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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
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Molecular and Cultural Characterization of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Bitter Rot of Apples in Korea
Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Kim, Dae-Ho ; Jeon, Young-Ah ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ; Hong, Seung-Beom ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.037
Colletotrichum contains many important pathogens which cause economically significant diseases of crops like pepper, strawberry, tomato and apple. Forty four isolates were collected to characterize the diversity of Colletotrichum causing apple anthracnose in various regions of Korea. They were analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA and partial
-tubulin gene DNA sequence, and culture characteristics on PDA and PDA-Benomyl. From the results of molecular analyses, 31 strains belonged to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, ribosomal DNA group (RG) 4 of Moriwaki et al. (2002), 8 strains belonged to C. acutatum, A2 group of Talhinhas et al. (2005) and 5 strains to C. acutatum, A3 group of Talhinhas et al. (2005). Most isolates of C. gloeosporioides RG4 grew faster on PDA than strains of C. acutatum, A2 and A3 groups and most RG4 strains were sensitive to Benomyl. However, a few strains of RG4 grew slower and were resistant to Benomyl. On the basis of molecular characteristics, apple isolates of C. acutatum were clearly differentiated from red pepper isolates of the species, but apple isolates of C. gloeosporioides were not.
Genetic Variability of Sorghum Charcoal Rot Pathogen (Macrophomina phaseolina) Assessed by Random DNA Markers
Bashasab, Rajkumar, Fakrudin ; Kuruvinashetti, Mahaling S ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 45~50
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.045
Genetic diversity among selected isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina, a causal agent of charcoal rot (stalk rot) disease in sorghum was studied using PCR-RAPD markers. A set of ten isolates, from ten different rabi sorghum genotypes representing two traditional sorghum growing situations viz., Dharwad- a transitional high rainfall region and Bijapur- a semi-arid low rainfall region in South India. From a set of 40 random primers tested, amplicon profiles of 15 were reproducible. A total of 149 amplicon levels, with an average of 9.9 bands per primer, were available for analysis, of which 148 were polymorphic (99.3%). It was possible to discriminate all the isolates with any of the 15 primers employed. UPGMA clustering of data indicated that the isolates shared varied levels of genetic similarity within a range of 0.14 to 0.72 similarity coefficient index and it was suggestive that grouping of isolates was not related to sampling location in anyway. A high level of genetic heterogeneity of 0.28 was recorded among the isolates.
Functional Analysis of a Histidine Auxotrophic Mutation in Gibberella zeae
Seo, Back-Won ; Kim, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Yin-Won ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 51~56
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.051
A plant pathogenic fungus, Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum), not only generates economic losses by causing disease on cereal grains, but also leads to severe toxicosis in human and animals through the production of mycotoxins in infected plants. Here, we characterized a histidine auxotrophic mutant of G. zeae, designated Z43R1092, which was generated using a restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) procedure. The mutant exhibited pleiotropic phenotypic changes, including a reduction in mycelial growth and virulence and loss of sexual reproduction. Outcrossing analysis confirmed that the histidine auxotrophy is linked to the insertional vector in Z43R1092. Molecular analysis showed that the histidine requirement of Z43R1092 is caused by a disruption of an open reading frame, designated GzHIS7. The deduced product of GzHIS7 encodes a putative enzyme with an N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase and a C-terminal cyclase domain, similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HIS7 required for histidine biosynthesis. The subsequent gene deletion and complementation analyses confirmed the functions of GzHIS7 in G. zeae. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of histidine auxotrophy in G. zeae, and our results demonstrate that correct histidine biosynthesis is essential for virulence, as well as sexual development, in G. zeae. In addition, our results could provide a G. zeae histidine auxotroph as a recipient strain for genetic transformation using this new selectable marker.
Transmission of Tomato leaf curl begomovirus by Two Different Species of Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Hidayat, Sri Hendrastuti ; Rahmayani, Enuna ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 57~61
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.057
Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTGs) are economically important pathogens causing serious damage on tomato and chilli pepper in Indonesia. Geminiviruses are readily transmitted by its insect vector, sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). However, greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum), another species of whitefly, is commonly found together with B. tabaci in the field. Incidence of yellow leaf curl disease in tomato and chilli pepper is probably correlated with the population of whitefly complex. It is becoming important to find the role of T. vaporariorum in the spread of the disease. Therefore, research is conducted to study the characteristic relationship between tomato leaf curl begomovirus (ToLCV) and two species of whitefly. The two species of whitefly, B. tabaci and T. vaporariorum, was capable to transmit ToLCV although it was evidenced that B. tabaci is more effective as insect vector of ToLCV in tomato and chilli pepper. A single B. tabaci was able to transmit ToLCV to tomato with a minimum acquisition and inoculation access period of 10 h. Transmission of ToLCV by T. vaporariorum required at least 10 insects per plant with a minimum acquisition and inoculation access period of 24 h. The transmission efficiency will increase with longer acquisition and inoculation access period of the insect and the higher number of insect per plant.
