Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of 14-3-3 Proteins and Their Role in Plant Immunity
Oh, Chang-Sik ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.001
Phosphorylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins that regulate diverse signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. 14-3-3 proteins are regulatory proteins that bind to target proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and have been shown to play an important role in plant growth and development, primary metabolism, and signal transduction. Because phosphorylation plays a critical role in signal transduction pathways to trigger plant immunity, involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity has been suggested for a long time. Recent studies have provided new evidence to support a role for 14-3-3 proteins in plant immunity. This review will briefly discuss general characteristics of 14-3-3 proteins and their involvement in plant immunity.
A Short-chain Dehydrogenase/reductase Gene is Required for Infection-related Development and Pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae
Kwon, Min-Jung ; Kim, Kyoung-Su ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 8~16
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.008
The phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major limiting factor in rice production. To understand the genetic basis of M. oryzae pathogenic development, we previously analyzed a library of T-DNA insertional mutants of M. oryzae, and identified ATMT0879A1 as one of the pathogenicity-defective mutants. Molecular analyses and database searches revealed that a single TDNA insertion in ATMT0879A1 resulted in functional interference with an annotated gene, MGG00056, which encodes a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR). The mutant and annotated gene were designated as
and MoSDR1, respectively. Like other SDR family members, MoSDR1 possesses both a cofactor-binding motif and a catalytic site. The expression pattern of MoSDR1 suggests that the gene is associated with pathogenicity and plays an important role in M. oryzae development. To understand the roles of MoSDR1, the deletion mutant
for the gene was obtained via homology-dependent gene replacement. As expected,
was nonpathogenic; moreover, the mutant displayed pleiotropic defects in conidiation, conidial germination, appressorium formation, penetration, and growth inside host tissues. These results suggest that MoSDR1 functions as a key metabolic enzyme in the regulation of development and pathogenicity in M. oryzae.
Nonlinear Regression Analysis to Determine Infection Models of Colletotrichum acutatum Causing Anthracnose of Chili Pepper Using Logistic Equation
Kang, Wee-Soo ; Yun, Sung-Chul ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.017
A logistic model for describing combined effects of both temperature and wetness period on appressorium formation was developed using laboratory data on percent appressorium formation of Colletotrichum acutatum. In addition, the possible use of the logistic model for forecasting infection risks was also evaluated as compared with a first-order linear model. A simplified equilibrium model for enzymatic reactions was applied to obtain a temperature function for asymptote parameter (A) of logistic model. For the position (B) and the rate (k) parameters, a reciprocal model was used to calculate the respective temperature functions. The nonlinear logistic model described successfully the response of appressorium formation to the combined effects of temperature and wetness period. Especially the temperature function for asymptote parameter A reflected the response of upper limit of appressorium formation to temperature, which showed the typical temperature response of enzymatic reactions in the cells. By having both temperature and wetness period as independent variables, the nonlinear logistic model can be used to determine the length of wetness periods required for certain levels of appressorium formation under different temperature conditions. The infection model derived from the nonlinear logistic model can be used to calculate infection risks using hourly temperature and wetness period data monitored by automated weather stations in the fields. Compared with the nonlinear infection model, the linear infection model always predicted a shorter wetness period for appressorium formation, and resulted in significantly under- and over-estimation of response at low and high temperatures, respectively.
Development of Recombinant Coat Protein Antibody Based IC-RT-PCR and Comparison of its Sensitivity with Other Immunoassays for the Detection of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolates from India
Sreenivasulu, M. ; Gopal, D.V.R. Sai ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 25~31
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.025
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) causes the most widespread and devastating disease in papaya. Isolates of PRSV originating from different geographical regions in south India were collected and maintained on natural host papaya. The entire coat protein (CP) gene of Papaya ringspot virus-P biotype (PRSV-P) was amplified by RTPCR. The amplicon was inserted into pGEM-T vector, sequenced and sub cloned into a bacterial expression vector pRSET-A using a directional cloning strategy. The PRSV coat protein was over-expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE gel revealed that CP expressed as a ~40 kDa protein. The recombinant coat protein (rCP) fused with 6x His-tag was purified from E.coli using Ni-NTA resin. The antigenicity of the fusion protein was determined by western blot analysis using antibodies raised against purified PRSV. The purified rCP was used as an antigen to produce high titer PRSV specific polyclonal antiserum. The resulting antiserum was used to develop an immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) assay and compared its sensitivity levels with ELISA based assays for detection of PRSV isolates. IC-RT-PCR was shown to be the most sensitive test followed by dot-blot immunobinding assay (DBIA) and plate trapped ELISA.
