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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Prevalence of Phytophthora Blight of Pigeonpea in the Deccan Plateau of India
Sharma, M. ; Pande, S. ; Pathak, M. ; Rao, J. Narayana ; Kumar, P. Anil ; Reddy, D. Madhusudan ; Benagi, V.I. ; Mahalinga, D.M. ; Zhote, K.K. ; Karanjkar, P.N. ; Eksinghe, B.S. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 309~313
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.309
Phytophthora blight(PB), caused by Phytophthora drechsleri f. sp. cajani is the third potentially important disease of pigeonpea in the Deccan Plateau(DP) of India after wilt and sterility mosaic. In the rainy-season of 2005, an outbreak of PB was seen throughout DP. To quantify the incidence and spread of the disease, a systematic survey was conducted in the major pigeonpea growing regions of DP during the crop season 2005. Attempts were made to determine the effect of cropping systems on the PB development and identify resistant cultivars, if any, grown by farmers and on research farms. Widespread incidence of PB was recorded on improved, and or local cultivars grown in different intercropping systems. Majority of improved cultivars grown at research farms were found susceptible to PB(>10% disease incidence). Pigeonpea intercropped with groundnut, black gram and coriander had less disease incidence(
). Three wilt and SM resistant pigeonpea cultivars KPL 96053, ICPL 99044, and ICPL 93179 were found resistant(<10%) to PB as well. However, their resistance to PB needs confirmation under optimum disease development environments.
Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on Satsuma Mandarin Orange Fruits Using Phage Technique in Korea
Myung, Inn-Shik ; Hyun, Jae-Wook ; Cho, Weon-Dae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 314~317
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.314
A phage technique for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, a causal bacterium of canker on Sastuma mandarin fruits was developed. Phage and ELISA techniques were compared for their sensitivity for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri on orange fruits. Both of techniques revealed a similar efficiency for the bacterial detection; the pathogenic bacteria were observed in pellet from the fruits with over one canker spot with below 2 mm in diameter. In field assays, the increase of phage population(120%) on surface of the fruits related to the disease development one month later indicated that the bacterial pathogens inhabit on the surface. The procedure will be effectively used for detection of only living bacterial pathogen on fruit surfaces of Satsuma mandarin and for the disease forecasting.
Distribution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Biovars in Jordan and Variation of Virulence
Al-Momani, Fouad ; Albasheer, Sami ; Saadoun, Ismail ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 318~322
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.318
One hundred and nine Agrobacterium isolates were recovered from 68 samples(51 plant tumor and 17 soil) that were collected from different habitats in Northern Jordan. The isolated cultures were grouped into 3 biovars based on their biochemical characteristics and biovar I, II, and III comprised a total number of 46, 41, and 22 isolates, respectively. Isolates of biovar I were obtained primarily from the diseased peach, oak and rose plants, whereas isolates of biovar II and ill were obtained mostly from apple and grape plants, respectively. Twenty-nine isolates were found to be virulent to at least one of the tested hosts such as carrots, chickpeas, garden peas and tomato plants with a response of tumor formation or tumor with roots induction. Our result suggested that A. tumefaciens strains from tumor of various plants and soil of Jordan were diverse and they have a variation in their virulence.
Expression of pqq Genes from Serratia marcescens W1 in Escherichia coli Inhibits the Growth of Phytopathogenic Fungi
Kim, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Chul-Hong ; Han, Song-Hee ; Kang, Beom-Ryong ; Cho, Song-Mi ; Lee, Myung-Chul ; Kim, Young-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 323~328
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.323
Serratia marcescens W1, isolated from cucumber-cultivated soil in Suwon, Korea, evidenced profound antifungal activity and produced the extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, chitinase and protease. In order to isolate the antifungal genes from S. marcescens W1, a cosmid genomic library was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Transformants exhibiting chitinase and protease expression were selected, as well as those transformants evidencing antifungal effects against the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, and the cucumber leaf spot fungus, Cercospora citrullina. Cosmid clones expressing chitinase or protease exerted no inhibitory effects against the growth of fungal pathogens. However, two cosmid clones evidencing profound antifungal activities were selected for further characterization. An 8.2 kb HindIII fragment from these clones conditioned the expression of antagonistic activity, and harbored seven predicted complete open reading frames(ORFs) and two incomplete ORFs. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated that six ORFs were highly homologous with genes from S. marcescens generating pyrroloquinoline quinone(PQQ). Only subclones harboring the full set of pqq genes were shown to solubilize insoluble phosphate and inhibit fungal pathogen growth. The results of this study indicate that the functional expression of the pqq genes of S. marcescens W1 in E. coli may be involved in antifungal activity, via as-yet unknown mechanisms.
