome, toward Discovery of Novel Microbial Resources and Application into the Plant Pathology
Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.093
Molecular ecological studies of microbial communities revealed that only tiny fraction of total microorganisms in nature have been identified and characterized, because the majority of them have not been cultivated. A concept, metagenome, represents the total microbial genome in natural ecosystem consisting of genomes from both culturable microorganisms and viable but non-culturable bacteria. The construction and screening of metagenomic libraries in culturable bacteria constitute a valuable resource for obtaining novel microbial genes and products. Several novel enzymes and antibiotics have been identified from the metagenomic approaches in many different microbial communities. Phenotypic analysis of the introduced unknown genes in culturable bacteria could be an important way for functional genomics of unculturable bacteria. However, estimation of the number of clones required to uncover the microbial diversity from various environments has been almost impossible due to the enormous microbial diversity and various microbial population structure. Massive construction of metagenomic libraries and development of high throughput screening technology should be necessary to obtain valuable microbial resources. This paper presents the recent progress in metagenomic studies including our results and potential of metagenomics in plant pathology and agriculture.
The Hypersensitive Response. A Cell Death during Disease Resistance
Park, Jeong-Mee ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 99~101
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.099
Host cell death occurs during many, but not all, interactions between plants and the pathogens that infect them. This cell death can be associated with disease resistance or susceptibility, depending on the nature of the pathogen. The most well-known cell death response in plants is the hypersensitive response (HR) associated with a resistance response. HR is commonly regulated by direct or indirect interactions between avirulence proteins from pathogen and resistance proteins from plant and it can be the result of multiple signaling pathways. Ion fluxes and the generation of reactive oxygen species commonly precede cell death, but a direct involvement of the latter seems to vary with the plant-pathogen combination. Exciting advances have been made in the identification of cellular protective components and cell death suppressors that might operate in HR. In this review, recent progress in the mechanisms by which plant programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during disease resistance will be discussed.
Fusarium Wilt of Winter Daphne (Daphne odora Thunb.) Caused by Fusarium oxysporum
Kim, Gyoung-Hee ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Choi, Woo-Bong ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 102~105
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.102
Severe wilt disease epidemic was found on winter daphnes (Daphne odora Thunb.) cultivated in farmers, nurseries in Suncheon, Jeonnam in 2003. Typical symptoms appeared on the leaves of winter daphne as yellowish wilts and turned brown from the lower leaves on the same plant. Severely infected leaves were defoliated, resulting in blight of stems and eventual death of the entire plant. Black decayed vascular tissues were distinctly observed in a wilted plant. Fusarium sp. was isolated from the diseased plants repeatedly and its pathogenicity was confirmed by artificial inoculation on healthy plants. The fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum on the basis of the morphological and cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar and carnation leaf agar. The optimum temperature for fungal growth was around
and the fungal growth was inhibited by metconazole, triflumizole and trifloxystrobin on potato dextrose agar. This is the first report on the wilt disease of winter daphnes caused by F.oxysporum in Korea.
Relatedness Among Indiginous Members of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Mycelial Compatibility and RAPD Analysis in the Jordan Valley
Osofee, H. ; Hameed, K.M. ; Mahasneh, A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 106~110
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.106
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum attacks most of the vegetable crops in the Jordan valley. Twenty-five samples/isolates were obtained in a complete coverage of that region. They were characterized for their mycelium incompatibility, and specific gene amplified using the primer SSREV/SSFWD. All isolates gave similar single band around 278 bp. Thirteen isolates were completely incompatible with the other 12 ones. The latter ones fell into four subgroups of mycelium incompatibility. RAPD analysis using three primers (OPA-2, OPA-10, and OPA-18) clustered the 25 isolates into subgroups in agreement with their morphological separation, indicating close correlation between amplified gene(s) and the gene(s) of incompatibility. All highly virulent isolates were among the group of 13, indicating a well established genomic type pathogen in this region.
Simulation of Grape Downy Mildew Development Across Geographic Areas Based on Mesoscale Weather Data Using Supercomputer
Kim, Kyu-Rang ; Seem, Robert C. ; Park, Eun-Woo ; Zack, John W. ; Magarey, Roger D. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 111~118
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.111
Weather data for disease forecasts are usually derived from automated weather stations (AWS) that may be dispersed across a region in an irregular pattern. We have developed an alternative method to simulate local scale, high-resolution weather and plant disease in a grid pattern. The system incorporates a simplified mesoscale boundary layer model, LAWSS, for estimating local conditions such as air temperature and relative humidity. It also integrates special models for estimating of surface wetness duration and disease forecasts, such as the grapevine downy mildew forecast model, DMCast. The system can recreate weather forecasts utilizing the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database, which contains over 57 years of archived and corrected global upper air conditions. The highest horizontal resolution of 0.150 km was achieved by running 5-step nested child grids inside coarse mother grids. Over the Finger Lakes and Chautauqua Lake regions of New York State, the system simulated three growing seasons for estimating the risk of grape downy mildew with 1 km resolution. Outputs were represented as regional maps or as site-specific graphs. The highest resolutions were achieved over North America, but the system is functional for any global location. The system is expected to be a powerful tool for site selection and reanalysis of historical plant disease epidemics.