Response of Commercial Cotton Cultivars to Fusarium solani
Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A. ; Omar, Moawad R. ; El-Samawaty, Abdel-Rheem ; Aly, Aly A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 62~69
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.062
Twenty-nine isolates of Fusarium solani, originally isolated from diseased cotton roots in Egypt, were evaluated for their ability to cause symptoms on four genetically diverse cotton cultivars. Analysis of variance showed highly significant variance among cultivars, and isolates as well as the isolate x genotype interactions were highly significant(p < 0.0001). Although most isolates showed intermediate pathogenicity, there were two groups of isolates that showed significant differences in pathogenicity on all four cultivars. None of the cultivars were found to be immune to any of the isolates. On all cultivars, there were strong significant positive correlations between dry weight and each of preemergence damping-off, survival, and plant height. Considering 75% similarity in virulence, two groups comprising a total of 29 isolates were recognized. Ninety-three percent of the isolates have the same pathogenicity patterns with consistently low pathogenicity, and narrow diversity of virulence. Isolates Fs4 and Fs5 shared the same distinct overall virulence spectrum with consistently high pathogenicity. There was no clear-cut relationship between virulence of the isolates based on reaction pattern on 4 cultivars and each of host genotype, previous crop, and geographic origin.
Variation in Susceptibility of Pine Species Seedlings with the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Greenhouse
Woo, Kwan-Soo ; Kim, Yeong-Sik ; Koo, Yeong-Bon ; Yeo, Jin-Kie ; Moon, Yil-Soong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 70~75
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.070
We conducted an inoculation test using nine open-pollinated families of pine trees to evaluate their susceptibility and mortality in different densities of pine wood nematode. Three-year-old nine open-pollinated pine families were inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at levels of 3,000, 5,000, and 7,000 nematodes/seedling in greenhouse. There were no distinct patterns in latent period among three densities of B. xylophilus in all families. Most families showed the first disease symptoms of needle discoloration within 12-15 days after inoculation. However, open-pollinated progenies of Pinus densiflora showed the longest latent period because none of one-year-old needles were wilted until 14 days after inoculation with 5,000 and 7,000 nematodes. One-year-old needles were wilted earlier than current needles in all tested families with all densities of B. xylophilus. Current needles were not wilted until 14 days after inoculation in all seedlings. The mortality of all seedlings rapidly increased from 35 days to 49 days after inoculation, and all died within 80 days except two seedlings. A 3,000 nematodes/100
with sterilized distilled water are enough to screen 3-year-old pine seedlings for resistance to B. xylophilus.
Expression and Promoter Analyses of Pepper CaCDPK4 (Capsicum annuum calcium dependent protein kinase 4) during Plant Defense Response to Incompatible Pathogen
Chung, Eun-Sook ; Oh, Sang-Keun ; Park, Jeong-Mee ; Choi, Do-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 76~89
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.076
CaCDPK4, a full-length cDNA clone encoding Capsicum annuum calcium-dependent protein kinase 4, was isolated from chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Deduced amino acid sequence of CaCDPK4 shares the highest homology with tobacco NpCDPK8 and chickpea CaCDPK2 with 79% identity. Genomic blot analyses revealed that CaCDPK4 is present as a single copy in pepper genome, but it belongs to a multigene family. CaCDPK4 was highly induced when pepper plants were inoculated with an incompatible bacterial pathogen. Induced levels of CaCDPK4 transcripts were also detected in pepper leaves by the treatment of ethephon, an ethylene-inducing agent, and high-salt stress condition. The bacterial-expressed GST-CaCDPK4 protein showed to retain the autophosphorylation activity in vitro. GUS expression driven by CaCDPK4 promoter was examined in transgenic Arabidopsis containing transcriptional fusion of CaCDPK4 promoter. GUS expression under CaCDPK4 promoter was strong in the root and veins of the seedlings. GW (-1965) and D3 (-1377) promoters conferred on GUS expression in response to inoculation of an incompatible bacterial pathogen, but D4-GUS (-913) and DS-GUS (-833) did not. Taken together, our results suggest that CaCDPK4 can be implicated on signal transduction pathway of defense response against an incompatible bacterial pathogen in pepper.
Nitrogen Biofixing Bacteria Compensate for the Yield Loss Caused by Viral Satellite RNA Associated with Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Tomato
Dashti, N.H. ; Montasser, M.S. ; Ali, N.Y. ; Bhardwaj, R.G. ; Smith, D.L. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 90~96
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.090
To overcome the problem of the yield reduction due to the viral satellite mediated protection, a culture mix of three nitrogen-fixing bacteria species of the genus Azospirillum (A. brasilienses N040, A. brasilienses SP7, and A. lipoferum MRB16), and one strain of cyanobacteria (Anabena oryzae Fritsch) were utilized as biofertilizer mixture in both greenhouse and field experiments. When protected plants were treated with biofertilizer mixtures, the fruit yield of biofertilized plants increased by 48% and 40% in a greenhouse and field experiment, respectively, compared to untreated plants inoculated with the protective viral strain alone. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis of total nucleic acid (TNA) extracts revealed that biofertilization did not affect the accumulation of the viral satellite RNA (CARNA 5) that is required for plant protection against other destructive viral strains of CMV. The yield increment was a good compensation for the yield loss caused by the use of the protective viral strain associated with CARNA 5.
