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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Roles of Plant Proteases in Pathogen Defense
Baek, Kwang-Hyun ; Choi, Do-Il ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 367~374
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.367
The genomes of plants contain more than 600 genes encoding a diverse set of proteases and the subunits of proteasomes. These proteases and proteasomes consist of plant proteolytic systems, which are involved in various cellular metabolic processes. Plant proteolytic systems have been shown to have diverse roles in defense responses, such as execution of the attack on the invading organisms, participation in signaling cascades, and perception of the invaders. In order to provide a framework for illustrating the importance of proteolytic systems in plant defense, characteristics of non-proteasome proteases and the 26S proteasome are summarized. The involvement of caspase-like proteases, saspases, apoplastic proteases, and the 26S proteasome in pathogen defense suggests that plant proteolytic systems are essential for defense and further clarity on the roles of plant proteases in defense is challenging but fundamentally important to understand plant-microbe interactions.
Transgenic Rice Plants Expressing an Active Tobacco Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Induce Multiple Defense Responses
Jeong, Jin-A ; Yoo, Seung-Jin ; Yang, Douck-Hee ; Shin, Seo-Ho ; Lee, Myung-Chul ; Cho, Baik-Ho ; Yang, Kwang-Yeol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 375~383
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.375
It is well known that NtMEK2, a tobacco MAPK kinase, is the upstream kinase of both salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and wound-induced protein kinase. In addition, expression of
, a constitutively active mutant of NtMEK2, is known to induce multiple defense responses in tobacco. In this study, transgenic rice plants that contained an active or inactive mutant of NtMEK2 under the control of a steroid inducible promoter were generated and used to determine if a similar MAPK cascade is involved in disease resistance in rice. The expression of
in transgenic rice plants resulted in HR-like cell death. The observed cell death was preceded by the activation of endogenous rice 48-kDa MBP kinase, which is also activated by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice. In addition, prolonged activation of the MAPK induced the generation of hydrogen peroxide and up-regulated the expression of defense-related genes including the pathogenesis-related genes, peroxidases and glutathione S-transferases. These results demonstrate that NtMEK2 is functionally replaceable with rice MAPK kinase in inducing the activation of the downstream MAPK, which in turn induces multiple defense responses in rice.
Gene Expression Profiling in Rice Infected with Rice Blast Fungus using SAGE
Kim, Sang-Gon ; Kim, Sun-Tae ; Kim, Sung-Kun ; Kang, Kyu-Young ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 384~391
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.384
Rice blast disease, caused by the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is a serious issue in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing regions of the world. Transcript profiling in rice inoculated with the fungus has been investigated using the transcriptomics technology, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Short sequence tags containing sufficient information which are ten base-pairs representing the unique transcripts were identified by SAGE technology. We identified a total of 910 tag sequences via the GenBank database, and the resulting genes were shown to be up-regulated in all functional categories under the fungal biotic stress. Compared to the compatible interaction, the stress and defense genes in the incompatible interaction appear to be more up-regulated. Particularly, thaumatin-like gene (TLP) was investigated in determining the gene and protein expression level utilizing Northern and Western blotting analyses, resulting in an increase in both the gene and the protein expression level which arose earlier in the incompatible interaction than in the compatible interaction.
Effect of Delayed Inoculation After Wounding on the Development of Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on Chili Pepper Fruit
Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Yn-Hee ; Kim, Heung-Tae ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 392~399
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.392
Detached chili pepper fruits were inoculated with the conidial suspension of Colletotrichum acutatum JC-24 simultaneously (simultaneous inoculation, SI) and at delayed time (delayed inoculation, DI) after wounding with (delayed wound inoculation, DWI) or without additional wounding (delayed non-wound inoculation, DNI) at the inoculation time. Disease severity was significantly lowered by DNI, compared to SI. By DNI, the disease reduction rates were proportional with the length of delayed time, and greater at the high temperature range (18, 23 and
) than at the low temperature (
) tested. DWI was also effective in reducing the disease severity especially at 18oC; however, its effectiveness was lower than for DNI. In light microscopy, parenchyma cells at the wounding sites were modified structurally, initially forming new cell walls crossing cytoplasm, enlarged with multiple periclinal cell divisions, and finally layered like wound periderms. In DWI, the above structural modifications occurred, showing the restriction of the fungal invasion by the cell walls in enlarged modified cells, while no definite cellular modifications were found with proliferation of fungal hyphae in SI. Sclerenchyma-like cells with thickened cell walls were proliferated around the wounding sites, which were partially dissolved by DWI, probably leading to some disease development. All of these results suggest that the decline of the anthracnose disease in pepper fruit by the delayed inoculations may be derived from the structural modifications related to the healing processes of the previous wound inflicted on the tissues.
