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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
The Genera Babuvirus and Badnavirus in Asia
Natsuaki, Keiko T. ; Furuya, Noriko ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 227~232
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.227
In the plant virus world, there are six genera of plant viruses with dsDNA genomes and six genera with ssDNA (Fauquet et al., 2005). The dsDNA viruses are comprised of 4 genera in the Caulimoviridae, the genus Badnavirus and the genus Tungrovirus. The ssDNA viruses are comprised of four genera in Geminiviridae, and the two genera Nanovirus and Babuvirus in the Nanoviridae. The genera Babuvirus and Badnavirus are not well studied in Asia. However, we recognized the significance of two species, Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) in the genus Babuvirus and Banana streak virus (BSV) in the genus Badnavirus, during the survey of banana viruses in Asia. Their main characters will be introduced in this mini-review.
The Cellulase and Pectinase Activities Associated with the Virulence of Indigenous Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Isolates in Jordan Valley
Asoufi, H. ; Hameed, K.M. ; Mahasneh, A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 233~238
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.233
Twenty five isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were recovered from different infested fields of vegetable along the heavily cultivated crops in Jordan valley. Cellulase and pectinase activities of those isolates were detected using CMC and pectin agar media, respectively. Diameter of the clearing zones on those media represented the level of such enzymatic activities, characteristic of each isolate. The virulence of those isolates was studied using a squash (Cucurbita pipo) cultivar under a greenhouse condition. The significance of correlating the enzymatic activity with the virulence of the isolates was ascertained and discussed.
MicroTom - A Model Plant System to Study Bacterial Wilt by Ralstonia solanacearum
Park, Eun-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Don ; Chung, Eu-Jin ; Lee, Myung-Hwan ; Um, Hae-Young ; Murugaiyan, Senthilkumar ; Moon, Byung-Ju ; Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 239~244
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.239
MicroTom is a miniature tomato plants with various properties that make it as a model system for experiments in plant molecular biology. To extend its utility as a model plant to study a plant - bacterial wilt system, we investigated the potential of the MicroTom as a host plant of bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. We compared the disease progress on standard tomato and MicroTom by two inoculation methods, root dipping and soil drenching, using a race 1 strain GMI1000. Both methods caused the severe wilting on MicroTom comparable to commercial tomato plant, although initial disease development was faster in root dipping. From the diseased MicroTom plants, the same bacteria were successfully reisolated using semiselective media to fulfill Koch's postulates. Race specific and isolate specific virulence were investigated by root dipping with 10 isolates of R. solanacearum isolated from tomato and potato plants. All of the tested isolates caused the typical wilt symptom on MicroTom. Disease severities by isolates of race 3 was below 50 % until 15 days after inoculation, while those by isolates of race 1 reached over 50% to death until 15 days. This result suggested that MicroTom can be a model host plant to study R. solanacearum - plant interaction.
Analysis of the Complete Genome Sequence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus strain A Isolated from Hollyhock
Choi, Seung-Kook ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Sohn, Seong-Han ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 245~250
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.245
The complete genome sequence of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus stain A (ZYMV-A) isolated from a hollyhock (Althaea rosea) was determined by using RT-PCR with a series of primer sets. The virus genome consisted of 9593 nucleotides (nt), excluding the poly(A) tract at 3' terminus of the virus genome, with 5' and 3' untranslated region of 139 and 211 nt, respectively. The deduced polyprotein of ZYMV-A consisted of 3080 amino acid (aa) residues and was 351 kDa in molecular weight. All proteolytic cleavage sites of the polyprotein of ZYMV-A were compared with those of ZYMV strains, which showed the cleavage sites were conserved among ZYMV strains. The HC-Pro contained the KITC and PTK motifs, and the DAG motif was located at CP ORF of ZYMV-A, suggesting that ZYMV-A is aphid-transmissible. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the complete genome among ZYMV strains or CP ORFs with other potyviruses showed ZYMV strains formed a distinct group. These results clearly confirmed that ZYMV-A was another distinct strain in ZYMV population at molecular level.
