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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Message in a Bottle: Chemical Biology of Induced Disease Resistance in Plants
Schreiber, Karl ; Desveaux, Darrell ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 245~268
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.245
The outcome of plant-pathogen interactions is influenced significantly by endogenous small molecules that coordinate plant defence responses. There is currently tremendous scientific and commercial interest in identifying chemicals whose exogenous application activates plant defences and affords protection from pathogen infection. In this review, we provide a survey of compounds known to induce disease resistance in plants, with particular emphasis on how each compound was originally identified, its putative or demonstrated mechanism of defence induction, and the known biological target(s) of each chemical. Larger polymeric structures and peptides/proteins are also discussed in this context. The quest for novel defence-inducing molecules would be aided by the capability for high-throughput analysis of candidate compounds, and we describe some issues associated with the development of these types of screens. Subsequent characterization of hits can be a formidable challenge, especially in terms of identifying chemical targets in plant cells. A variety of powerful molecular tools are available for this characterization, not only to provide insight into methods of plant defence activation, but also to probe fundamental biological processes. Furthermore, these investigations can reveal molecules with significant commercial potential as crop protectants, although a number of factors must be considered for this potential to be realized. By highlighting recent progress in the application of chemical biology techniques for the modulation of plant-pathogen interactions, we provide some perspective on the exciting opportunities for future progress in this field of research.
Morphological Variations, Genetic Diversity and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum species Causing Grape Ripe Rot in Korea
Hong, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Yun, Hae-Keun ; Choi, Kyung-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 269~278
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.269
Ripe rot was frequently observed on fruits, leaves and stems of grape growing in eight locations in Korea from 2004 to 2006. All 30 isolates of Colletotrichum sp. were obtained from lesions of the ripe rot on grape plants. Out of the isolates, 19 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum and the others as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides based on morphological and cultural characteristics. Inter and intra specific variations of the Colletotrichum spp. isolates were investigated using RAPD and sequences of rDNA ITS and
-tubulin-2. Isolates of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides were distinctly differentiated by molecular analyses. Phylogenetic trees of ITS and
-tubulin-2 showed that Korean isolates of C. acutatum were clustered into groups A2 and A3 among the eight global groups. A2 included non-chromogenic isolates and A3 chromogenic ones. Both C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides isolates were tested for pathogenicity to grape leaves. All isolates tested induced lesions on the leaves of grape by artificial inoculation. There was no difference in pathogenicity between C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides isolates. This is the first report that C. acutatum except C. gloeosporioides causes grape ripe rot in Korea.
Occurrence of Petunia Flattened Stem Caused by Phytoplasma
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Huh, Kun-Yang ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 279~282
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.279
This study describes a phytoplasmal disease occurring in Petunia leaves grown in the glasshouse of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Suwon, Korea. Abnormal growth like flattened stem with flower malformation or phyllody was observed from the plant. The DNA extracted from the diseased leaves was amplified using a universal primer pair of P1/P6 derived from the conserved 16S rRNA gene of Mollicutes giving the expected polymerase chain reaction(PCR) product of 1.5 kb. In the nested PCR assays, the expected DNA fragment of 1.1 kb was amplified with the specific primer pair R16F1/R16R1 that was designed on the basis of aster yellows(AY) phytoplasma 16S rDNA sequences. The 1.1 kb PCR products were cloned and nucleotide sequences were determined, and the sequences of the cloned 168 rRNA gene were deposited in the GenBank database under the accession no. of EU267779. Analysis of the homology percent of the 168 rDNA of PFS-K showed the closest relationship with Hydrangea phyllody phytoplasma(AY265215), Brassica napus phytoplasma(EU123466) and AY phytoplasma CHRY(AY180956). Phytoplasma isolated from the diseased Petunia was designated as Petunia flat stem phytoplasma Korean isolate(PFS-K) in this study. Flattened stem occurring in Petunia was confirmed as infection of AY group of phytoplasma by determination of 16S rRNA gene sequences of phytoplasma and microscopic observation of phytoplasma bodies. This is the first report on the phytoplasmal disease in Petunia in Korea.
