Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Histological and Cytological Changes Associated with Susceptible and Resistant Responses of Chili Pepper Root and Stem to Phytophthora capsici Infection
Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.113
Microscopic study of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) infected with Phytophthora capsici, causing Phytophthora blight of chili pepper, was conducted to compare histological and cytological characteristics in the root and stem of susceptible (C. annuum cv. Bugang) and resistant (C. annuum cv. CM334) pepper cultivars. The susceptible pepper roots and stems were extensively penetrated and invaded by the pathogen initially into epidermal cells and later cortical and vascular cells. Host cell walls adjacent to and invaded by the infecting hyphae were partially dissolved and structurally loosened with fine fibrillar materials probably by cell wall-degrading enzymes of the pathogen. In the resistant pepper, the pathogen remained on root epidermal surface at one day after inoculation, embedded and captured in root exudation materials composed of proteins and polysaccharides. Also the pathogen appeared to be blocked in its progression at the early infection stages by thickened middle lamellae. At 3 days after inoculation, the oomycete hyphae were still confined to epidermal cells of the root and at most outer peripheral cortical cells of the stem, resulting from their invasion blocked by wound periderms formed underneath the infection sites and/or cell wall appositions bounding the hyphal protrusions. All of these aspects suggest that limitation of disease development in the resistant pepper may be due to the inhibition of the pathogen penetration, infection, invasion, and colonization by the defense structures such as root exudation materials, thickened middle lamellae, wound peridems and cell wall appositions.
Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Phytophthora katsurae, Causing Chestnut Ink Disease in Korea
Lee, Jong-Kyu ; Jo, Jong-Won ; Shin, Keum-Chul ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Yong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 121~127
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.121
Since July 2005, survey of chestnut ink disease was carried out in chestnut stands located at southern parts of Korea. Dead chestnut trees showing inky ooze on necrotic trunks were found in two different locations. In order to isolate and identify the causal fungus, infected tissues and soil samples around dead or dying trees were collected and placed on Phytophthora-selective medium. Rhododendron and chestnut tree leaves were used as a bait to isolate the fungus from soil samples by attracting zoospores in soil suspensions. On V-8 culture medium, the isolates produced homothallic oogonia with protuberances (
) abundantly, but did not produced sporangia. Mass production of sporangia was possible by immersing agar plugs with actively growing mycelium in the creek water at
for 3 days. Sporangia were papillate, and ovoid to obpyriform (
) in shape. Comparison of the ITS sequences revealed that the isolates had 100% identity to the P. katsurae isolates from Japan and New Zealand and 99.6% identity to other P. katsurae isolates. All of the examined isolates from Korea were completely identical to each other in ITS sequence. Numerous sporangia were formed in filtered as well as unfiltered creek water, but no sporangia formed in sterilized distilled water. Light induced sporangia formation, but has no influence on oospore formation. Amendments of
-sitosterol in culture media have no significant effect on mycelial growth but significantly stimulate oospore and sporangia formation.
Effects of Temperature and Moisture on the Survival of Colletotrichum acutatum, the Causal Agent of Pepper Anthracnose in Soil and Pepper Fruit Debris
Kang, Beum-Kwan ; Kim, Joo-Hyeong ; Lee, Kyeong-Hee ; Lim, Sang-Cheol ; Ji, Jae-Jun ; Lee, Jong-Won ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 128~135
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.128
The survival of Colletotrichum acutatum was investigated in soil, infected fruits, and infected fruit debris incorporated into soil at several temperatures with different soil moisture levels. Samples were examined at 2-week intervals for 18 weeks to determine the survival of the pathogen based on the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of C. acutatum recovered on a semi-selective medium. C. acutatum conidia survived in both sterile and non-sterile soil at 4 and
for 18 weeks. If infected pepper fruits were completely dried, C. acutatum survived for 18 weeks at temperature from 4 to
. Soil temperature and moisture affected the survival of C. acutatum in infected fruit debris incorporated into soil after air-drying. The effect of soil moisture on survival was weaker at low temperatures than at high temperatures. For up to 16 weeks, conidia were recovered from fruit debris in soil that had been kept at 4 to
and below 6% soil moisture. Conidia were recovered from fields until approximately 6 months after pepper fruits were harvested. Using PCR with species-specific primers and a pathogenicity test, we identified conidia recovered from soil and infected fruit from both the laboratory and field as C. acutatum and as the primary inoculum causing pepper anthracnose.
