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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Regulation of Fumonisin Biosynthesis in Fusarium verticillioides-Maize System
Sagaram Uma Shankar ; Kolomiets Mike ; Shim Won-Bo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 203~210
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.203
Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins produced by a pathogen Fusarium verticillioides in infected maize kernels. Consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been implicated in a number of animal and human illnesses, including esophageal cancer and neural tube defects. Since the initial discovery, chemistry, toxicology, and biology of fumonisins as well as the maize-Fusarium pathosystem have been extensively studied. Furthermore, in the past decade, significant progress has been made in terms of understanding the molecular biology of toxin biosynthetic genes. However, there is a critical gap in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved in fumonisin biosynthesis. Here, we review and discuss our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which fumonisin biosynthesis is regulated in F. verticillioides. In addition, we discuss the impact of maize kernel environment, particularly sugar and lipid molecules, on fumonisin biosynthesis.
Phytophthora Rot on Luffa cylindrica Caused by Phytophthora nicotianae
Kwon Jin-Hyeuk ; Jee Hyeong-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 211~214
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.211
In 2004 and 2005, Phytophthora rot on Luffa cylindrica which had not been reported in Korea occurred in the experimental field at Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services. The disease initiated on leaves and fruits of the plant with small watersoaked dark brown spots and progressed rapidly. The causal pathogen isolated from diseased tissues was identified as a Phytophthora sp. because of aseptate mycelia and zoospores released directly from sporangia. The fungus grew well on PDA and 10% V-8 juice agar showing an arachnoid or rosaceous colony pattern. Sporangia formed abundantly in water and were conspicuously papillate, noncaducous, ovoid to globose, and sized
. The fungus was heterothallic as producing sexual reproduction structures only when mated with only A2 standard mating type strain. Oogonia and oospores were spherical, smooth walled, and measured as
, respectively. Oospores were aplerotic and antheridia were amphigynous, unicellula and spherical. Chlamydospores were globose and
in diameter. Optimum temperature for growth was around
. The fungus caused similar symptoms on artificially inoculated plant and could be re-isolated thereby proving Koch's postulation. Based on the mycological criteria investigated in this study, the causal fungus of Luffa sylindrica rot was identified as Phytophthora nicotianae. This is the first report of Phytophthora rot of Luffa cylindrica caused by P. nicotianae in Korea.
A Large Genomic Deletion in Gibberella zeae Causes a Defect in the Production of Two Polyketides but not in Sexual Development or Virulence
Lee Sun-Hee ; Kim Hee-Kyoung ; Hong Sae-Yeon ; Lee Yin-Won ; Yun Sung-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 215~221
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.215
Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum) is an important pathogen of cereal crops. This fungus produces a broad range of secondary metabolites, including polyketides such as aurofusarin (a red pigment) and zearalenone (an estrogenic mycotoxin), which are important mycological characteristics of this species. A screen of G. zeae insertional mutants, generated using a restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) procedure, led to the isolation of a mutant (Z43R606) that produced neither aurofusarin nor zearalenone yet showed normal female fertility and virulence on host plants. Outcrossing analysis confirmed that both the albino and zearalenone-deficient mutations are linked to the insertional vector in Z43R606. Molecular characterization of Z43R606 revealed a deletion of at least 220 kb of the genome at the vector insertion site, including the gene clusters required for the biosynthesis of aurofusarin and zearalenone, respectively. A re-creation of the insertional event of Z43R606 in the wild-type strain demonstrated that the 220-kb deletion is responsible for the phenotypic changes in Z43R606 and that a large region of genomic DNA can be efficiently deleted in G. zeae by double homologous recombination. The results showed that 52 putative genes located in the deleted genomic region are not essential for phenotypes other than the production of both aurofusarin and zearalenone. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of a large genomic deletion in G. zeae mediated by the REMI procedure.
Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Based on Vegetative Compatibility Group, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Pathogenicity
Nagarajan Gopal ; Kang Sung-Woo ; Nam Myeong-Hyeon ; Song Jeong-Young ; Yoo Sung-Joon ; Kim Hong-Gi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 222~229
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.222
Twenty-two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae were obtained from diseased strawberry plants and their characteristics were investigated by vegetative compatibility group (VCG), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and pathogenicity. Three major VCGs (A, B, and C) and one incompatible group were identified by nitrate reductase complementation test. The virulence pattern of the 22 isolates was studied in relation to four cultivars including Dochiodome, Red-pearl, Maehyang and Akihime. RAPD markers were used to determine genetic relationship, and created three major clusters among the 22 isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. Isolates belong to VCG-C were strongly pathogenic, and relatively high correlation was existed among VCG and RAPD, and virulence. In addition, VCG and RAPD pattern between pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates were distinctly different.
Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) in Korea
Chung Bong-Nam ; Pak Ha-Seung ; Jung Jae-A ; Kim Jeong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 230~234
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.230
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been identified in commercial chrysanthemum cultivars in Korea. Nucleotide sequences of the N gene of TSWV-ch14 isolated from infected chrysanthemum were determined and deposited in GenBank under accession no. DQ453158. The symptoms consisted of dark colored leaf necrosis, black streaks along the stem, wilting of plant parts in 'Sinma'; and chlorotic spots, necrosis of axillary shoots and withering of leaves in 'Hwarang'. Electron micrographs of leaf preparation of Nicotiana rustica infected with TSWV-ch14 contained spherical particles around 85 nm in diameter. TSWV was identified from chrysanthemum by sequence determination of N nucleocapsid protein and virion observation by transmission electron microscope. This is the first reported observation on TSWV in chrysanthemum in Korea.
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Induces the Accumulation of Small RNAs Associated with RNA Silencing in Infected Chrysanthemum
Chung Bong-Nam ; Choi Gug-Seoun ; Kim Ki-Taek ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 235~238
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.235
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) induced systemic symptoms on chrysanthemum. We detected small RNAs of approximately 22 nucleotides with sequence specificity to CSVd in chrysanthemum infected with CSVd: an indication of the presence of RNA silencing. Regardless of symptom differences associated with CSVd, the small RNAs distributed similarly in amount. Small RNAs were detected with partial-length or full-length probes, indicating that they are not restricted to specific viroid regions but likely representing most of the viroid molecule.
Virus Disease Incidences of Sweet Potatoes in Korea
Kwak Hae-Ryun ; Kim Mi-Kyeong ; Chung Mi-Nam ; Lee Su-Heon ; Park Jin-Woo ; Kim Kook-Hyung ; Choi Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 239~247
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.239
In 2003, a survey of sweet potato virus disease was carried out in seed boxes as well as in various sweet potato fields. Virus infection rate was
and 100% at seed boxes and fields, respectively. No relationship of the disease incidence and severity was observed between sweet potato cultivating areas and cultivars. A total of 179 samples were collected and analyzed based on serological, electron microscopic and molecular properties. Field-grown sweet potatoes were examined to inspect 8 different viruses using NCM-ELISA, resulting that 30% of sweet potato was infected by one virus, whereas 70% was by more than 2 viruses. However, RT-PCR using primers selected for seven viruses, such as Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) revealed that of one-hundred seventy-nine tested; 71 of SPFMV, 29 of SPGV, 19 of SPFMV+SPGV, 1 of SPFMV+SwPLV, 1 of SPFMV+SPLCV, 2 of SPFMV+SPGV+SwPLV, 6 of SPFMV+SPGV+SPLCV, 2 of SPFMV+SPGV+SwPLV+SPLCV and 48 of unknown viruses were identified from the field samples. In root, viral diseases were severer in Yeoju than in Mokpo Experiment Station and infection rate was much different depending on sweet potato cultivars.
Ecopathological Analysis of Apple stem grooving virus-K Harboring Talaromyces flavus
Shim Hye-Kyung ; Hwang Kyu-Hyon ; Shim Chang-Ki ; Hong Seung-Beom ; Son Su-Wan ; Kim Dong-Giun ; Choi Yong-Mun ; Chung Young-Jae ; Kim Dae-Hyun ; Jee Hyeong-Jin ; Lee Suk-Chan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 248~254
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.248
Pear black necrotic leaf spot (PBNLS) on pear trees (Pyrus pyrifolia) is caused by a Korean isolate of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV-K). Yellow spots were detected in Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean) and Chenopodium quinoa which were grown near the diseased pears in year 2000 through 2003. The ASGV-K, the causative agent of PBNLS, was detected from the symptoms of the diseased kidney bean plant and C. quinoa. ASGV-harboring fungi were also isolated from symptomatic plants and from soils surrounding the infected plants. The ASGV-harboring fungus was identified and characterized as Talaromyces flavus. Ecopathological studies showed that the number of ASGV-harboring fungi on the pear leaves was not correlated with differences in temperature or severity of symptoms. Additionally, there was no difference in fungus frequency among the orchard locations or different host plants. Although the frequency of fungi isolated from the soil was not affected by changes in temperature or location, the fungi occurred at higher densities in the rhizosphere than in the plants themselves.