A Super-Absorbent Polymer Combination Promotes Bacterial Aggressiveness Uncoupled from the Epiphytic Population
Lee, Bo-Young ; Kim, Dal-Soo ; Ryu, Choong-Min ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 283~288
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.283
Plant leaf surface is an important niche for diverse epiphytic microbes, including bacteria and fungi. Plant leaf surface plays a critical frontline defense against pathogen infections. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a starch-based super-absorbent polymer(SAP) combination, which enhances water potential and nutrient availability to plant leaves. We evaluated the effect of SAP on the maintenance of bacterial populations. In order to monitor bacterial populations in situ, a SAP mixture containing Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci that expressed recombinant green fluorescent protein(GFPuv) was spray-challenged onto whole leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. The SAP combination treatment enhanced bacterial robustness, as indicated by disease severity and incidence. Unexpectedly, bacterial numbers were not significantly different between leaves treated with the SAP combination and those treated with water alone. Furthermore, young leaves treated with the SAP combination had more severe symptoms and a greater number of bacterial spots caused by primary and secondary infections compared to young leaves treated with the water control. In contrast, bacterial cell numbers did not statistically differ between the two groups, which indicated that measurement of viable GFP-based bacterial spots may provide a more sensitive methodology for assessing virulence of bacterial pathogens than methods that require dilution plating following maceration of bacterial-inoculated leaf tissue. Our study suggests that the SAP combination successfully increased bacterial aggressiveness, which could either be used to promote the ability of biological agents to control weedy plants or increase the robustness of saprophytic epiphytes against competition from potentially harmful microbes.
RNA-RNA Interactions between RNA Elements at the 5' end and at the Upstream of sgRNA of RNA Genome are Required for Potato virus X RNA Replication
Park, Mi-Ri ; Park, Sang-Ho ; Cho, Sang-Yun ; Hemenway, Cynthia L. ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Sohn, Seong-Han ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 289~295
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.289
RNA-RNA interactions and the dynamic RNA conformations are important regulators in virus replication in several RNA virus systems and may also involved in the regulation of many important virus life cycle phases, including translation, replication, assembly, and switches in these important stages. The 5' non-translated region of Potato virus X(PVX) contains multiple cis-acting elements that facilitate various viral processes. It has previously been proposed that RNA-RNA interactions between various RNA elements present in PVX RNA genome are required for PVX RNA accumulation(Hu et al., 2007; Kim and Hemenway, 1999). This model was based on the potential base-pairing between conserved sequence elements at the upstream of subgenomic RNAs(sgRNAs) and at the 5' and 3' end of RNA genome. We now provide more evidence that RNA-RNA base-pairing between elements present at the 5' end and upstream of each sgRNA is required for efficient replication of genomic and subgenomic plus-strand RNA accumulation. Site-directed mutations introduced at the 5' end of plus-strand RNA replication defective mutant(
) increasing base-pairing possibility with conserved sequence elements located upstream of each sgRNAs restored genomic and subgenomic plus-strand RNA accumulation and caused symptom development in inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Serial passage of a deletion mutant(
) caused more severe symptoms and restored wild type sequences and thus retained possible RNA-RNA base-pairing. Altogether, these results indicate that the RNA element located at the 5' end of PVX genome involved in RNA-RNA interactions and play a key role in high-level accumulation of plus-strand RNA in vivo.
The Effect of Cucumber mosaic virus 2b Protein to Transient Expression and Transgene Silencing Mediated by Agro-infiltration
Choi, Min-Sue ; Yoon, In-Sun ; Rhee, Yong ; Choi, Seung-Kook ; Lim, Sun-Hyung ; Won, So-Youn ; Lee, Yeon-Hee ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Suk-Chan ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Lomonossoff, George ; Sohn, Seong-Han ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 296~304
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.296
The transient and rapid expression system of a foreign protein in planta is a very useful technique in biotechnology application. We have investigated optimum condition of Agrobacterium-infiltration technique in which expression level of foreign proteins were maximized without detrimental effects on plants using GFP and Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein, which is known as an enhancer of gene expression and a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing(PTGS). The optimum expression level of both RNA and protein of GFP with minimum leaf impairment was obtained at
=0.2 of Agrobactrium inocula. The steady-state levels of GFP RNA and protein generally peaked at 3 and 7 days post-infiltration(dpi), respectively. In the presence of 2b, both the magnitude and duration of GFP expression was highly increased and we could detect GFP level until 17 dpi. On the other hands, the 2b-mediated higher accumulation of foreign proteins resulted in the repression of normal leaf growth, possibly due to the limitation of supply of energy or materials required for growth maintenance. Using this Agrobacterium-infiltration system with 2b and GFP, we tested a hypothesis for the threshold model of PTGS initiation. Four GFP transgenic lines of N. benthamiana, which shows different expression level of GFP were tested to determine the threshold level for PTGS initiation. Agrobacterium-infiltration of GFP into those GFP-transgenic plants resulted in the co-silencing of the transgenic GFP. It was found that very low concentration of Agrobacterium with GFP and GFP+2b(
=0.002-0.02) which could not phenotypically induce an additive GFP expression, was enough to trigger PTGS pathway in all GFP transgenic plants. This strongly indicates that each GFP-transgenic plant should be expressing the transgenic GFP at its own pre-determined level and there was no buffer zone of additive GFP-expression to the threshold. In other words, the PTGS seems to be immediately activated as a self-defensive mechanism if an internal balance of gene expression is broken.