Generation of a Constitutive Green Fluorescent Protein Expression Construct to Mark Biocontrol Bacteria Using P43 Promoter from Bacillus subtilis
Kong, Hyun-Gi ; Choi, Ki-Hyuck ; Heo, Kwang-Ryool ; Lee, Kwang-Youll ; Lee, Hyoung-Ju ; Moon, Byung-Ju ; Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 136~141
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.136
Marking biocontrol bacteria is an essential step to monitor bacterial behavior in natural environments before application in agricultural ecosystem. In this study, we presented the simple green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system driven by the promoter active in Bacillus species for tagging of the biocontrol bacteria. A constitutive promoter P43 from Bacillus subtilis was fused to an enhanced promoterless gfp gene by overlap extension PCR. The GFP expression was demonstrated by the high fluorescence intensity detected in B. subtilis and Escherichia coli transformed with the P43-gfp fusion construct, respectively. The GFP reporter system was further investigated in two bacterial biocontrol strains B. licheniformis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. When the reconstructed plasmid pWH34G was introduced into B. licheniformis, GFP level measured with the fluorescence intensity in B. licheniformis was almost equivalent to that in B. subtilis. However, GFP expression level was extremely low in other biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens by transposon based stable insertion of the P43-gfp construct into the bacterial chromosome. This study provides information regarding to the efficient biomarker P43-gfp fusion construct for bio-control Bacillus species.
Complete Genome Sequence of the RNAs 3 and 4 Segments of Rice stripe virus Isolates in Korea and their Phylogenetic Relationships with Japan and China Isolates
Jonson, Miranda Gilda ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Choi, Il-Ryong ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 142~150
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.142
The complete genome sequences of RNA3 and RNA4 of the 13 different Rice stripe virus (RSV) isolates were determined and characterized in this study to address the possible causes of the recent re-emergence of RSV that affected many rice fields in Korea. The genome size of each RNA segment varied among isolates and significant differences were observed in the intergenic region. There was up to 4% average divergence in the RNA4 nucleotide sequence among 13 Korean isolates and only 1.4% in the RNA3. Phylogenetic relationships among different Korean isolates revealed that there were at least 2 types of RNA3 and 4 distinct types of RNA4 genomes present in Korea. However, Korean isolates with one type of RNA3 predominate over the other while the occurrences of the RSV Korean isolates with the 4 types of RNA4 genome were not correlated to specific geographical areas. Results further indicate that RNA4 had diverged more than RNA3 and these differences in accumulation of mutations in the individual RNA segments indicate that genetic reassortment were likely to contribute to the genetic divergence in the 13 Korean isolates. All of the Korean-RNA3 sequences except for one isolate grouped with Chinese isolates (JY and Z). In contrast, the RNA 4 sequences segregated together with either Chinese (JY and Z) and Japanese (M and T) isolates but genetic relationships of Korean isolates- RNAs 3 and 4 segments to Chinese-Y isolate were low. Altogether, these results suggest that the occurrence of mixtures of RNAs 3 and 4 genotypes in the natural population of RSV may have contributed to the sudden outbreak in Korea.
Reduction of Tomato spotted wilt virus on Table Tomatoes in Greenhouses by Soil Fumigation
Kim, Jin-Young ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Lee, Jin-Gu ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Lim, Jae-Wook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 151~156
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.151
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has occurred on fields annually disease occurrence rates were 73.3% in 2005, 53.3% in 2006 and 41.6% in 2007 at Anyang area in Gyeonggi Province. Seasonal occurrence pattern of TSWV showed a dramatic increase from 8.7% in late May to 30.1 % in early June in 2007 at Anyang area, coincided with the high population of a thrip, Frank-liniella occidentalis at that time. The rate of viruliferous thrips with TSWV on lettuce and red pepper was 20.2% and 52.1%, respectively, in greenhouses. Dazomat, soil fumigation pesticide, reduced TSWV disease incidence drastically on table tomato as treatment the chemical into the soil with humidity in early spring in 2006 and 2007. Spraying insecticide periodically after treatment with Dazomat was more effective to control TSWV than spraying if on plants or applying into the soil of the insecticide during growing season. Control efficiency through treatments both of the soil fumigation and of spraying insecticide was significantly high with 85.3% in 2006 and 87.8% in 2007. Removing the potential vector from the soil of TSWV infested area can be an effective strategy for reducing TSWV disease.