Variation in the Pathogenicity of Lily Isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus
Lee, Jin-A ; Choi, Seung-Kook ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Hong, Jin-Sung ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 251~259
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.251
Two isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) originated from lily plants, named Ly2-CMV and Ly8-CMV, were compared with their pathological features in several host plants. Ly2-CMV and Ly8-CMV could induce systemic mosaic symptom in Nicotiana benthamiana, but Ly2-CMV could not systemically infect tomato and cucumber plants that have been used for CMV-propagative hosts. While Fny-CMV used as a control infected systemically the same host plants, producing typical CMV symptoms. Ly8-CMV could infect systemically two species of tobacco (N. tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc and N. glutinosa) and zucchini squash (Curcubita pepo), but Ly2 failed systemic infection on these plants. As resulted from tissue-print immunoblot assay, different kinetics of systemic movement between Ly2-CMV and Ly8-CMV were crucial for systemic infection in tobacco (cv. Xanthi-nc). Sequence analysis of full-length genome of two lily isolates showed Ly2 and Ly8 belonged to subgroup IA of CMV. The lily isolates shared overall 98 % sequence identity in their genomes. Coat protein, 3a protein, and 2b protein involved in virus movement was highly conserved in genomes of the isolates Ly2 and Ly8. Although there is the low frequency of recombinants and reassortants in natural CMV population, phylogenetic analysis of each viral protein among a number of CMV isolates suggested that genetic variation in a defined population of CMV lily isolates was stochastically produced.
Direct Stem Blot Immunoassay (DSBIA): A Rapid, Reliable and Economical Detection Technique Suitable for Testing Large Number of Barley Materials for Field Monitoring and Resistance Screening to Barley mild mosaic virus and Barley yellow mosaic virus
Jonson, Gilda ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Kim, Yang-Kil ; Kim, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Mi-Ja ; Hyun, Jong-Nae ; Kim, Jung-Gon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 260~265
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.260
Testing a large number of samples from field monitoring and routine indexing is cumbersome and the available virus detection tools were labor intensive and expensive. To circumvent these problems we established tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) method an alternative detection tool to detect Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) and Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) infection in the field and greenhouse inoculated plants for monitoring and routine indexing applications, respectively. Initially, leaf and stem were tested to determine suitable plant tissue for direct blotting on nitrocellulose membrane. The dilutions of antibodies were optimized for more efficient and economical purposes. Results showed that stem tissue was more suitable for direct blotting for it had no background that interferes in the reaction. Therefore, this technique was referred as direct stem blot immunoassay or DSBIA, in this study. Re-used diluted (1:1000) antiserum and conjugate up to 3 times with the addition of half strength amount of concentrated antibodies was more effective in detecting the virus. The virus blotted on the nitrocellulose membrane from stem tissues kept at room temperature for 3 days were still detectable. The efficiency of DSBIA and RT-PCR in detecting BaMMV and BaYMV were relatively comparable. Results further proved that DSBIA is a rapid, reliable and economical detection method suitable for monitoring BaMMV and BaYMV infection in the field and practical method in indexing large scale of barley materials for virus resistance screening.
Detection of Allexiviruses in the Garlic Plants in Korea
Lee, Eun-Tag ; Koo, Bong-Jin ; Jung, Ji-Hue ; Chang, Moo-Ung ; Kang, Sang-Gu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 266~271
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.266
The genomes of different allexiviruses were isolated and cloned from virus-infected garlic plants (Allium sativum), which were collected from farm fields in the southern provinces in Korea. The partial nucleotide sequences of the genomes from different allexiviruses were clearly identified in the virus-infected garlic plants. The cloned partial genomes of viruses in garlic plants showed a greater than 90% homology to previously identified allexiviruses and classified into species of GarV-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, and -X, demonstrating that species of allexivirus found in the other countries in the world are also widely distributed in the garlic plants in Korea.
Analysis of Symptom Determinant of Cucumber mosaic virus RNA3 via Pseudorecombinant Virus in Zucchini Squash
Choi, Seung-Kook ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Sohn, Seong-Han ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 272~280
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.272
Isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) collected in Korea, were compared with their pathological features in tobacco and zucchini squash. Full-length cDNA clone of RNA3 was generated by using long-distance RT-PCR. Transcript RNA3 from the cDNA clone was inoculated onto host plants with transcripts RNA1 and RNA2 of Fny strain, generating RNA3-pseudorecombinant CMV. Timing and severity of systemic symptom was not significantly different among the pseudorecombinant CMVs in tobacco, compared with strains Fny-CMV and Pf-CMV. However, the pseudorecombinant CMVs induced two different systemic symptoms (mosaic vs. chlorotic spot) in zucchini squash. Based on symptom induction, the pseudorecombinant CMVs were categorized into two classes. The severity and timing of symptoms were correlated with viral RNA accumulations in systemic leaves of zucchini squash, suggesting that different kinetics of virus movement associated with CMV proteins are crucial for systemic infection and symptom development in zucchini squash. The analysis of movement proteins (MP) of CMV strains showed high sequence homology, but the differences of several amino acids were found in the C-terminal region between Class-I-CMV and Class-II-CMV. The analysis of coat proteins (CP) showed that the CMV isolates tested belonged to CMV subgroup I and the viruses shared overall 87-99% sequence identity in their genomes. Phylogenetic analysis of MP and CP suggested that biological properties of Korean CMV isolates have relationships associated with host species.
