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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Functions of MAPK Cascade Pathways in Plant Defense Signaling
Cheong, Yong-Hwa ; Kim, Min-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 101~109
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.101
Protein phosphorylation is one of the major mechanisms for controlling many cellular processes in all living organisms. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are known to transducer extracellular stimuli to several cellular processes, including cell division, differentiation as well as responses to various stresses. In plants, several studies have revealed that MAPK cascade pathways play an important role in responses against biotic and abiotic stresses, including wounding, pathogen infection, temperature, drought, salinity and plant hormones. It is also known that MAPK cascades-mediated signaling is an essential process in the resistance step to pathogens by regulating the activity of transcription factors. Here, the insights into the functions of MAPK cascade pathways in plant defense response signaling from Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice are described.
The WRKY Superfamily of Rice Transcription Factors
Jang, Ji-Young ; Choi, Chang-Hyun ; Hwang, Duk-Ju ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 110~114
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.110
WRKY transcription factors are known to be involved in many different biological processes including plant response to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant development. WRKY proteins are extensively studied in Arabidopsis. Recently, reports on WRKY proteins are rapidly increasing in the other plant species, especially in rice. Therefore, this review will discuss the function of rice WRKY proteins reported so far.
Plant Defense Responses Coming To Shape
Kwon, Chi-An ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 115~120
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.115
Although still poorly understood, accumulating evidence clearly supports that plants also have a good immune system which have been developed and acquired during the evolution. The lack of specific mobile immune cells like a B or T cell in plants additionally suggests that most plant cells have capacity for defending themselves against numerous pathogens. Rapidly growing advances in understanding plant defense responses implicate that plant and animal immune responses are evolutionarily convergent although their origins are thought to be different. On the basis of recent findings, here current understanding of plant defense responses will be discussed.
Microbial Population, Aflatoxin Contamination and Predominant Aspergillus Species in Korean Stored Rice
Oh, Ji-Yeon ; Sang, Mee-Kyung ; Oh, Jee-Eun ; Lee, Ho-Joung ; Ryoo, Mun-Il ; Kim, Ki-Deok ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 121~129
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.121
We evaluated microbial populations and aflatoxin production in unhulled and white rice from rice processing complexes of the National Agricultural Cooperative Federation in five regions in Korea and identified three predominant Aspergillus species. Fungal and bacterial populations in rice samples were significantly different between regions in 2007. Aflatoxins were also detected and varied at the levels of 2.45 - 3.43 ng per g unhulled rice grain and 1.29 - 2.09 ng per g white rice grain. Unhulled rice generally detected higher level of aflatoxins than white rice regardless of sampling regions; however, no significant differences were found in Anseong and Cheonan in 2005 and Cheonan and Gimpo in 2007. Aflatoxin production between sampling regions was not different regardless of rice type and sampling year. Although the fungal diversity was highly distinct from region to region, three Aspergillus isolates were predominant in the rice samples; thus, representative isolates AC317, AF57, and AF8 were selected and identified based on their morphological and molecular characteristics. Consequently, isolates AC317, AF57, and AF8 were identified as A. candidus, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus, respectively. These fungi can produce mycotoxins that are harmful for consumers and thus it is important to detect and reduce the population of storage fungi in rice.
Molecular Characterization and Survey of the Infection Rate of Orchid fleck virus in Commercial Orchids
Kim, Sung-Ryul ; Yoon, Ju-Yoon ; Choi, Gug-Sun ; Chang, Moo-Ung ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ; Chung, Bong-Nam ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 130~138
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.130
Orchid fleck virus (OFV) is an unassigned plant virus in the family Rhabdoviridae. OFV was isolated from Cymbidium sp. showing oval necrotic lesions on their leaves in Korea, and designated as OFV-NHHS1. The complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA1 (6,413 nt) (GenBank accession no. AB516442) and RNA2 (6,001 nt) (GenBank accession no. AB516441) was determined in this study. RNA1 and RNA2 contained five and one ORF respectively. RNA1 encodes nucleocapsid (N) of 49 kDa, ORF2 of 26 kDa, ORF3 of 38 kDa, ORF4 of 20 kDa and glycoprotein (G) of 61 kDa proteins, whereas RNA2 encodes a single polymerase of 212 kDa. OFV-NHHS1 shared extremely high similarity of 98.6-100% and 98.9-99.6% in nucleotidle and amino acid sequences with a Japanese isolate, OFV-so, respectively. However, the N, G and L of OFV-NHHS1 revealed 6.9-19.3%, 7.3-12.0%, and 13.4-26.6% identities to those of 29 Rhabdoviruses, respectively. To survey the infection rate of OFV in commercial orchids in Korea, 51 Cymbidium sp., 10 Phalaenopsis sp., 22 Oncidium sp. and 21 Dendrobium sp. plants that showed typical viral symptoms were collected. RT-PCR with specific primers for detection of Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), ORSV and OFV showed high infection rate by ORSV alone and double infection by ORSV and CymMV. One of the orchids tested was infected with OFV. This is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequences of OFV isolated in Korea.