Isolation and Biological Characterization of Barley mild mosaic virus(BaMMV) Mild and Severe Strains in Korea
Jonson, Gilda ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Hyun, Jong-Nae ; Kim, Jung-Gon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 329~333
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.329
Two distinct and stable isolates of Barley mild mosaic virus(BaMMV) designated as Naju82-S(severe) and Naju82-M(mild) were obtained. These two isolates differed in their symptomatology, virus transmission characteristics and cultivar specificity at various temperature. Thus, these isolates were referred to as strains in this study. BaMMV Naju-S strain showed severe mosaic symptoms accompanied by necrosis on the infected leaves. Naju82-S strain is more virulent demonstrated by shorter incubation period and relatively high virus concentration than Naju82-M strain. Five Korean cultivars were tested for their pathogenicity to different strains based on the rate of infection. Results showed that infection rate of cultivars to both strains did not significantly differed from each other. However, under different temperatures, the pathogenicity on the two cultivars such as cultivars Hopumbori and Sessalbori were significantly affected. Hopumbori was moderately resistant to both strains at
and susceptible at
. Similarly, Sessalbori was moderately resistant at
to both strains but distinctly differentiated at
wherein it was resistant to mild strain and highly susceptible to severe strain. Other cultivars including Baegdong, Jinyangbori and Neahanssalbori consistently showed susceptible reaction to both strains at varying temperatures tested in this study.
Occurrence of Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in Chrysanthemum(Dendranthema grandiflorum) in Korea
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Kim, Dong-Chan ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 334~338
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.334
Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid(CChMVd) isolates have been identified from chrysanthemum showing yellow spots or infected without symptom. They were 399-400 nucleotides length of RNA. CChMVd-SSHA6(GenBank accession no. DQ450682) revealed a GAAA to DUUC substitution in positions 82-85 of CChMVd-MSIN34(GenBank accession no. DQ402041). In vitro RNA transcripts with the complete CChMVd sequence were infectious and induced the typical CChMVd infection symptom of yellow spots in chrysanthemum cv. Sharotte. CChMVd caused reduction in growth in some cultivars, whereas some cultivars were not affected. This is the first report on the occurrence of CChMVd in chrysanthemum in Korea.
Role of Riboflavin in Induced Resistance against Fusarium Wilt and Charcoal Rot Diseases of Chickpea
Saikia Ratul ; Yadav Mukesh ; Varghese Saju ; Singh Bhim Pratap ; Gogoi Dip K ; Kumar Rakesh ; Arora Dilip K ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 339~347
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.339
Riboflavin caused induction of systemic resistance in chickpea against Fusarium wilt and charcoal rot diseases. The dose effect of 0.01 to 20 mM riboflavin showed that 1.0 mM concentration was sufficient for maximum induction of resistance; higher concentration did not increase the effect. At this concentration, riboflavin neither caused cell death of the host plant nor directly affected the pathogen's growth. In time course observation, it was observed that riboflavin treated chickpea plants were inducing resistance 2 days after treatment and reached its maximum level from 5 to 7 days and then decreased. Riboflavin had no effect on salicylic acid(SA) levels in chickpea, however, riboflavin induced plants found accumulation of phenols and a greater activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase(PAL) and pathogenesis related(PR) protein, peroxidase was observed in induced plant than the control. Riboflavin pre-treated plants challenged with the pathogens exhibited maximum activity of the peroxidases 4 days after treatment. Molecular weight of the purified peroxidase was 42 kDa. From these studies we demonstrated that riboflavin induced resistance is PR-protein mediated but is independent of salicylic acid.
Development of an Efficient Mechanical Inoculation Technique to Screen Barley Genotypes for Resistance to Barley mild mosaic virus Disease and its Comparison to Natural Infection
Jonson, Gilda ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Hyun, Jong-Nae ; Kim, Jong-Gon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 348~352
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.348
Barley mild mosaic virus(BaMMV) is a soilborne Bymovirus vectored by root-infecting fungus, Polymyxa graminis. Mechanism of cultivar's resistance to BaMMV in field tests are difficult to assess since resistance could be either due to the virus or to P. graminis, or both. Whereas, available mechanical inoculation methods for BaMMV and other related viruses are labor intensive, give inconsistent results and generally result in low infection rates. Inoculation method using stick with gauze(SWG) was developed for BaMMV. The improved method proved to be simple, efficient, and reliable. The infected leaf tissues were preserved by drying in a frozen state under high vaccum(freeze dried barley infected leaves) to circumvent reduction of virus infectivity during storage. Five Korean barley cultivars were mechanically inoculated with BaMMV-infected sap by the improved method. Infection rates obtained were compared with natural infection. Cultivar Naehanssalbori showed resistance to BaMMV in the field trials but was found highly susceptible in the greenhouse tests by mechanical inoculation, indicating that the field resistance may be possibly due to resistance to P. graminis.