Interaction Study of Soybean mosaic virus Proteins with Soybean Proteins using the Yeast-Two Hybrid System
Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Hwang, Sung-Hyun ; Kang, Sung-Hwan ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Sohn, Seong-Han ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 281~286
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.281
Interactions between viral proteins and host proteins are essential for virus replication. Especially, translation of viral genes completely depends on the host machinery. In potyviruses, interactions of genome-linked viral protein (VPg) with host translation factors including eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E, and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) has previously been characterized. In this study, we investigated interactions between Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) viral proteins and host translation factors by yeast two-hybrid system. SMV VPg interacted with eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E, and PABP in yeast two-hybrid system, while SMV helper component proteinase (HC-pro) interacted with neither of those proteins. The interaction between SMV NIb and PABP was also detected. These results are consistent with those reported previously in other potyviruses. Interestingly, we found reproducible and specific interactions between SMV coat protein (CP) and PABP. Deletion analysis showed that the region of CP comprising amino acids 116 to 206 and the region of PABP comprising amino acids 520 to 580 are involved in CP/PABP interactions. Soybean library screening with SMV NIb by yeast two-hybrid assay also identified several soybean proteins including chlorophyll a/b binding preprotein, photo-system I-N subunit, ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase, ST-LSI protein, translation initiation factor 1, TIR-NBS type R protein, RNA binding protein, ubiquitin, and LRR protein kinase. Altogether, these results suggest that potyviral replicase may comprise a multi-protein complex with PABP, CP, and other host factors.
Fungal Endophytes in Roots of Aralia Species and Their Antifungal Activity
Paul, Narayan Chandra ; Kim, Won-Ki ; Woo, Sung-Kyoon ; Park, Myung-Soo ; Yu, Seung-Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 287~294
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.287
Endophytic fungi were isolated from surface sterilized root tissues of Aralia elata and Aralia continentalis, collected from farmer's field in Chungnam province, Republic of Korea, in 2005. Based on ITS sequence analysis, 24 fungal genera were characterized from 359 isolates, belonging to 22 Ascomycota, 1 Glomeromycota and 1 Oomycota. Strumella, Rhizopycnis and Entrophospora in A. elata and Rhizopycnis and Leptosphaeria in A. continentalis were the most abundant taxa. Out of 24 genera, Entrophospora, Leptodontidium, Neoplaconema, Paraconiothyrium, Rhizopycnis, Strumella and Tumularia were new to Korea. A total of 110 isolates were tested for antifungal activities against six plant pathogenic fungi. Out of these, 39 isolates showed antifungal activity against at least one plant pathogenic fungi. Four isolates of Pyrenochaeta, 1 isolate of Entrophospora and 1 unidentified fungus strongly inhibited the growth of six plant pathogenic fungi.
Effects of Solar Heating for Control of Pink Root and Other Soil-borne Diseases of Onions
Lee, Chan-Jung ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Moon, Jin-Seong ; Ha, In-Jong ; Kim, Hee-Dae ; Kim, Woo-Il ; Cheon, Mi-Geon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 295~299
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.295
These experiments were carried out to examine efficacy of soil solarization for control of pink root disease by means of mulching with transparent polyethylene sheets in the hot season. The effects of soil solarization on incidence of pink-root disease caused by Pyrenochaeta terrestris and on onion growth and on populations of soil fungi were investigated. Solarization was dramatically effective in reducing pink root incidence in onion seedling and harvested onion bulb. A 30-day and 40-day solarization treatment significantly improved seedling survival and increased yield of 'Changnyeong-deago' onion while decreasing incidence of pink root. Populations of soil fungi from fields planted to onion were assayed on selective media. Solarization treatment was effective in reducing populations of P. terrestris, Pythium spp., and Rhizoctonia sp. in soil. Increase of yield of onion bulbs was associated with control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. Soil solarization had beneficial effects on yield, bulb diameter, or incidence of pink root.