The Pear Black Necrotic Leaf Spot Disease Virus Transmitted by Talaromyces flavus Displays Pathogenicity Similar to Apple stem grooving virus Strains
Shim Hye-Kyung ; Hwang Kyu-Hyon ; Shim Chang-Ki ; Son Su-Wan ; Kim Dong-Giun ; Choi Yong-Mun ; Chung Young-Jae ; Kim Dae-Hyun ; Jee Hyeong-Jin ; Lee Suk-Chan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 255~259
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.255
The pathogenicity to pear trees and other experimental hosts of the Apple stem grooving virus Korean isolate (ASGV-K) carried by a fungal vector, Talaromyces flavus was examined. ASGV-harboring T. flavus induced mild symptoms on virus-free pears. Symptom severity was intermediate between pears showing typical PBNLS and virus-free pears. Ten cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris showed 35%-90% infectivity by direct infiltration into leaves and roots by ASGV-harboring T. flavus. Application of fungal cultures to soils showed 0%-70% infectivity depending on the P. vulgaris cultivar. Sap extracted from ASGV-infected Chenopodium quinoa induced similar symptoms on P. vulgaris at 25 days after inoculation. Similar symptoms were also detected on P. vulgaris which were inoculated with ASGV-harboring T.flavus. When healthy P. vulgaris leaves were challenged with sap extracted from P. vulgaris leaves infected with ASGV-harboring T. flavus, typical symptoms were observed. These data suggest that T. flavus mediates the transfer of ASGV to host plants.
Molecular Characterization of Apple stem grooving virus Isolated from Talaromyces flavus
Shim Hye-Kyung ; Hwang Kyu-Hyon ; Shim Chang-Ki ; Son Su-Wan ; Kim Dong-Giun ; Choi Yong-Mun ; Chung Young-Jae ; Kim Dae-Hyun ; Jee Hyeong-Jin ; Lee Suk-Chan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 260~264
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.260
Talaromyces flavus mediates the transmission of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) to several host plants. The ASGV-F carried by T.flavus was partially purified from the fungus. Based on sequence analysis and homology searches, this is closely related to other ASGV strains isolated from host plants. The partially purified viral coat protein (CP) was separated on a 12% SDS-polyacrylamide gel and analyzed by Western blotting with an ASGV anti-serum. A single band at 28 kDa reacted with the ASGV anti-serum. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ORF-l showed conserved domains, including an NTP-binding helicase motif, GFAGSGKT. The amino acid sequences of the helicase and CP showed strong homology to other ASGV strains (98%). All ASGV isolated from plants and fungi had salt bridges composed of the CP and the GFAGSGKT motif of the helicase, which are commonly conserved in plant viruses. These results suggest that ASGV-F is one of ASGV strains isolated from T.flavus based on sequence similarity as well as the serological analysis of CP.