ABA Increases Susceptibility of Pepper Fruits to Infection of Anthracnose by Collectotrichum acutatum
Hwang, Soo-Kyeong ; Kim, Joo-Hyung ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 400~406
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.400
To examine the relationship between plant hormones and the development of pepper anthracnose, we investigated the effects of several plant hormones on the progression of disease symptoms. Of the five plant hormones examined, abscisic acid (ABA) increased the lesion length and disease incidence on detached fruits of Capsicum annuum cv. Nokkwang. The simultaneous application of ABA with inoculation of Colletotrichum acutatum JC24 resulted in increased lesion length, depending the concentration of ABA applied. Additionally, application of ABA caused the development of pepper anthracnose in fruits of Capsicum baccatum cvs. PBC80 and PBC81, which were previously resistant to the disease. Furthermore, ABA administration rendered increased pathogenicity of other isolates of C. acutatum BAC02063, PECH10, and TCBNU3 obtained from the Chinese matrimony vine, peach, and tea tree, respectively. Our data suggest that exogenous ABA may result in the suppression of defense mechanisms of pepper fruits against anthracnose, which leads to a change in the susceptibility of pepper fruits and the development of pepper anthracnose.
Effect of Salinity, Temperature and Carbon Source on the Growth and Development of Sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Isolated from Semi-arid Environment
Abdullah, Mansour T. ; Ali, Nida Y. ; Suleman, Patrice ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 407~416
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.407
Studies were conducted to determine the effects of temperature, solute potential and carbon source on the mycelial growth, sclerotia development, and apothecium production of an isolate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mycelial growth rate was greatest at
on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium amended with up to 2% NaCl (
) and thereafter, growth rate declined. The least number of sclerotia were produced at
on both PDA and malt extract agar (MEA) amended with 8% NaCl (
). With increasing temperature and decreasing solute potential the number and size of sclerotia were significantly reduced. The combined effect of temperature, solute potential and carbon source on sclerotia production were highly significant and had an impact on the development of the rind layer cells of sclerotia. These cells lacked a transparent cell wall which was surrounded by a compact melanized layer, and some of these cells appeared to be devoid of cell contents or were totally vacuolated. The survival of the sclerotia with increase in salinity and temperature appeared to affect melanization and the nature of the rind cells. The observations of this study re-enforces the need for an integrated disease management to control S. sclerotiorum.
Purification and Phytotoxicity of Apicidins Produced by the Fusarium semitectum KCTC16676
Jin, Jianming ; Baek, Seung-Ryel ; Lee, Kyung-Rim ; Lee, Jungkwan ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ; Kang, Seog-Chan ; Lee, Yin-Won ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 417~422
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.417
Apicidin is a cyclic tetrapeptide produced by some Fusarium species and is known to inhibit Apicomplexan histone deacetylase. The goals of this study were to determine species identity of Fusarium isolate KCTC16676, an apicidin producer, to improve a method for apicidin extraction, and to test phytotoxicity of apicidin and its analogs. We compared sequences of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) gene in KCTC16676 with those from isolates representing diverse Fusarium species, which showed that KCTC16676 belongs to the F. semitectum-F. equiseti species complex. To enhance apicidin production, after culturing isolate KCTC16676 on a wheat medium for 3 weeks at
, the culture was extracted with chloroform. Apicidins were purified through a reverse phase
silica gel column, resulting in 5 g of apicidin, 200 mg of apicidin A, and 300 mg of apicidin
from 4 kg of wheat cultures; this represents a significant yield improvement from a previous method, offers more materials to study the modes of its action, and facilitates the elucidation of the apicidin biosynthesis pathway. Apicidin and apicidin
showed phytotoxicity on both seedlings and 2-week-old plants of diverse species, and weeds were more sensitive to apicidins than vegetables
Difference of Physiochemical Characteristics Between Citrus Bacterial Canker Pathotypes and Identification of Korean Isolates with Repetitive Sequence PCRs
Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Lee, Seung-Don ; Lee, Dong-Hee ; Yu, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Jung-Hee ; Heu, Sung-Gi ; Hyun, Jae-Wook ; Ra, Dong-Soo ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 423~432
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.423
The difference of carbon source utilization and fatty acid composition between the pathotypes of Xanthomonas strains, which causing citrus bacterial canker was compared, and the physiochemical characteristics were used to analyze relationship of the strains for the first time. The pattern of several carbon sources utilization and fatty acids composition reliably discriminated the pathotypes of Xanthomonas strains. The dendrogram which was constructed by 95 carbon source utilization profiles differentiated X. axonopodis pv. citri A,
from the other pathotypes. When the dendrogram was drawn by combined analysis of carbon source utilization pattern and fatty acid composition, X. axonopodis pv. aurantifolii B, C and X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo formed a distinct cluster. The difference of carbon source utilization and fatty acid composition could be used effectively for the identification of pathotypes of citrus bacterial canker. The physiochemical characteristics strongly indicated that the strains isolated in Korea belong to X. axonopodis pv. citri A type. The cluster analysis by the band patterns of ERIC-, BOX- and REP-PCR allowed the discrimination of the pathotypes isolated from Korea. However, the rep-PCRs could not differentiate X. axonopodis pv. citri A types from
types. The overall results of metabolic profiles and rep-PCRs strongly indicated that the Korean isolates are X. axonopodis pv. citri A type.