Comparative Analysis of Korean and Japanese Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit
Lee, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Gyoung-Hee ; Jung, Jae-Sung ; Hur, Jae-Sung ; Koh, Young-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 119~126
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.119
Genomic and phenotypic characteristics of the bacterial strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and P. syringae pv. syringae collected from several kiwifruit orchards of Korea were investigated and compared with those from Japan to elucidate their phylogenic relationships. All the strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. syringae tested were sensitive to copper sulfate but Korean and Japanese strains showed quite different responses to streptomycin. Korean strains were sensitive to streptomycin, but most of the Japanese strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were highly resistant to streptomycin. Japanese strains were also relatively more resistant to oxytetracycline than Korean strains. Plasmid profiles were not valuable to distinguish Korean strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae frombJapanese strains. One or more indigenous plasmids with more than 15 kb in size were detected in all strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, but the number and sizes of plasmids harbored in P. syringae pv. actinidiae were variable among the strains regardless of their geographic origins. There also observed no significant relationship among resistance levels of the strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae to antibiotics, their pathogenicity and plasmid profiles. RAPD profiles were useful to analyze the strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae and pv. syringae. All the strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae fell into a wide cluster separated from the strains of P. syringae pv. syringae, but Korean strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae were separated from Japanese strains. The results support that Korean and Japanese strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae may have different phylogenic origins.
The Effects of Temperature, pH, and Bactericides on the Growth of Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora
Shrestha, Rosemary ; Lee, Seon-Hwa ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Lim, Chun-Keun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 127~131
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.127
In this comparative study, the effects of temperature, pH, and bactericides on the growth of Erwinia pyrifoliae and Erwinia amylovora were investigated. The maximum temperature for the growth of both Erwinia species was estimated to be
. The maximum specific growth rates of E. pyrifoliae and E. amylovora were observed at
, respectively, and no significant growth differences were shown at their optimum temperatures. However, at lower temperatures ranging from 12-
, E. pyrifoliae showed higher growth rates with doubling times shorter than those of E. amylovora. Distinct growth rates at these temperatures revealed that E. pyrifoliae is more cold-tolerant than E. amylovora. The optimum pH for the growth of both pathogens was 7.5 and growth was not seen at pH
10.0. These results showed that the effect of pH on the growth of E. pyrifoliae and E. amylovora was similar. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of copper sulfate, oxolinic acid, streptomycin, and tetracycline, which inhibited growth of E. pyrifoliae and E. amylovora, were determined. The strains of both pathogens were able to grow at 0.08-0.32 mM copper sulfate, but not at higher concentrations. However, none of the tested strains grew in the presence of oxolinic acid (0.001 mM), streptomycin (0.1 mM), and tetracycline (0.01 mM) concentrations. These results suggested that all strains of both Erwinia species were sensitive to tested bactericides and indicated no occurrence of resistant strains of E. pyrifoliae in Korea.
Two Groups of Phytoplasma from Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) Distinguished by Symptoms and 16S rRNA Gene Sequence in Korea
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Kim, Byung-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 132~136
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.132
Two groups of phytoplasma were identified in chrysanthemum(Dendranthema grandiflorum) cv. Chunkwang showing distinct symptoms. Isolate Ph-ch1 showed symptoms of dwarf, witches'-broom, rosette and root death. The other isolate, Ph-ch2, revealed symptoms of dwarf, yellowing, leaf cupping, vein clearing and root death. The presence of phytoplasma structures in chrysanthemum leaf tissue was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified from isolates Ph-ch1 and Ph-ch2 by PCR and cloned, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. In RFLP analysis, isolate Ph-ch2 showed profiles identical to Ph-ch1, except with restriction enzymes HhaI and MseI. The sequence data showed that isolate Ph-ch1 was most closely related to the aster yellows (AY) phytoplasma, and isolate Ph-ch2 was more closely related to stolbur phytoplasma than to AY phytoplasma. This is the first reported observation of stolbur phytoplasma in chrysanthemum species.