Expression of Lily Chloroplastic Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase Enhances Resistance to Erwinia carotovora in Potatoes
Kim, Mi-Sun ; Kim, Hyun-Soon ; Kim, Yoon-Sik ; Baek, Kwang-Hyun ; Moon, Jae-Sun ; Choi, Do-Il ; Joung, Hyouk ; Jeon, Jae-Heung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 300~307
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.300
Previously, a chloroplast-localized Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (chCu,ZnSOD) was isolated from lily and the sense- and antisense- sequences of the lily chCu,ZnSOD were used to transform potato plants. Two selected lines, the sense- and anti-sense strand of transgenic plants, were further characterized for resistance to Erwinia carotovora, which is a severe pathogen affecting potato plants. Only the sense-strand transgenic potato, which contained less
than wild-type and antisense-strand transgenic plants, showed increased resistance to E. carotovora. Additional studies using
scavengers in wild-type, sense-strand, and antisense-strand transgenic plants suggest that resistance to E. carotovora is induced by reduced
and is not influenced by
. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first study suggesting that resistance to E. carotovora is enhanced by reduced
, and not by increased amounts of
Survey on the Occurrence of Abiotic Diseases on Kiwifruit in Korea
Koh, Young-Jin ; Lim, Myoung-Taek ; Jeong, In-Ho ; Kim, Gyoung-Hee ; Han, Tae-Woong ; Cha, Ju-Hoon ; Shin, Jong-Sup ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 308~313
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.308
A survey of the occurrence of abiotic diseases on kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) trees was conducted at sixty-two kiwifruit orchards in twenty-one locations of Jeonnam and Jeju Provinces in Korea during the 2007 growing season. Various kinds of abiotic diseases were detected on the kiwifruit trees. Malformed fruits caused by incomplete pollination were commonly observed among the normally growing fruits on almost all of the kiwifruit trees examined. Fruits imbued with wire rust, fruits scratched or girdled by the wire and fruits injured by sunscald occurred in all of the examined orchards. Abnormal growth of girdled branches by the fence wire, dead trees killed by excessive soil moisture due to poor draining and leaf chlorosis by nutrient deficiencies were found in some orchards. Leaf spotting by herbicide and leaf scorch or blight by excessively high temperature were observed. Leaf blight on young shoots by late frost and bark split on trunks by freeze occurred in several open-field orchards. Flooding and strong wind damages by attack of typhoon 'Nari' were also found during the survey period. Cup-shaped leaves frequently occurred on young shoots in early spring and the incidence of the syndrome tends to increase annually in recent years, which are not etiologically defined until now.
First Report on Bacterial Soft Rot of Graft-cactus Chamaecereus silvestrii Caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Korea
Kim, Jeong-Ho ; Joen, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 314~317
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.314
A soft stem rot disease was observed on Chamaecereus silvestrii (Korean name: Sanchui), a scion of graft-cactus, in major growing areas of Suwon (National Horticulture Research Institute), Anseong, Eumseong, Cheonan, Daegu, and Goyang, Korea during 2000 and 2001. Typical symptoms were soft rots characterized by moist and watery decay of the whole cactus stem, which initiated as small water-soaked lesions and enlarged rapidly to the entire stem. The causal organism isolated from the infected stems was identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) based on its physiological and biochemical characteristics and confirmed by the cellular fatty acid composition and Biolog analyses. Artificial inoculation of the bacterium produced the same soft rot symptoms on the cactus stems, from which the same bacterium was isolated and identified. This is the first report of the P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in the graft-cactus C. silvestrii in Korea.
Nematicidal Activity of Bikaverin and Fusaric Acid Isolated from Fusarium oxysporum against Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Kwon, Hyeok-Ran ; Son, Seung-Wan ; Han, Hye-Rim ; Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Choi, Yong-Ho ; Lee, Sunog ; Sung, Nack-Do ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 23, issue 4, 2007, Pages 318~321
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2007.23.4.318
Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, causes pine wilt disease in a number of Pinus species, which is one of the most serious plant diseases in forest, Korea. In the course of a search for nematicidal substances from endophytic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum EF119 out of the 23 fungal strains tested showed the strongest activity to B. xylophilus. Two nematicidal substances were isolated and identified as bikaverin and fusaric acid. Fusaric acid showed somewhat higher nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus than bikaverin; fusaric acid and bikaverin, at
, killed B. xylophilus with mortality values of 50% and 43%, respectively. In addition, both compounds acted synergistically. This is the first report on the nematicidal activity of bikaverin and fusaric acid.