Identification and Sequence Analysis of RNA3 of a Resistance-Breaking Cucumber mosaic virus Isolate on Capsicum annuum
Lee Mi-Yeon ; Lee Jang-Ha ; Ahn Hong-Il ; Yoon Ju-Yeon ; Her Nam-Han ; Choi Jang-Kyung ; Choi Gug-Seon ; Kim Do-Sun ; Harn Chee-Hark ; Ryu Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 265~270
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.265
Cultivated hot pepper crops showing severe mosaic symptom were found in Korea in 2004 and their causal agent was identified as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). These pepper crops was resistant to the virus in the filled, and they belonged to pathotype 0 (P0) resistant pepper. Resistance screening of selected pepper plants showed that a pepper isolate of CMV was the P0 resistance-breaking virus. This P0 resistance-breaking isolate of CMV, named as Ca-P1, was isolated from leaves of the virus-infected Capsicum annuum cv. Manidda that showed systemic severe mosaic symptom. Ca-P1-CMV could induce systemic mosaic symptoms on P0-susceptible (P0-S) and P0-resistant (P0-R) cultivars whereas an ordinary strain (Fny-CMV) could not infect P0-R. This result suggests that Ca-P1-CMV can overcome P0 resistant pepper cultivars. To analyze its genome sequence, the complete nucleotide sequence of RNA3 of Ca-P1-CMV was determined from the infectious full-length cDNA clone of the virus. RNA3 of Ca-P1-CMV consisted of 2,219 nucleotides. Overall sequence homology of RNA3-encoded two viral proteins (movement protein and coat protein) revealed high similarity (75.2-97.2%) with the known CMV strains. By sequence analysis with known representative strains of CMV, Ca-P1-CMV belongs to a typical member of CMV subgroup IB. The resistance and resistance-breaking mechanisms of pepper and counterpart CMV, respectively, remain to be investigated, which will enrich the genetic resources and accelerate CMV-resistant pepper breeding programs.
Ozone: Changing Anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum acutatum) Severity and Accelerating Hypersensitive Response in Pepper
Yun Sung-Chul ; Kim Bo-Sun ; Cha Ah-Reum ; Pack Jong-Pil ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 271~277
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.271
The interaction effects of ozone
and anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) disease were examined in green fruits and seedlings of pepper (Capsicum annuum). Pre-treatment with
as a factor causing predisposition to the disease prior to infection was investigated in green fruits and stems using an
concentration of 150 nL/L, which is easily reached in summer in Korea.
treatment increased antioxidative responses in pepper foliar tissues, and defense against anthracnose was examined in fruits and stems. Anthracnose severity on stems of the
, ozone-sensitive 'Dabotop' cultivar was always lower than that on untreated plants, but the difference was not always significant (p=0.147). Significantly lower anthracnose severity was found on
green 'Dabotop' fruits as compared to untreated green fruits in three of eight replicate experiments. In contrast, hypersensitive responses in 03treated seedlings were significantly accelerated compared to those in untreated seedlings by about 7.8 h (p<0.001). This confirmed previous evidence of increased transcription of plant defense genes with
treatment significantly decreased chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves in four replicate experiments (p<0.01).
increased hypersensitive responses in the leaves of pepper seedlings, but this increase did not contribute to the control of anthracnose severity on fruits. Antioxidant reactions to
were limited to chlorosis and changes in hypersensitive responses in leaves.
Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1-Mediated Growth Promotion and Disease Suppression in Rice
Park Kyung-Seok ; Paul Diby ; Yeh Wan-Hae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 278~282
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.278
Bacillus vallismortis EXTN-1, a biocontrol agent in cucumber, tomato and potato was tested in rice pathosystem against rice fungal pathogens viz. Magnaporthe grisea, Rhizoctonia solani and Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Apart from increasing the yield in the bacterized plants (11.6-12.6% over control), the study showed that EXTN1 is effective in bringing about disease suppression against all the tested fungal pathogens. EXTN-l treatment resulted in 52.11% reduction in rice blast, 83.02% reduction in sheath blight and 11.54% decrease in brown spot symptoms. As the strain is proven as an inducer for systemic resistance based on PR gene expression in Arabidopsis and tobacco models, it is supposed that a similar mechanism works in rice, bringing about disease suppression. The strain could be used as a potent biocontrol and growth-promoting agent in rice cropping system.
Enhancement of Biological Control of Botrytis cinerea on Cucumber by Foliar Sprays and Bed Potting Mixes of Trichoderma harzianum YC459 and Its Application on Tomato in the Greenhouse
Lee Sun-Kug ; Sohn Hwang-Bae ; Kim Geun-Gon ; Chung Young-Ryun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 283~288
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.283
Trichoderma harzianum YC459 (Th 459), isolated from sawdust compost, was effective in controlling cucumber and tomato gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea under controlled and plastic film tunnel conditions. A water suspension of the wettable powder formulation of Th 459 significantly
reduced the severity of cucumber gray mold by foliar spraying at all tested concentrations from
colony forming unit (cfu)/ml in repeated experiments. The control efficacy was maintained at least seven days with the average control value of 70% in cucumber pot tests. Mixing one to eight grams of the granular formulation (
dry weight) of Th 459 into one liter nursery potting mix at seeding also significantly
reduced the severity of cucumber gray mold by suppression of lesion formation three weeks after treatment. Application of mixing granular formulation at seeding in combination with foliar spraying during cultivation provided a more significant reduction
of cucumber gray mold than granule mixing or leaf spray alone. The foliar spraying of the formulated wettable powder of Th 459 significantly
reduced the infection of tomato fruits by B. cinerea as effective as the chemical fungicide, dichlofluanid, in three plastic film tunnel experiment trials. It is suggested that effective control of gray mold of cucumber and tomato can be provided by both treatment of Th 459 into potting mix and foliar spray through induction of systemic resistance and direct inhibition of the pathogen.