Effect of Cotton Leaf Mosaic Disease on Morphology, Yield and Fibre Characteristics of Upland Cotton in Pakistan
Akhtar, Khalid P. ; Haq, M.A. ; Ishaque, Wajid ; Khan, M.K.R. ; Khan, Azeem I. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 137~141
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.137
The effect of cotton leaf mosaic disease on morphology, yield and fibre characteristics was examined for a susceptible cotton candidate variety CRIS-168. Plants inoculated at most susceptible growth stage (six week) under screen house showed severe mosaic symptoms. There was a significant reduction in plant height and yield. Cotton leaf mosaic disease was found to produce severe effects on plant morphology with 24.1% reduction in plant height, 25% in internode length and 37.5% in number of sympodia on main stem. However no changes were observed against number of monopodial branches per plant. Inoculated plants showed 82% decrease in yield/plant, 80% in number of boll set/ plant, 12.1% in boll weight, 12.8% in lint weight, 10.8% in seed weight, and 6.8% in seed index. Cotton leaf mosaic disease also showed effects on fibre characteristics with 0.8% decrease in GOT and 1.6% in fibre length. In contrast, uniformity ratio, fibre fineness and maturity index was increased by 20.5%, 14.4% and 0.9%, respectively.
Biological Characterization and Sequence Analysis of Cucumber mosaic virus isolated from Capsicum annuum
Kim, Min-Jea ; Choi, Seung-Kook ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 142~148
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.142
Whereas most of isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV) can induce green mosaic systemic symptoms on zucchini squash, foliar symptoms of a pepper isolate of CMV (Pf-CMV)-infected zucchini squash revealed systemic chlorotic spots. To assess this biological property, infectious full-length cDNA clones of Pf-CMV were constructed using long-template RT-PCR. The complete nucleotide sequences of RNA2 and RNA3 of Pf-CMV were determined from the infectious fulllength cDNA clones, respectively. RNA 2 and RNA3 of Pf-CMV contain 3,070 nucleotides and 2,213 nucleotides, respectively. Overall sequence homology of two RNAs revealed high similarity (90%) between CMV strains, and 60% similarity to those of Tomato aspermy virus and Peanut stunt virus strains. By sequence analysis with known representative strains of CMV, Pf- CMV belongs to a typical member of CMV subgroup IA. The virus has high evolutionary relationship with Fny-CMV, but the pathology of Pf-CMV in zucchini squash was quite different from that of Fny-CMV. The pesudorecombinant virus, F1P2P3, induced chlorotic spot leaf symptom and timing of systemic symptom in squash plants, similar to the plants infected by Pf-CMV. No systemic symptoms were observed when Pf-CMVinoculated cotyledons were removed at 5 days postinoculation (dpi) while Fny-CMV showed systemic symptom at 2 dpi. These results suggest that the pepper isolate of CMV possesses unique pathological properties distinguishable to other isolates of CMVs in zucchini squash.
Molecular Cloning and Functional Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) OsNDR1 on Defense Signaling Pathway
Lee, Joo-Hee ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ; Jung, Young-Ho ; Kim, Jung-A ; Lee, Mi-Ok ; Choi, Pil-Gyu ; Choi, Woo-Bong ; Kim, Kyung-Nam ; Jwa, Nam-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 149~157
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.149
A novel rice (Oryza sativa L.) gene, homologous to Arabidopsis pathogenesis-related NDR1 gene, was cloned from cDNA library prepared from 30 min Magnaporthe grisea -treated rice seedling leaves, and named as OsNDR1. OsNDR1 encoded a 220-aminoacid polypeptide and was highly similar to the Arabidopsis AtNDR1 protein. OsNDR1 is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized protein, and presumes through sequence analysis and protein localization experiment. Overexpression of OsNDR1 promotes the expression of PBZ1 that is essential for the activation of defense/stressrelated gene. The OsNDR1 promoter did not respond significantly to treatments with either SA, PBZ, or ETP. Exogenously applied BTH induces the same set of SAR genes as biological induction, providing further evidence for BTH as a signal. Presumably, BTH is bound by a receptor and the binding triggers a signal transduction cascade that has an ultimate effect on transcription factors that regulate SAR gene expression. Thus OsNDR1 may act as a transducer of pathogen signals and/or interact with the pathogen and is indeed another important step in clarifying the component participating in the defense response pathways in rice.