Molecular Analysis of Korean Isolate of Barley mild mosaic virus (Iks Isolate)
Choi, Min-Kyung ; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan ; Oh, Byung-Taek ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Lee, Gun-Woong ; Lee, Kui-Jae ; Park, Yool-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 157~164
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.157
The complete nucleotide sequences of both RNA of an isolated Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV) from Iksan, Korea, have been determined. RNA1 was 7273 nucleotides long and encodes for a polyprotein of 2261 amino acids, which contains the eight putative functional proteins. RNA2 was 3520 nucleotides long and encodes for a polyprotein of 894 amino acids, which contains two functional proteins. Results of multiple sequence alignment showed 92.9% similarity with Na1 isolate, followed by Sil, UK(F), Asl1, Remis M and UK(M) isolates, respectively. Comparison of the BaMMV-Iks polyproteins with the corresponding proteins of BaMMV-Na1 isolates showed 95% amino acid sequence identity. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that Iks isolate was closely related to Na1 strain and have a common origin.
Biocontrol Activity of Acremonium strictum BCP Against Botrytis Diseases
Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Lee, Seon-Woo ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 165~171
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.165
Biological control activity of Acremonium strictum BCP, a mycoparasite on Botrytis cinerea, was examined against six plant diseases such as rice blast, rice sheath blight, cucumber gray mold, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and barley powdery mildew in growth chambers. The spore suspension of strain BCP showed strong control activities against five plant diseases except against wheat leaf rust. On the other hand, the culture filtrate of A. strictum BCP was effective in controlling only cucumber gray mold and barley powdery mildew. Further in vivo biocontrol activities of A. strictum BCP against tomato gray mold were investigated under greenhouse conditions. Control efficacy of the fungus on tomato gray mold increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of more than
spores/ml significantly controlled the disease both in tomato seedlings and in adult plants. The high disease control activity was obtained from protective application of the strain BCP, whereas the curative application did not control the disease. Foliar infections of B. cinerea were controlled with
spores/ml of A. strictum BCP applied up to 7 days before inoculation. In a commercial greenhouse, application of A. strictum BCP exhibited the similar control efficacy with fungicide procymidone (recommended rate,
) against strawberry gray mold. These results indicate that A. strictum BCP could be developed as a biofungicide for Botrytis diseases under greenhouse conditions.
Global Analysis of Gene Expression upon Acid Treatment in Arabidopsis thaliana
Kim, Jung-Koo ; Baek, Seung-A ; Yoon, Seok-Joo ; Park, Han-Jin ; Lee, Suk-Chan ; Lee, Tae-Soo ; Im, Kyung-Hoan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 172~178
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.172
To obtain global gene expression profiles of Arabidopsis thaliana by acid stress, seedlings were subjected to low pH stress. Using Affymetrix AH1 chips covering 24,000 genes, we analyzed gene expression patterns. Fifty-four genes were up-regulated, and 38 were down-regulated more than 3-fold after 2 h of acid stress (pH 3.0). Several defense and abiotic stress-related genes were recognized among the up-regulated genes and peroxidase and extensin genes were identified among the down-regulated genes. After 12 h treatment, relatively fewer genes showed changed expression, indicating that plants seem to adjust themselves to this abiotic stress. Most of the up-regulated genes are already known to be involved in abiotic stress responses and pathogen attacks, especially wounding. However, down-regulated genes for the members of extensins and peroxidases are specific to the acid treatment. These results suggest that acid treatment turns on genes involved in stress responses, especially in wounding and turns off genes very specific for the acid stress.
Protoplast-Mediated Transformation of the Filamentous Fungus Cladosporium phlei: Evidence of Tandem Repeats of the Integrative Transforming Vector
Kim, Jung-Ae ; Kim, Jung-Mi ; Kim, Hwan-Gyu ; Kim, Beom-Tae ; Hwang, Ki-Jun ; Park, Seung-Moon ; Yang, Moon-Sik ; Kim, Dae-Hyuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 179~183
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.179
To facilitate the genetic manipulation of Cladosporium phlei, a causal agent of leaf spot disease in timothy (Phleum pretense), protoplast-mediated transformation of C. phlei has been developed and the resulting transformants were characterized in this study. Hygromycin B resistance was applied as a dominant selection marker due to the sensitivity of C. phlei to this antibiotic. The transformation efficiency ranged from approximately 20-100 transformants per experiment. Southern blot analysis of stable transformants revealed that transformation occurred by way of stable integration of the vector DNA into the fungal chromosome. PCR analysis and plasmid rescuing of randomly selected transformants suggested that integration of tandem repeat copies of vector DNA was common. In addition, multiple integrations of the transforming vector at different chromosomal sites were also observed. The establishment of a transformation method for C. phlei facilitates strain improvement of this fungus and can be applied as an initial step in the molecular analysis of pigment production in this fungus.