Incidence of Coleus blumei viroid 1 in Seeds of Commercial Coleus in Korea
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Choi, Gug-Sun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 305~308
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.305
A viroid was detected from symptomless Coleus blumei cultivar 'Kong Scarlet'. It consisted of 249 nucleotides(GenBank accession no. EU410620), which was 100% identical to a Coleus blumei viroid 1(CbVd 1) reported from China(GenBank accession no. DQI78399), indicating that the viroid was an isolate of CbVd1. Attempts were made to determine if commercial Coleus seeds were infected with CbVd. Infection rates in seedlings of the 14 commercial cultivars of Coleus ranged from 0 to 100%. CbVd1 caused discoloration and growth retardation in some cultivars, but is symptomless in others. These results indicated that Coleus in commercial markets in Korea is highly infected with CbVd.
Biocontrol of Blue Stain in Pine Wood with Lyophilized Mycelium of Ophiostoma quercus Albino Strain
Cho, Byung-Ju ; Kim, Nam-Kyu ; Cho, Nam-Seok ; Lee, Jong-Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 309~316
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.309
Mycelium of Ophiostoma quercus albino strain cultured in liquid culture media was harvested, lyophilized, and stored for examining biocontrol efficacy against wood discoloration by staining fungi in the laboratory and field conditions. Dry weight of mycelium grown in brown sugar yeast extract broth(BYB) showed 3.8 times higher than that grown in potato dextrose broth(PDB). The optimum culture period in BYB was 4 weeks. In vitality test of the albino strain, the lyophilized mycelium stored in liquid nitrogen(
) or in a refrigerator(
) kept the vitality until 13 months after storage; however, the mycelium stored at room temperature lost the vitality completely after 13 months. The mycelium stored in liquid nitrogen or in a refrigerator protected wood chips from the discoloration by pretreating mycelial suspension on pine wood chips. The mycelium stored at room temperature for 7 months also showed complete protection. These results suggest that the lyophilized mycelium have a biocontrol efficacy only if it keeps the least vitality. In the field conditions, both albino strain and
(commercial chemical protectant) showed significant differences(p=0.05) in discoloration rate as compared to the non-treated control when these were treated on the wood logs of Pinus rigida. The albino strain showed better protection than
. Isolation frequency of blue stain fungi from the chips of wood logs treated with the albino strain was 0% at three months after treatment, while that treated with
was 76.7%. In another experiment, pre-treatment of mycelial suspension on the cut surface of wood logs also showed significant protection from wood discoloration. Spraying of both albino strain on the cut surface and insecticides on the bark also showed relatively good control effects as compared to insecticide alone on the bark or nontreated control.
Antifungal Activity of the Methanol Extract of Myristica malabarica Fruit Rinds and the Active Ingredients Malabaricones Against Phytopathogenic Fungi
Choi, Nam-Hee ; Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Choi, Yong-Ho ; Lee, Sun-Og ; Choi, Jae-Eul ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 317~321
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.317
In a search for plant extracts with in vivo antifungal activity for plant diseases, we found that the methanol extract of Myristica malabarica fruit rinds effectively suppressed the development of several plant diseases. The methanol extract exhibited potent 1-day protective activity against rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. It also showed 7-day and 4-day protective activities against the plant diseases. Three antifungal resorcinols were isolated from the methanol extract of M. malabarica fruit rinds and identified as malabaricones A(MA), B(MB), and C(MC). Inhibitory activity of the three resorcinols against mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi varied according to compound and target species. All three compounds effectively reduced the development of rice blast, wheat leaf rust and red pepper anthracnose. In addition, MC was highly active for reducing the development of tomato late blight. This is the first report on the antifungal activities of malabaricones against filamentous fungi.
Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus-Derived Phenolics Against Postharvest Pathogens of Kiwifruits
Oh, Soon-Ok ; Kim, Jung-A ; Jeon, Hae-Sook ; Park, Jong-Cheol ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Hur, Hyun ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 322~327
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.322
Antifungal activities of natural substrances from Eucalyptus darlympleana, E. globules, E. gunnii and E. unigera were evaluated against postharvest pathogens of kiwifruits, Botrytis cinerea, Botryosphaeria dothidea, and Diaporthe actinidiae, to screen effective natural substances as an alternative to chemical fungicides. Methanol extract of the Eucalyptus trees showed strong antagonistic activity against the pathogenic fungi. Among them, E. unigera and E. darlympleana effectively inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogens. For chemical identification of the antifungal substances, the methanol extract of E. darlympleana leaves was successively partitioned with
, EtOAc, n-BuOH and
. Among the fractions,
and n-BuOH showed strong inhibitory activity of mycelial growth of the fungi. Five compounds were isolated from EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions subjected to
column chromatography. Two phenolic compounds(gallic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) and three flavonoid compounds(quercetin, quercetin-3-O-
-glucoside) were identified by
-NMR spectroscopy. Among them, only gallic acid was found to be effective in mycelial growth and spore germination of B. cinerea at relatively high concentrations. The results suggest that gallic acid can be a safer and more acceptable alternative to current synthetic fungicides controlling soft rot decay of kiwifruit during postharvest storage.
Involvement of Heat-stable and Proteinaceous Materials in the Culture of Pseudomonas putida JB-1 for the Inhibition of Tobacco mosaic virus Infection
Jeon, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 328~336
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.328
Out of various fungi and bacteria tested for inhibition of Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) infection using Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, a bacterial isolate JB-l, identified as Pseudomonas putida had a strong direct inhibitory activity against the TMV infection. Its systemic or indirect activity was also noted at more than a half level of the direct control efficacy. Disease severity was reduced significantly in the susceptible tobacco N. tabacum cv. NC 82 by the treatment of the bacterial culture filtrate, somewhat more by the pretreatment than by simultaneous treatment, probably by inhibiting the TMV transmission and translocation in the plants, showing negative serological, which responses in the viral detection by DAS-ELISA. TMV-inhibitory substances from P. putida JB-1 were water-soluble, stable to high temperature(even boiling), and to a wide range of pH. As proteinase K nullified their antiviral activity, the TMV inhibition activity of P. putida may be derived from proteinaceous materials. In electron microscopy, TMV particles treated with the JB-1 culture were shown to be shrunken with granule-like particles attached on them. All of these aspects suggest that P. putida JB-1 may be developed as a potential agent for the control of TMV.
Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis of Host-Pathogen Relationship in Rice-Bacterial Blight Pathosystem
Nayak, D. ; Bose, L.K. ; Singh, S. ; Nayak, P. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 337~351
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.337
Host-pathogen interaction in rice bacterial blight pathosystem was analyzed for a better understanding of their relationship and recognition of stable pathogenicity among the populations of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. A total number of 52 bacterial strains isolated from diseased leaf samples collected from 12 rice growing states and one Union Territory of India, were inoculated on 16 rice varieties, each possessing known genes for resistance. Analysis of variance revealed that the host genotypes(G) accounted for largest(78.4%) proportion of the total sum of squares(SS), followed by 16.5% due to the pathogen isolates(I) and 5.1% due to the
interactions. Application of the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction(AMMI) model revealed that the first two interaction principal component axes(IPCA) accounted for 66.8% and 21.5% of the interaction SS, respectively. The biplot generated using the isolate and genotypic scores of the first two IPCAs revealed groups of host genotypes and pathogen isolates falling into four sectors. A group of five isolates with high virulence, high absolute IPCA-1 scores, moderate IPCA-2 scores, low AMMI stability index '
' values and minimal deviations from additive main effects displayed in AMMI biplot as well as response plot, were identified as possessing stable pathogenicity across 16 host genotypes. The largest group of 27 isolates with low virulence, small IPCA-1 as well as IPCA-2 scores, low
values and minimal deviations from additive main effect predictions, possessed stable pathogenicity for low virulence. The AMMI analysis and biplot display facilitated in a better understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, adaptability of pathogen isolates to specific host genotypes, identification of isolates showing stable pathogenicity and most discriminating host genotypes, which could be useful in location specific breeding programs aiming at deployment of resistant host genotypes in bacterial blight disease control strategies.