Biological Control Activity of Two Isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens against Rice Sheath Blight
Choi Gyung-Ja ; Kim Jin-Cheol ; Park Eun-Jin ; Choi Yong-Ho ; Jang Kyoung-Soo ; Lim He-Kyoung ; Cho Kwang-Yun ; Lee Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 289~294
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.289
Two isolates of mucous bacteria, mc75 and pc78, were isolated from fungal culture plate as culture contaminants with an interesting swarming motility. Both isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens based on microscopy, biochemical analysis, Biolog test and DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Both strains have the exactly the same 16S rRNA gene sequences, and yet their biological control activity were not identical each other. In vitro analysis of antagonistic activity of two isolates against several plant pathogenic fungi indicated that both produced diffusible and volatile antifungal compounds of unknown identities. Treatment of the bacterial culture of P. fluorescens pc78 and its culture filtrate exhibited a strong biological control activity against rice sheath blight in vivo among six plant diseases tested. More effective disease control activity was obtained from treatment of bacterial culture than that of culture filtrate. Therefore, in addition to antifungal compound and siderophore production, other traits such as biofilm formation and swarming motility on plant surface may contribute to the biological control activity of P.fluorescens pc78 and mc75.
A New Composition of Nanosized Silica-Silver for Control of Various Plant Diseases
Park Hae-Jun ; Kim Sung-Ho ; Kim Hwa-Jung ; Choi Seong-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 295~302
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.295
The present study addressed the efficacy of nanosized silica-silver for controlling plant pathogenic microorganisms. The nanosized silica-silver consisted of nano-silver combined with silica molecules and water soluble polymer, prepared by exposing a solution including silver salt, silicate and water soluble polymer to radioactive rays. The nanosized silica-silver showed antifungal activity against the tested phytopathogenic fungi at 3.0 ppm with varied degrees. In contrast, a number of beneficial bacteria or plant pathogenic bacteria were not significantly affected at 10 ppm level but completely inhibited by 100 ppm of nanosized silicasilver. Among the tested plant pathogenic fungi, the new product effectively controlled powdery mildews of pumpkin at 0.3 ppm in both field and greenhouse tests. The pathogens disappeared from the infected leaves 3 days after spray and the plants remained healthy thereafter. Our results suggested that the product developed in this study was effective in controlling various plant fungal diseases.
Improvement in Fungicidal Activity of Ethaboxam by a Non-ionic Surfactant, Polyoxyethylene Cetyl Ether
Shin Kwang-Hoon ; Kim Dal-Soo ; Chun Sam-Jae ; Park Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 3, 2006, Pages 303~308
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.3.303
Ethaboxam is a fungicide controlling plant diseases caused by Oomycetes. Efforts were made to improve its fungicidal activity applying formulation technology. Fungicidal activity of ethaboxam against cucumber downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis was improved by incorporating polyoxyethylene cetyl ether (PCE) in a wettable powder formulation. It was found that the optimum combination ratio of PCE and ethaboxam was 3:1, and a tank-mix of
of ethaboxam and
of PCE would be as good as the standard 25 % WP formulation diluted to
ethaboxam without PCE in controlling cucumber downy mildew. Based on this results, a wettable powder (WP) co-formulation containing 15% of ethaboxam and 45% of PCE was developed in this study, and tested for its performance in the fields. This co-formulation showed significant improvement in persistence of fungicidal activity and curative efficacy of ethaboxam against cucumber downy mildew. The improved control efficacy was also confirmed for control of grape downy mildew caused by Plasmopara viticola and potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in the field tests.