Study on Environmental Risk Assessment for Potential Effect of Genetically Modified Nicotiana benthamiana Expressing ZGMMV Coat Protein Gene
Kim, Tae-Sung ; Yu, Min-Su ; Koh, Kong-Suk ; Oh, Kyoung-Hee ; Ahn, Hong-Il ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 353~359
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.353
Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants harboring the coat protein(CP) gene of Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus(ZGMMV) were chosen as a model host for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants with virus resistance. This study was focused on whether new virus type may arise during serial inoculation of one point CP mutant of ZGMMV on the transgenic plants. In vitro transcripts derived from the non-functional CP mutant were inoculated onto the virus-tolerant and -susceptible transgenic N. benthamiana plants. Any notable viral symptoms that could arise on the inoculated transgenic host plants were not detected, even though the inoculation experiment was repeated a total of ten times. This result suggests that potential risk associated with the CP-expressiing transgenic plants may not be significant. However, cautions must be taken as it does not guarantee environmental safety of these CP-mediated virus-resistant plants, considering the limited number of the transgenic plants tested in this study. Further study at a larger scale is needed to evaluate the environmental risk that might be associated with the CP-mediated virus resistant plant.
Bacillus vallismortis Strain EXTN-1 Mediated Systemic Resistance against Potato virus Y and X in the Field
Park, Kyung-Seok ; Paul, Diby ; Ryu, Kyung-Ryl ; Kim, Eun-Yung ; Kim, Yong-Ki ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 360~363
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.360
Efficacy of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) Bacillus vallismortis strain EXTN-1 has been proved in eliciting induced systemic resistance(ISR) in several crops. The present paper described the beneficial effects of EXTN-1 in potato as increase in yield and chlorophyll content, and plant protection against Potato Virus Y and X(PVY & PVX). EXTN-1 induced systemic resistance to the plants resulting in significant disease suppression in the field. Also the plants under treatment with EXTN-1 had higher chlorophyll content. The bacterized plants had significantly higher yields over the untreated control plants. The strain induced activation of defense genes, PR-1a and PDF 1.2 in transgenic tobacco model, which indicated the possible role of both SA, and JA pathways in EXTN-1 mediated plant protection against crop diseases.
Effect of Hydrogel on Survial of Serratia plymuthica A21-4 in Soils and Plant Disease Suppression
Shen, Shun-Shan ; Kim, Won-Il ; Park, Chang-Seuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 364~368
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.364
Survival of biocontrol agents and their effective colonization of rhizhosphere are the essential components for successful disease suppression. The effects of hydrogel supplement on bacterial survival and disease control were evaluated in pot and in the field. Addition of 2% hydrogel material to potting soil resulted in significant enhancement of colonization of biocontrol agent Serratia plymuthica A21-4 both in soil and rhizosphere of pepper plants. Rhizosphere colonization of S. plymuthica A21-4 retrieved from 40 days old pepper seedlings indicated 100 times higher bacterial population in hydrogel treated soil than in ordinary pot soil. The pepper plants sown in hydrogelated potting soil showed higher seed germination rate and the better growth of pepper plant than those in ordinary commercial pot soil. Although the suppression of Phytophthora capsid density in the potting soil by treatment of biocontrol agent A21-4 was not significantly different between in hydrogelated soil and ordinary potting soil, the suppression of Phytophthora blight between two treatments was significantly different. A21-4 treatment in hydrogelated potting soil was completely disease-free while same treatment in ordinary potting soil revealed 36% disease incidence. Our field study under natural disease occurrence also showed significantly less disease incidence(12.3%) in the A21-4 treatment in the hydrogelated soil compared to other treatments. Yield promotion of pepper by the A21-4 treatment in the hydrogelated potting soil was also recognized. Our results indicated that hydrogel amendment with biocontrol agent in pot soil would be a good alternative to protect pepper seedlings and increase plant yield.