Differential Structural Responses of Ginseng Root Tissues to Different Initial Inoculum Levels of Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1
Jeon, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 352~356
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.352
Root discs of 4-year-old ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, were inoculated with the higher(
colonyforming units(CFU)/ml) and lower(
CFU/ml) initial inoculum levels of a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium(PGPR), Paenibacillus polymyxa GBR-1 to examine rot symptom development and bacterial population changes on the root discs. At the higher inoculum level, brown rot symptoms developed and expanded on the whole root discs in which the bacterial population increased continuously up to 4 days after inoculation. In light and electron microscopy, ginseng root cells on the inoculation sites were extensively decayed, which were characterized by dissolved cell walls and destructed cytoplasmic contents. However, no rot symptoms were developed and the bacterial population increased only during the initial two days of inoculation at the lower inoculum level(
CFU/ml) of P. polymyxa GBR-1. At the lower inoculum level(
CFU/ml), boundary layers with parallel periclinal cell divisions, structurally similar to wound periderm, were formed internal to the inoculation sites, beneath which the cells were intact containing numerous normal-looking starch granules and no disorganized cell organelles, suggesting that these structural features may be related to the suppression of symptom development, a histological defense mechanism.
Diversity of PthA Gene of Xanthomonas Strains Causing Citrus Bacterial Canker and its Relationship with Virulence
Lee, Seung-Don ; Lee, Jung-Hee ; Lee, Dong-Hee ; Lee, Yong-Hoon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 357~360
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.357
Several pathotypes have been recognized in citrus bacterial canker, which causing serious damage in citrus cultivation area. To control the disease, it is important to understand the pathological diversity and reason of difference in virulence of the causal pathogen. We analyzed 124 strains of Xanthomonas causing citrus bacterial canker by southern hybridization with an internal 3.4-kb BamHI fragment from pthA gene. Assuming each band represented an intact gene, each strain of Xanthomonas was estimated to have approximately 1 to 4 copies of pthA gene. X. a. pv. citri A type had more than 3 copies of pthA gene, and the number of pthA gene in X. a. pv. citri
, and X. a. pv. aurantifolii B, C were different from 1 to 3 according to the strains. When the pthA gene profile was classified into 13 groups according to the number and size of hybridization bands, most of the A types belong to the 3A group, and 4A and 4B type was dominant when they had 4 bands. However, there was no general pattern of difference between the virulence and pthA gene group in this test.
Determination of Complete Genome Sequence of Korean Isolate of Potato virus X
Choi, Sun-Hee ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 361~364
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.361
The complete nucleotide sequences of a Korean isolate of Potato virus X(PVX-Kr) has been determined. Full-length cDNA of PVX-Kr has been directly amplified by long template reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) using virus specific 5'-end primer and 3'-end primer, and then constructed in a plasmid vector. Consecutive subclones of a full-length cDNA clone were constructed to identify whole genome sequence of the virus. Total nucleotide sequences of genome of PVX-Kr were 6,435 excluding one adenine at poly A tail, and genome organization was identical with that of typical PVX species. Comparison of whole genome sequence of PVX-Kr with those of European and South American isolates showed 95.4-96.8% and 77.4-77.9%, in nucleotide similarity, respectively. Sequenced PVX-Kr in this study and twelve isolates already reported could be divided into two subgroups in phylogeny based on their complete nucleotide sequences. Phylogenetic tree analysis demonstrated that PVX-Kr was clustered with European and Asian isolates(Taiwan, os, bs, Kr, S, X3, UK3, ROTH1, Tula) in the same subgroup and South American isolates(CP, CP2, CP4, HB) were clustered in the other subgroup.
Cladosporium sp. is the Major Causal Agent in the Microbial Complex Associated with the skin Sooty Dapple Disease of the Asian Pear in Korea [Editorial Retraction]
Park, Young-Seob ; Kim, Ki-Chung ; Lee, Jang-Hoon ; Cho, Song-Mi ; Choi, Yong-Soo ; Kim, Young-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 3, 2008, Pages 365~365
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.3.365