Study on Inheritance of Potato virus X Resistance in Capsicum annuum
Shi, Jinxia ; Choi, Do-Il ; Kim, Byung-Dong ; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 433~438
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.433
Potato virus X (PVX) resistance in potato is one of the best-characterized resistance models, however little is known in pepper. To evaluate the resistance to PVX in Capsicum annuum, a total of eleven pepper accessions were used for resistance screening against two PVX strains, USA and UK3. None of them were resistant against strain UK3, whereas four resistant genotypes were found against strain USA, three of which were further characterized. Two unlinked dominant genes were identified for both genotypes Bukang and Perennial; resistance in the genotype CV3 seemed to be conferred by two complementary dominant genes. These results demonstrated that the resistance to PVX in C. annuum is different from that in potato. This is the first report on genetic analysis of PVX resistance in C. annuum.
Development of a 15-day Interval Spraying Program for Controlling Major Apple Diseases
Lee, Dong-Hyuck ; Kim, Dae-Hee ; Shin, Ho-Cheol ; Uhm, Jae-Youl ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 439~446
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.439
A fungicidal spray program for effective control of three major apple diseases in Korea (white rot, bitter rot, and Marssonina blotch) was developed. This was based on our previous studies showing that application of ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) in early or mid-August can eradicate white rot infection in fruit and that some protective fungicides show after-infection activity against white rot. The basic spray program focused on control of white rot, the main target disease, and the fungicides were sprayed at 15-day intervals from petal fall to late August using fungicides that show after-infection and EBI activity. The basic spray program was modified over 4 successive years to improve control efficacy against bitter rot and Marssonina blotch, which sometimes cause as much damage as white rot. Modifications to the regime were made every year by replacing one fungicide in the basic program at a specific spraying time. Substitution of only one fungicide in the spray program, even early in the growing season, greatly influenced the final disease incidence at harvest. Applying this principle, a moderately efficient spray program for cv. Fuji that increased the spray interval from 10 to 15 days and thus reduced the number of sprays required per crop season was developed.
Survey of Fungicide Resistance for Chemical Control of Botrytis cinerea on Paprika
Yoon, Cheol-Soo ; Ju, Eun-Hee ; Yeoung, Young-Rog ; Kim, Byung-Sup ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 447~452
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.447
Four hundred and sixty six isolates of B. cinerea were obtained from infected leaves, stems and fruits of paprika grown in greenhouses or plastic film houses in Gangwon province, Korea, between August and November in 2006 and 2007. These isolates were classified into five representative phenotypes of resistant (R) and sensitive (S) reactions as SSR, SRR, RSS, RRS and RSR according to the responses of isolates against benzimidazole, dicarboximide and N-phenyl-carbamate fungicide in order. The percentage of five phenotypes were 51.3, 2.4, 35.6, 8.1 and 2.6%, respectively. The SSR phenotype (51.3%) was the most common. Among the nineteen fungicide products evaluated to compare their efficacy against gray mold pathogen on the paprika fruit inoculated with fungal mycelia, the mixture of diethofencarb and carbendazim was the most effective followed by iprodione, boscalid, the mixture of iprodione and thiophanate-methyl, fludioxonil, polyoxin-B, fluazinam, the mixture of tebuconazole and tolyfluanid and procymidone; while in the assay methods inoculated with fungal spores, the mixture of tebuconazole and tolyfluanid was the most effective in controlling gray mold followed by boscalid, fludioxonil, the mixture of diethofencarb and carbendazim and the mixture of pyrimethanil and chlorothalonil.