A Fluorescence-based cDNA-AFLP Method for Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes
Park, Sook-Young ; Jwa, Nam-Soo ; Chi, Myoung-Hwan ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 184~188
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.184
Identification of differently expressed genes under specific tissues and/or environments provides insights into the nature and underlying mechanisms of cellular processes. Although cDNA-AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) is a powerful method for analyzing differentially expressed genes, its use has been limited to the requirement of radioactive isotope use and the difficulty of isolating the bands of interest from a gel. Here, we describe a modified method for cDNA-AFLP that uses a fluorescence dye for detection and isolation of bands directly from a small size polyacrylamide gel. This method involves three steps: (i) preparation of cDNA templates, (ii) PCR amplification and differential display, and (iii) identification of differentially expressed genes. To demonstrate its utility and efficiency, differentially expressed genes during vegetative growth and appressorial development of Magnaporthe oryzae were analyzed. This method could be applied to compare gene expression profiles in a diverse array of organisms.
Management of Tomato Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita by Plant Extracts and Essential Oils
Abo-Elyousr, Kamal A.M. ; Awad, Magd El-Morsi ; Gaid, M.A. Abdel ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 189~192
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.189
The effect of plant extracts of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus chamadulonsis), garlic (Allium sativium), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and neem (Azadirachta indica) and essential oils were tested on the suppression of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse and field conditions. In vitro study, all tested treatments had nematicidal effect on nematode juveniles after 24 and 48 hours from exposures. The highest percentage of nematode mortality was achieved by application of neem extract (65.4%), essential oils (64.4%) and marigold extract (60.5%), followed by garlic and eucalyptus extracts (38.7-39.5%). Under greenhouse and field conditions, neem extract and essential oils treatments were more effective in reducing population numbers of the M. incognita in soil and root gall index compared to other treatments. In field experiments, the maximum protection of tomato plant against root-knot nematode was obtained by application of neem and essential oil treatments, 44.2 and 32.6%, respectively.
Ectopic Expression of Wild Rice OgGRP Gene Encoding a Glycine Rich Cell Wall Protein Confers Resistance to Botrytis cinerea Pathogen on Arabidopsis
Jeon, Eun-Hee ; Chung, Eun-Sook ; Lee, Hye-Young ; Pak, Jung-Hun ; Kim, Hye-Jeong ; Lee, Jai-Heon ; Moon, Byung-Ju ; Jeung, Ji-Ung ; Shin, Sang-Hyun ; Chung, Young-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 193~198
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.193
A full-length cDNA of OgGRP gene encoding a glycinerich cell wall protein was isolated from wild rice (Oryza grandiglumis). Deduced amino acid sequences of OgGRP are composed of 148 amino acids (16.3 kDa), and show 85.9% homology with Osgrp-2 (Oryza sativa). RT-PCR analysis showed that RNA expression of OgGRP was regulated by defense-related signaling chemicals, such as cantharidin, endothall, jasmonic acid, wounding, or yeast extract treatment. In relation to pathogen stress, the function of OgGRP was analyzed in OgGRP over-expressing Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of OgGRP in Arabidopsis contributed to moderate resistance against fungal pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, by lowering disease rate and necrosis size. In the analysis of the transgenic Arabidopsis lines to check the change of gene expression profile, induction of PR1, PR5 and PDF1.2 was confirmed. The induction seemed to be caused by the interaction of ectopic expression of OgGRP with SA-and JA-dependent signaling pathways.
Note Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt in Tomato by Plant Growth-Promoting Yeasts and Rhizobacteria
Abo-Elyousr, Kamal A.M. ; Mohamed, Hashem M. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 25, issue 2, 2009, Pages 199~204
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2009.25.2.199
Three plant growth-promoting yeasts and two rhizobacteria were tested for controlling tomato wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici under green-house and field conditions. Under greenhouse and field conditions, all treatments were significantly reduced disease severity of tomato wilt relative to the infected control. The highest disease reductions in pots (75.0, 67.4%) and field (52.5, 42.4%) were achieved by Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus subtilis compared to infected control. Under field condition all treatments produced the highest tomato yield compared to the control plants inoculated with the pathogen.