Survey of Egg- and Cyst-parasitic Fungi of Potato Cyst Nematode in Indonesia
Indarti, Siwi ; Widianto, Donny ; Kim, Young-Ho ; Mulyadi, Mulyadi ; Suryanti, Suryanti ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 32~36
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.032
Twelve fungal isolates out of 123 isolates obtained from cysts and soils of potato cyst nematode (PCN)-infested fields in Central Java, Indonesia had parasitic abilities of over 50% on PCN eggs or females (cysts) in vitro pathogenicity tests. Cultural and morphological characters and DNA sequences of ribosomal genes in ITS region revealed that they were four isolates of Gliocladium (Trichoderma) virens, three isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, one of F. lateritium, one of Penicillium tritinum and two of Taralomyces spp. A hundred percent infections occurred in eggs or cysts by three fungal isolates G. virens, F. oxysporum and P. oxalicum, suggesting that these fungi may have a good potential for the PCN biocontrol. Especially, G. virens isolates, which occurred most frequently in the PCN-infested potato fields and are known to be highly adaptable to varying habitats, may be developed as reliable agents for controlling PCN with both egg- and cyst-parasitic capabilities and with high ecological adaptabilities.
A Web-based Information System for Plant Disease Forecast Based on Weather Data at High Spatial Resolution
Kang, Wee-Soo ; Hong, Soon-Sung ; Han, Yong-Kyu ; Kim, Kyu-Rang ; Kim, Sung-Gi ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 37~48
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.037
This paper describes a web-based information system for plant disease forecast that was developed for crop growers in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. The system generates hourly or daily warnings at the spatial resolution of
based on weather data. The system consists of four components including weather data acquisition system, job process system, data storage system, and web service system. The spatial resolution of disease forecast is high enough to estimate daily or hourly infection risks of individual farms, so that farmers can use the forecast information practically in determining if and when fungicides are to be sprayed to control diseases. Currently, forecasting models for blast, sheath blight, and grain rot of rice, and scab and rust of pear are available for the system. As for the spatial interpolation of weather data, the interpolated temperature and relative humidity showed high accuracy as compared with the observed data at the same locations. However, the spatial interpolation of rainfall and leaf wetness events needs to be improved. For rice blast forecasting, 44.5% of infection warnings based on the observed weather data were correctly estimated when the disease forecast was made based on the interpolated weather data. The low accuracy in disease forecast based on the interpolated weather data was mainly due to the failure in estimating leaf wetness events.
Sensitivity of Colletotrichum spp. Isolated from Grapes in Korea to Carbendazim and the Mixture of Carbendazim Plus Diethofencarb
Hwang, Sook-Yung ; Kim, Hye-Ryoung ; Kim, Joo-Hyung ; Park, Jong-Han ; Lee, Sang-Bum ; Cheong, Seung-Ryong ; Kim, Heung-Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.049
Thirty-six isolates of Colletotrichum spp. were obtained from infected grapes in two different locations of Korea; 18 isolates from Cheonahn, where carbendazim (MBC) and the mixture of MBC and diethofencarb (NPC) had been applied to control grape ripe rot, and 18 isolates from Cheongju, where no fungicides had been used. Sequences analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the
-tubulin gene identified 34 of the 36 isolates as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The remaining two isolates from Cheongju were identified as C. acutatum. Of the 18 isolates from Cheonahn, 12 were resistant to both MBC and the mixture (MBC+NPC), and six were sensitive to them. All C. gloeosporioides isolates from Cheongju, but not the two C. acutatum isolates, were sensitive to these fungicides. Sequence analysis of the
-tubulin gene in all isolates revealed that C. gloeosporioides resistant to MBC and MBC+NPC had a tyrosine instead of phenylalanine at the amino acid position 200. The appearance of resistance to MBC and the mixture in C. gloeosporioides correlated with the history of fungicide application in Korea.
Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Secondary Metabolites from White Rose Flower
Joo, Seong-Soo ; Kim, Yun-Bae ; Lee, Do-Ik ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.057
Low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites from plants play an important role in reproductive processes and in the defense against environmental stresses or pathogens. In the present study, we isolated various volatiles and phenolic compounds from white Rosa rugosa flowers, and evaluated the pharmaceutical activities of these natural products in addition to their ability to increase survival in response to environmental stress and pathogen invasion. The DPPH and hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation assay revealed that the white rose flower extract (WRFE) strongly scavenged free radicals in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, WRFE inhibited the growth of E. coli and fatally attacked those cells at higher concentration (>0.5 mg/mL). FITC-conjugated Annexin V stain provided further evidence that WRFE had strong antimicrobial activity, which may have resulted from a cooperative synergism between volatiles (e.g. 1-butanol, dodecyl acrylate and cyclododecane) and phenolic compounds (e.g. gallic acid) retained in WRFE. In conclusion, secondary metabolites from white rose flower hold promise as a potential natural source for antimicrobial and non-chemical based antioxidant agents.
Effect of Acibenzolar-S-methyl and Rahnella aquatilis (Ra39) on Chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase Activities and Disease Resistance of Apple Plants
Abo-Elyousr, A.M. Kamal ; Sallam, M.A.A. ; Hassan, M.H.A. ; Zeller, W. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 63~69
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.063
The effect of Acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and Rahnella aquatilis Ra39 against apple fire blight disease caused by Erwinia amylovora were tested as a possible alternative to streptomycin. In vitro studies, no inhibition effect against the pathogen was found when ASM was tested. Under greenhouse conditions, application of R. aquatilis Ra39 with the highly susceptible M26 rootstock resulted in a marked disease suppression. Application of ASM and strain Ra39 caused a high decrease of the disease, 82% and 58% respectively; this was correlated with a reduction of the growth of the pathogen within host plants up to 64% and 49.5% respectively. Further studies in the field under artificial infection condition during full bloom revealed that application of ASM and R. aquatilis Ra39 with Gala variety resulted in a control effect up to 21 and 29% respectively. In physiological studies, enhanced activities of PR-proteins (chitinase and
-1, 3-glucanase) were detected, which are well known as biochemical markers for systemic acquired resistance. Application of ASM to apple shoots caused the highest chitinase activity followed by strain Ra39. The enzyme activity was increased after 2, 4 and 6 days from application. In addition, ASM-treatment caused the higher
-1, 3-glucanase activity than strain Ra39. Maximum enzyme activity was recorded after 6 days from application and then decreased after 8 and 10 days from application.
Screening of Rice Blast Resistance Genes from Aromatic Rice Germplasms with SNP Markers
Kim, Jeong-Soon ; Ahn, Sang-Nag ; Kim, Chung-Kon ; Shim, Chang-Ki ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 70~79
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.070
Rice blast is one of the serious devastating diseases. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversities of blast resistance (R) genes form 86 accessions of aromatic rice with eight SNP markers, z4792, zt4792, z60510, zt6057, k6415, k6411, k39575 and t256, which showed the close-set linkage to 6 major genes, Piz, Piz-t, Pik, Pik-m, Pik-p, and Pit. Four accessions of indica type, Mayataung, Yekywin Yinkya Hmwe, Basmati9-93, and Basmati5854, showed the positive amplicons of six major genes. Among 86 accessions, 83 accessions were detected both or one of Piz and Piz-t genes. Seventy three accessions contained the Piz gene with z4792 marker. In addition, 30 and 71 accessions possessed Piz-t gene with zt4792 and zt6057 markers, respectively. Ten accessions showed the positive bands for the Piz-t gene with both zt4792 and zt6057 markers. Only one accession, Khau Nua Keo, was not amplified for both Piz and Piz-t gene. But japonica type, Gerdeh, possessed only Piz gene between Piz and Piz-t. Fifty two accessions showed the three of Pik multiple genes and Pit gene. Four accessions, Iari7447, Daebunhyangdo2, Shiyayuuine, and Basmati 6129 possessed a Pik-p gene. Especially, Pit gene on chromosome 1 was detected with t256 marker in all of 83 accessions, exception of A-2, one accession of japonica type.