Virus-induced Gene Silencing as Tool for Functional Genomics in a Glycine max
Jeong, Rae-Dong ; Hwang, Sung-Hyun ; Kang, Sung-Hwan ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Park, Jin-Woo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 158~163
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.158
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed gene transcript suppression technique for characterizing the function of plant genes. However, efficient VIGS has only been studied in a few plant species. In order to extend the application of VIGS, we examined whether a VIGS vector based on TRV would produce recognizable phenotypes in soybean. Here, we report that VIGS using the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) viral vector can be used in several soybean cultivars employing various agro-inoculation methods including leaf infiltration, spray inoculation, and agrodrench. cDNA fragments of the soybean phytoene desaturase(PDS) was inserted into TRV RNA-2 vector. By agrodrench, we successfully silenced the expression of PDS encoding gene in soybean. The silenced phenotype of PDS was invariably obvious 3 weeks after inoculation with the TRV-based vector. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that the endogenous level of GmPDS transcripts was dramatically reduced in the silenced leaf tissues. These observations confirm that the silenced phenotype is closely correlated with the pattern of tissue expression. The TRV-based VIGS using agrodrench can be applied to functional genomics in a soybean plants to study genes involved in a wide range of biological processes. To our knowledge, this is the first high frequency VIGS method in soybean plants.
Corynespora Leaf Spot of Balsam Pear Caused by Corynespora cassiicola in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 164~166
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.164
Corynespora leaf spot occurred severely on balsam pear (Momordica charantia) at Changwon, Gyeongnam province in Korea in November and December 2003. The causal fungus isolated from infected leaves of the plants grew well on potato dextrose agar showing gray to brown color. Solitary or catenary conidia of the fungus were obclavate to cylindrical in shape, and pale olivaceous brown or brown in color. The number of isthmus pseudosepta ranged from 4 to 20 and measured 36~186
in size. Conidiophores were pale to light brown in color and measured 94~648
in size. Optimal temperature for mycelial growth was
. On the basis of mycological characteristics and pathogenicity, the fungus was identified as Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & Curt.) Wei. This is the first report on the corynespora leaf spot of M. charantia caused by C. cassiicola in Korea.
Isolation and Characterization of Watermelon Isolate of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus(CGMMV-HY1) from Watermelon Plants with Severe Mottle Mosaic Symptoms
Shim, Chang-Ki ; Han, Ki-Soo ; Lee, Jung-Han ; Bae, Dong-Won ; Kim, Dong-Kil ; Kim, Hee-Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 167~171
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.167
We isolated the Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus(CGMMV) particles from watermelon leaves and designated as CGMMV-HY1 as a watermelon isolate and attempted to characterize the pathogenic isolate responsible for such an epidemic in watermelon and also to monitor dominant viral isolates in greenhouse. The watermelon plants infected with CGMMV generally showed mottle mosaic, mosaic, growth stunting, necrosis and deformed fruit. The reactions of indicator plants to CGMMV-HY1 were the local lesions on Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun, and Chenopodium amaranticola, and the mosaic symptoms only on Cucumis sativus, but the CGMMV-HY1 did not infect Nicotiana sylvesytis, Datura stramonium, Chenopodium quinoa, and Petunia hybrida. Purified virus particles were rod-shaped and about 300 nm long. The coat protein (CP) of purified CGMMV-HY1 was single band with molecular weight of about 16.5 kDa which was confirmed by western blot analysis probed with monoclonal antibody of CGMMV-HY1. The genomic and subgenomic RNAs of 6.4 kb and 0.75 kb were revealed by the electrophoresis on 1.2% formaldehydedenatured agarose gel. Viral and complementary CGMMV-specific primer sets were designed for spanning the genome using previously reported CGMMV sequences. A 464bp of CP gene of CGMMV-HY1 was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into PGEM-T easy vector. The nucleotide sequence of CP gene of CGMMV-HY1 shared 98%, 99%, and 100% identities with that of CGMMV strains W, KOM, and KW respectively. Based on these results, we identified CGMMV-HY1 as a CGMMV isolate of watermelon, a member of Tobamovirus.
Occurrence and Detection of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Korea
Lee, Bong-Choon ; Hong, Yeon-Kyu ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Lee, Key-Woon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 21, issue 2, 2005, Pages 172~173
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2005.21.2.172
Until now, occurrence of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is observed in Gyeongsang provinces, southeastern part of Korea. However, recently, the occurrence of RBSDV is increasing and spreading in Jeonra provinces including Gochang-gun, southwestern part of Korea. RBSDV infected plants showed typical symptoms including stunted, deformed leaves with white waxy or black-streaked swelling along the veins. We extracted viral genomic dsRNA from infected leaves and analyzed dsRNA pattern by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Ten genomic segments with similar sized dsRNAs were observed. We also detected RBSDV by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR using specific primers for S10 from genomic dsRNA and observed amplified DNA fragment specific for RBSDV S10.