Characterization and Genetic Diversity of Benzimidazole-resistant and -sensitive Monilinia fructicola Isolates in Korea
Lim, Tae-Heon ; Johnson, Iruthayasamy ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 369~374
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.369
To characterize benzimidazole-resistant and -sensitive Monilinia fructicola populations, the fungal isolates were obtained from peach plants showing brown rot and bloosom blight. Benzimidazole-sensitive isolates did not grow on potato dextrose agar(PDA) amended with
active ingredient(a.i.)/ml of the fungicides. However, benzimidazole-resistant isolates grew on PDA regardless of the tested concentrations of fungicides. Benzimidazole-resistant isolates did not grow on diethofencarb-PDA, but sensitive isolates grew on the same PDA. In the nucleotide sequences of
-tubulin gene, only codon 198(GAG: glutamic acid), a target site for benzimidazole, was replaced with GCG(alanine) in all of the resistant isolates, and this substitution seems to play an important role in the development of resistance. Other interesting codons such as 165(GCT), 200(TTC), and 241(GCT) were not changed among the isolates. Benzimidazole-resistant and -sensitive isolates were clustered clearly in random amplified polymerphic DNA analyses and the results revealed that low levels of genetic diversity between benzimidazole-sensitive and -resistant isolates of M. fructicola in the investigated regions.
Survey on the Occurrence of Apple Diseases in Korea from 1992 to 2000
Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Lee, Soon-Won ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, Dong-A ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 375~380
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.375
In the survey from 1992 to 2000, twenty-eight parasitic diseases were observed in major apple producing areas in Korea. The predominant apple diseases were white rot(Botryosphaeria dothidea), Marssonina blotch(Marssonina mali), Valsa canker(Valsa ceratosperma), Alternaria leaf spot(Alternaria mali), and bitter rot(Collectotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum). Apple scab that reappeared in 1990 after disappearance for 15 years was disappeared again since 1997. A viroid disease(caused by apple scar skin viroid) was newly found in this survey. The five diseases, fire blight(Erwinia amylovora), black rot(Botryosphaeria obtusa), scab(Cladosporium carpophilum), Monochaetia twig blight(Monochaetia sp.), and brown leaf spot(Hendersonia mali), which had once described in 1928 but no further reports on their occurrence, were not found in this survey. However, blossom blight(Monilinia mali), brown rot(Monilinia fructigena), and pink rot(Trichothecium roseum), which did not occur on apple after mid 1970s, were found in this survey.
Antifungal Activity of Lichen-Forming Fungi Isolated from Korean and Chinese Lichen Species Against Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Oh, Soon-Ok ; Jeon, Hae-Sook ; Lim, Kwang-Mi ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 381~385
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.381
Antifungal activity of Korean and Chinese lichen-forming fungi(LFF) was evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi of Botryosphaeria dothidea, Botrytis cinerea, Diaporthe actinidiae, Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium cepivorum. The LFF were isolated from Cladonia scabriuscula, Melanelia sp., Nephromopsis asahinae, Nephromopsis pallescens, Parmelia laevior, Pertusaria sp., Ramalina conduplicans, Ramalina sinensis, Ramalina sp., Umbilicaria proboscidea and Vulpicida sp. with discharged spore method. The isolates were deposited in the herbarium of Korean Lichen Research Institute(KoLRI) in Sunchon National University. The LFF of Melanelia sp., P. laevior, Pertusaria sp., R. conduplican and Ramalina sp. exhibited strong antifungal activity against all of the pathogenic fungi examined. Among them, LFF of P. laevior showed more than 90% of inhibition in fungal hyphae growth, compared with control. The results imply that LFF can be served as a promising bioresource to develop novel biofungicides. Mass cultivation of the LFF is now under progress in laboratory conditions for chemical identification of antifungal substances.
Agroinfiltration-based Potato Virus X Replicons to Dissect the Requirements of Viral Infection
Park, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 22, issue 4, 2006, Pages 386~390
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2006.22.4.386
Extensive research of the Potato virus X(PVX) has been performed in in vitro transcription system using the bacteriophage T7 promoter. We constructed an efficient T-DNA based binary vector, pSNU1, and modified vectors carrying PVX replicons. The suitability of the construct to transiently express PVX RNA using Agrobacterium tumefaciens was tested by analysis of infectivity in plants. The expressed PVX RNA was infectous and systemically spread in three plant species including Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, and Capsicum annuum cv. Chilsungcho. The PVX full length construct, pSPVXp31, was caused severe mosaic symptoms on N. benthamiana, severe necrotic lesions on C. annuum while milder symptoms and delayed mosaic symptoms were appeared on the systemic leaves on N. tabaccum. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of PVX RNAs on both inoculated and systemic leaves in all three plant species tested. Our results indicated that PVX replicons were efficiently expressed PVX RNA in at least three tested species. Further investigation win be needed to elucidate the mechanism of PVX replication, translation, movement and assembly/disassembly processes.