Antifungal Activity of Five Plant Essential Oils as Fumigant Against Postharvest and Soilborne Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Lee, Sun-Og ; Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Lim, He-Kyoung ; Cho, Kwang-Yun ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.097
A total of 39 essential oils were tested for antifungal activities as volatile compounds against five phytopathogenic fungi at a dose of 1
per plate. Five essential oils showed inhibitory activities against mycelial growth of at least one phytopathogenic fungus. Origanum vulgare essential oil inhibited mycelial growth of all of the five fungi tested. Both Cuminum cyminum and Eucalyptus citriodora oils displayed in vitro antifungal activities against four phytopathogenic fungi except for Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris suppressed the mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani and that of Cymbopogon citratus was active to only F. oxysporum. The chemical compositions of the five active essential oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study suggests that both E. citriodora and C. cyminum oils have a potential as antifungal preservatives for the control of storage diseases of various crops.
Inoculum Sources to Generate High Mechanical Transmission of Barley yellow mosaic virus
Jonson, Gilda ; Kim, Yang-Kil ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Hyun, Jong-Nae ; Kim, Jung-Gon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 103~105
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.103
Mechanical transmission of barley seedlings with barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) is generally inefficient and is the major constraint for testing cultivar resistance to the virus. To explore mechanical transmission, BaYMV-infected barley plants were grown at different conditions and used as inoculum sources to seedlings of susceptible barley cultivar Baegdong. Extracts prepared from BaYMV-infected Baegdong plants at 47, 53, 74, and 90 days after symptom appearance (DASA) and grown at 10 and
gave 10, 30, 68 and 76% infection, respectively on inoculated susceptible barley cv. Baegdong seedlings. While Jinyangbori, another susceptible cultivar obtained 95% infection rate inoculated with extracts from 90 DASA disease source and grown at
. However, low infection rates were obtained when the virus sources were grown in a greenhouse at
. Our results indicate that longer incubation period and lower temperature are required for virus accumulation and stability.
Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii Associated with Witches' broom of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya M.
Kim, Young-Hwan ; Jung, Hee-Young ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 106~108
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.106
The Symptoms of witches' broom disease caused by phytoplasma including general stunting and yellowing, were observed in leafy lespedeza (Lespedeza cyrtobotrya M.) on Doam-myeon, Pyeongchang-gun, in 2006. Based on the sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA and 16S-23S spacer region DNA products using universal phytoplasma primers, the phytoplasma associated with leafy lespedeza witches' broom (LLWB) disease was identified as a member of Candidatus Pytoplasma trifolii. It was most closely related to alsike clover proliferation phytoplasma (99.8% similarity, accession no. AY390261), Candidatus Pytoplasma trifolii strain. RFLP patterns generated with AluI, HpaII clearly differentiated LLWB phytoplasma from the referenced phytoplasma strains, water dropwort witches' broom, mulberry dwarf, glehni aster yellow dwarf and jujube witches' broom. This paper is the first report on Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii in leafy lespedeza identified at a molecular level.
Root-Dipping Application of Antagonistic Rhizobacteria for the Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper Under Field Conditions
Sang, Mee-Kyung ; Oh, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Ki-Deok ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 109~112
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.109
This study was to examine the efficacy of a root-dipping application of antagonistic bacterial strains for the control of Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by P. capcisi, and to evaluate their plant growth-promoting effects in the field in 2005 and 2006. The candidate antagonistic rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, ISE13, and ISE14 were treated by dipping plant roots with bacterial suspensions prior to transplanting. The candidate rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, and ISE14 significantly (P=0.05) reduced the disease incidence and the area under the disease progress curves when compared to buffer-treated controls in at least a year test. The metalaxy l(fungicide-treated control) resulted in one of the lowest disease incidences among the treatments in both years. Moreover, the strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, and ISE13 significantly (P=0.05) increased the fruit weights and/or numbers of peppers in at least a year test compared to the buffer-treated controls. These results suggest that the antagonistic rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, and GSE09 could be efficient biocontrol agents by controlling Phytophthora blight of pepper and promoting the plant growth when treated with root-dipping at transplanting.
Antifungal Activity of Plumbagin Purified from Leaves of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima against Phytopathogenic Fungi
Shin, Kwang-Soo ; Lee, Sam-Keun ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 2, 2007, Pages 113~115
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.2.113
A kind of naphthoquinone, plumbagin was purified and identified from the leaves of Nepenthes
through solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and recrystallization. The yield (0.51%) was higher than that of the root of Plumbago scandens (0.26%), P. capensis (0.15%), and N. thorelii (0.092%). It exhibited antifungal activity against all plant pathogenic fungi tested, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from about 4.8 to
against the above eight fungi and R. solani was the most sensitive.