First Report of Black Spot Caused by Alternaria alternata on Grafted Cactus
Choi, Min-Ok ; Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Hyun, Ik-Hwa ; Kim, Jeong-Ho ; Cho, Chang-Hui ; Park, Myung-Soo ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 80~82
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.080
A stem spot disease was observed on Gymnocalycium mihanovichii (Korean name: Bimoran), a scion of graftcactus, in major growing areas of Goyang and Eumseong, Korea during 2008 and 2009. Typical symptoms were initial blackish brown lesions produced mainly on areoles and scars of injured stem tissues, gradually becoming large black spots. A causal organism isolate CD2-7A isolated from the infected stems was identified as Alternaria alternata based on its morphological characteristics and confirmed by the DNA sequencing analysis of ITS, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and allergen Alt a1 (Alt a 1) genes. Artificial inoculation of the fungal isolate CD2-7A produced the same rot symptoms on the cactus stems, from which the same fungus was isolated and identified. This is the first report of the black spot caused by A. alternata in the grafted cactus.
Taxonomic Position of Korean Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Based on RAPD and ITS Sequencing of Ribosomal DNA
Jeon, Young-Ah ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Kim, Dae-Ho ; Kwon, Soon-Wo ; Hong, Seung-Beom ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.083
Taxonomic position of 46 Korean isolates of Rhizoctonia solani which were classified into nine intraspecific groups by anastomosis and cultural characteristics was analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA. All the isolates within each group showed highly similar band patterns in RAPD. The ITS regions of the isolates within the same groups showed a high level of sequence similarity above 96.0% whereas similarities among different groups were below 94.4%. When compared with several reference strains of R. solani from foreign countries, all the Korean isolates were clustered with the foreign isolates belonging to the same groups in the phylogenetic tree. All six Korean strains of AG-4 were identified as HG-1 out of 3 subgroup of AG-4. We discussed taxonomic position of Korean isolates of R. solani and showed that sequence analysis with ITS regions could be a rapid and useful method for identification of intraspecific group of R. solani.
Different Profiles of the Negatively Stained Citrus Canker Bacterium Xanthomonas citri pv. citri Depending on Culture Media and Heavy Metal Stains
Kim, Ki-Woo ; Lee, In-Jung ; Hyun, Jae-Wook ; Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Park, Eun-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 90~92
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.090
Staining profiles and bacterial morphology were compared in Xanthomonas citri pv. citri by a transmission electron microscopy. Four types of negative staining regimes were employed depending on culture media and heavy metal stains. The bacterial cells grown on LB agar media often appeared clustered on the supporting film. Meanwhile, individual bacterial cells could be readily found on the preparations from LB broth media. Typical rod-shaped cells (ca.
in length) and their flagella were observed in either 2% uranyl acetate (UA) or 2% neutralized potassium phosphotungstate (PTA) staining. The UA-stained bacteria often showed relatively intact cell morphology and rather positively stained cells with a thin electron-dense stain depth around bacteria. The PTA-stained bacteria were characterized by the wrinkled cell surface where the stain was entrapped in grooves. In addition, distinct electron-dense stain depth was evident around the PTA-stained preparations. Numerous fimbriae could be mostly observed from the PTA-stained preparations of the two culture media, but not from the UA-stained preparations.
First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Pinewood Coneflower (Rudbeckia bicolor) in Korea
Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Ko, Sug-Ju ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.093
A virus isolate causing symptoms of yellow mosaic, fern leaves, malformation and plant necrosis on Rudbeckia bicolor was prevalent around Pyeongchang area in Korea. The causal virus was identified as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) using characteristics from biological, serological and molecular analyses and named as CMV-Rb. CMV-Rb caused mosaic on Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Capsicum annuum, and Lycopersicon esculentum. However, typical local lesions did not develop on inoculated Pisum sativum, Cucurbita moschata, Datura stramonium and Tetragonia expansa plants. Full-length genome sequences of CMV-Rb RNAs 1, 2 and 3 were obtained using 12 primer pairs by RT-PCR analysis. The genome of CMV-Rb RNA segments 1, 2, and 3 consists of 3363nt, 3049nt, and 2214nt in length, respectively. In order to ascertain their taxonomic identity, nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence analyses RNAs 1, 2 and 3 of CMV-Rb isolates were conducted with previously reported sequences of CMV strains and/or isolates. CMV-Rb RNAs showed about 90 to 99% sequence identity to those of subgroup I strains suggesting that CMV-Rb is more closely related to CMV isolates belong to subgroup I. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CMV on Rudbeckia bicolor in Korea.
Powdery Mildew of Inula britannica var. chinensis in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Han, Kyung-Sook ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 99~99
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.099
Occurrence of Entomosporium Leaf Spot on Photinia glabra in Korea
Seo, Sang-Tae ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Park, Mi-Jeong ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 1, 2010, Pages 100~100
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.1.100