Evaluation of a Fungal Strain, Myrothecium roridum F0252, as a Bioherbicide Agent
Lee, Hyang-Burm ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Hong, Kyung-Sik ; Kim, Chang-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 453~460
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.453
In the course of in vitro and in vivo screening for bioherbicidal agents, a hyphomycete fungus, Myrothecium sp. F0252 was selected as a candidate for the biocontrol of weeds. The isolate was identified as Myrothecium roridum Tode ex. Fries based on the morphological characteristics and 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis and registered as Myrothecium roridum F0252. In order to evaluate the in vitro effect of M. roridum F0252 on germination of ladino clover and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) seeds, spore solution of the fungus was employed in two concentrations,
spores per mL and then inoculated to the seeds. The fungal spores inhibited the seed germination, infected the seedlings, and caused an abnormal withering and inhibition of seedling growth. In addition, when the herbicidal activity of crude ethyl acetate extract from the liquid culture was assessed on a mini-plant, duck-weed (Lemna paucicostata (L.) Hegelm.), the extract showed high inhibitory effect at the level of
per mL. On the other hand, in vivo herbicidal activity of M. roridum F0252 was evaluated by a whole plant spray method. M. roridum F0252 exhibited strong and broad-spectrum herbicidal activity. The herbicidal values ranged from 95-100% against 7 weeds, including Abutilon avicennae and Xanthium strumarium, and 70-80% against Digitaria sanguinalis and Sagittaria pygmaea. When the nutritional utilization (95 carbon sources) pattern of M. roridum F0252 was investigated, it varied with water activity (
) and temperature conditions, supplying good, basic information in regard to nutritional utilization for proper cultivation and formulation. Our results showed that M. roridum F0252 might be used as a potential biocontrol agent against weedy plants.
A Bacterial Endophyte, Pseudomonas brassicacearum YC5480, Isolated from the Root of Artemisia sp. Producing Antifungal and Phytotoxic Compounds
Chung, Bok-Sil ; Aslam, Zubair ; Kim, Seon-Won ; Kim, Geun-Gon ; Kang, Hye-Sook ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Chung, Young-Ryun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 461~468
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.461
An endophytic bacterial strain YC5480 producing antifungal and phytotoxic compounds simultaneously was isolated from the surface sterilized root of Artemisia sp. collected at Jinju area, Korea. The bacterial strain was identified as a species of Pseudomonas brassicacearum based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical characteristics. The seed germination and growth of monocot and dicot plants were inhibited by culture filtrate (1/10-strength Tryptic Soy Broth) of the strain. The germination rate of radish seeds in the culture filtrate differed in various culture media. Only 20% of radish seeds germinated in the culture media of 1/2 TSB for 5 days incubation. Mycelial growth of fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora capsici was also inhibited by the culture filtrate of the strain YC5480. An antifungal compound, KS-1 with slight inhibitory activity of radish seed germination at 1,000 ppm and a seed germination inhibitory compound, KS-2 without suppression of fungal growth were produced simultaneously in TSB. The compounds KS-1 and KS-2 were identified to be 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) and 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA), respectively.
Morphological and Molecular Identification of Penicillium islandicum Isolate KU101 from Stored Rice
Oh, Ji-Yeon ; Kim, Eui-Nam ; Ryoo, Mun-Il ; Kim, Ki-Deok ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 469~473
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.469
We have previously obtained a representative isolate KU101 of the predominant Penicillium species from rice under indoor storage conditions. In this study we attempted to characterize isolate KU101 using its morphological and molecular characteristics. When the micro- and macroscopic characteristics of isolate KU101 were compared with the P. islandicum reference isolate KCCM 34763, isolate KU101 was generally identical to those of isolate KCCM 34763, however, isolate KU101 grew faster and produced more orange to red pigments than isolate KCCM 34763. In a molecular-based identification, the nuclear sequence of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of isolate KU101 was most closely related to that of P. islandicum. Therefore, these results indicated that isolate KU101 from stored rice could be identified as P. islandicum, some isolates of which are known to produce mycotoxins.
Occurrence of Stunt Nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, on Turfgrass in Korea
Khan, Zakaullah ; Kim, Jeong-Ho ; Son, Seon-Hye ; Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 474~477
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.474
During routine surveys for pest and pathogen incidences at a golf course in 2007, circular to irregular patches of stunted, chlorotic and wilted turfgrass var. Pencross were noticed in Jinhae, Gyeongnam province, Korea. Soil samples collected from those diseased patches of the golf course yielded high population (average 126 nematodes/
) of a stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, which is described and illustrated in this paper with light and scanning electron micrographs. This is the first report on the occurrence of T. claytoni in turfgrass in Korea.
Isolation and Expression Analysis of Brassica rapa WRKY 7
Kim, Seon-Seol ; Ko, Yu-Jin ; Jang, Ji-Young ; Lee, Theresa ; Lim, Myung-Ho ; Park, Sang-Yeol ; Bae, Shin-Chul ; Yun, Choong-Hyo ; Park, Beom-Seok ; Hwang, Duk-Ju ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 24, issue 4, 2008, Pages 478~481
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2008.24.4.478
The cDNA clone of Brassica rapa WRKY7 (BrWRKY7) was obtained from EST collection in Brassica genomics team and its DNA sequence was determined. The cDNA clone is 1,037 bp long in nucleotides and encodes an open reading frame of 307 amino acids. Based on a phylogenetic tree, BrWRKY7 belongs to group IId. BrWRKY7 was induced by wound and SA. It was also induced by pathogen attack such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), suggesting that this BrWRKY may play an essential role in defense response of chinese cabbages.