Characteristics of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Zucchini in Korea
Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Jeong, Seon-Gi ; Ko, Sug-Ju ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Choi, Jang-Kyung ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 139~148
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.139
A virus causing stunt, yellowing, severe mosaic, malformation symptoms on leaves and uneven development and malformation on fruits of zucchini was prevalent around Goseong, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. A survey conducted (2004) in the Goseong area revealed about 20% virus infection rate. The disease causative identified as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Z1) was further characterized. The isolate induces mosaic symptoms on Cucumis sativus, while severe mosaic, stunt and malformation on C. pepo. Thin section analyses have shown that virus inclusions are formed in the cuticle layers as well as epidermal, parenchyma and collenchymas cells in virus-infected Nicotiana tabacum. CMV-Z1 isolate induced specific cytoplasmic inclusion bodies such as irregular clumps (IC), crystal (Cr) and irregular chloroplasts (ICh). IC was made up of virus particles interspersed with a darkly stained amorphous material and found both in the cytoplasm and vacuoles, whereas ICh and Cr were rarely found in the vacuoles. The genome of CMV-Z1 RNA-1 consists of 3359 nucleotide (nt) encoding 1a protein of 993 amino acids (aa). The CMV-Z1 RNA-2 was 3050 nt in length containing 2a (857 aa) and 2b (110 aa), while RNA-3 encoding 3a movement protein (279 aa) and coat protein (218 aa) was 2215 nt in length. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences of CMV-Z1 isolate appeared it is more closely related to subgroup IA than to subgroup IB or II.
Biological and Structural Mechanisms of Disease Development and Resistance in Chili Pepper Infected with the Root-knot Nematode
Moon, Hyo-Sun ; Khan, Zakaullah ; Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Son, Seon-Hye ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 149~153
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.149
Biological and structural mechanisms of the nematode disease development in chili pepper caused by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were investigated. Out of 39 chili pepper cultivars/lines tested, six were found resistant, while 33 were susceptible to M. incognita, of which a susceptible cultivar Chilseongcho and three resistant cultivar/lines CM334, 02G132 and 03G53 with different resistance degrees were selected for microscopic studies on the disease development. Gall formation was greatly reduced in the resistant cultivars/lines. Nematode penetration occurred both in the susceptible and resistant chili pepper roots; however, the penetration rates were significantly lowered in the three resistant peppers compared to the susceptible pepper cv. Chilseongcho. In the susceptible pepper, giant cells were extensively formed with no discernible necrosis around the nematode feeding sites. In the highly resistant pepper cultivar CM334, no giant cell was formed, but extensive necrosis formation was observed around the penetrating nematodes. In the other two resistant pepper lines (02G132 and 03G53), both giant cells and prominent necroses were formed, and the necrotic responses appeared to inhibit the further development of giant cells or accelerate their early degeneration. Although the nematode penetration was retarded significantly in the resistant cultivar/lines, all of the above results suggest that the disease resistance of pepper may be related to post-infectional defense mechanisms (nematode growth and development) more than pre-infectional ones (penetration and establishment). Variations in structural modifications in the resistant cultivar/lines may reflect their genetic differences related to the nematode resistance.
Differential Subcellular Responses in Resistance Soybeans Infected with Soybean Cyst Nematode Races
Kim, Young-Ho ; Kim, Kyung-Soo ; Riggs, Robert D. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 154~158
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.154
Early nematode development and subcellular responses in resistant soybean lines PI 88788 and PI 437654 infected with races 3 (R3) and 14 (R14) of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, were compared. SCN R14 nematodes penetrated and developed significantly more than R3 at 5-6 days after inoculation. Both races also penetrated and developed more in PI 88788 than in PI 437654. Syncytia, characterized by cell wall dissolution and cellular hypertrophy, were developed more in PI 88788 than in PI 437654 and more by R14 than R3, for which less necrotic responses occurred in the former than the latter. This suggests that the latter two may be more resistant and less virulent than the former two, respectively. A common structural feature found in each of PI 437654 and PI 88788 in relation to SCN-resistance was the formation of prominent cell wall appositions and nuclear degeneration prior to cytoplasmic degradation in syncytial cells, respectively. Necrosis and cell wall apposition are types of hypersensitive responses occurring at early stages of the nematode infection so that these structural modifications indicate the inhibition of initial syncytial development related to the early nematode development. As soybean cultivars and lines with identical or similar genotypes have the same types of structural features related to SCN-resistance, the structural modifications induced by SCN infection may result from the expression of inheritable resistance genes, of which the information can be used for breeding soybean cultivars and lines specifically resistant to SCN races.
Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Rice Lesion Mimic Mutants
Matin, Mohammad Nurul ; Pandeya, Devendra ; Baek, Kwnag-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Sun ; Lee, Jai-Heon ; Kang, Ho-Duck ; Kang, Sang-Gu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 159~169
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.159
Lesion mimic mutant (LMM) plants display spontaneous necrotic lesions on their leaves without any pathogenic infection. Specific rice LMMs designated as spotted leaf (spl) including spl1, spl3, spl4, spl5 and spl6 are genetically known as lesion resembling disease (lrd) mutant. The inheritance patterns in the
progenies of these mutants are controlled by recessive genetic factors. Lesion development in the rice LMMs were controlled by both development stages and environmental factors. The rice LMMs exhibited higher numbers of spots under
temperature than those under
. Contents of chlorophyll were drastically reduced at 60 days old LMM leaves when the spot formation was severe. The levels of endogenous hydrogen peroxide were highest at 45 days old mutants but reduced at 60 days old. Transcription levels of stress related genes including thioredoxin peroxidase and protein disulfide isomerase were reduced in spotted leaves than those of non spotted leaves. It could be suggested that scavenging system against reactive oxygen species induced by either stresses or innate metabolisms may not work properly in the rice LMMs. As these rice LMMs autonomously expressed clear lesions of lrd phenotype without pathogen infection, it could be useful to understand stresses responses in plants.
Production of Surfactin and Iturin by Bacillus licheniformis N1 Responsible for Plant Disease Control Activity
Kong, Hyun-Gi ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Choi, Gyoung-Ja ; Lee, Kwang-Youll ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Hwang, Eul-Chul ; Moon, Byung-Ju ; Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 170~177
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.170
Bacillus licheniformis N1, previously developed as a biofungicide formulation N1E to control gray mold disease of plants, was investigated to study the bacterial traits that may be involved in its biological control activity. Two N1E based formulations, bacterial cell based formulation PN1E and culture supernatant based formulation SN1E, were evaluated for disease control activity against gray mold disease of tomato and strawberry plants. Neither PN1E nor SN1E was as effective as the original formulation N1E. Fractionation of antifungal compounds from the bacterial culture supernatant of B. licheniformis N1 indicated that two different cyclic lipopeptides were responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the N1 strain. These two purified compounds were identified as iturin A and surfactin by HPLC and LCMS. The purified lipopeptides were evaluated for plant disease control activity against seven plant diseases. Crude extracts and purified compounds applied at 500
concentration controlled tomato gray mold, tomato late blight and pepper anthracnose effectively with over 70% disease control value. While iturin showed broad spectrum activity against all tested plant diseases, the control activity by surfactin was limited to tomato gray mold, tomato late blight, and pepper anthracnose. Although antifungal compounds from B. licheniformis N1 exhibited disease control activity, our results suggested that bacterial cells present in the N1E formulation also contribute to the disease control activity together with the antifungal compounds.
and Temperature Effects on the Incidence of Four Major Chili Pepper Diseases
Shin, Jeong-Wook ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 178~184
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.178
Four major diseases of chili pepper including two fungal diseases, anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) and Phytophthora blight (Phytophthora capsici), and two bacterial diseases, bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) and bacterial spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria), were investigated under future climate-change condition treatments in growth chambers. Treatments with elevated
and temperature were maintained at
, whereas ambient conditions were maintained at
. Pepper seedlings or fruits were infected with each pathogen, and then the disease progress was evaluated in the growth chambers. According to paired t-test analyses, bacterial wilt and spot diseases significantly increased by 24% (p
Isolation and Morphological Characterization of Monilinia sp. KV-27 Associated with Apple Anthracnose of Fuji Apples in Korea
Bajpai, Vivek K. ; Yoon, Jung-In ; Cho, Seak-Won ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 185~188
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.185
This study was undertaken to isolate and to identify a fungal pathogen Monilinia sp. KV-27 associated with apple anthracnose. Rotted Fuji apples were used for the isolation of the fungus. The infected tissues were sterilized with 70% ethanol, washed with sterilized distilled water and were transferred to 50 ml containing potato dextrose broth (PDB) flasks. The peripheral hyphae of the fungal colony which developed from the infected tissues were isolated on to potato dextrose agar (PDA). On PDA plates the fungus grew well at
and occupied more than half of a 9 cm petri dish within 5 days. The fungal cultures on PDA were used for morphological observation and identification of the fungus. Conidiophores were produced on the gray to whitish sporodochial structures scattered on PDA plates. These conidiophores gave rise to chains of conidia, which were branched and easily detached in water. These structures were dark brown to black and consisted of hyphal masses. Conidia produced on PDA plates were hyline or light colored, lemon shaped or ellipsoidal (
) in size.
Effect of Chitosan Solution on the Inhibition of Pseudomonas fluorescens Causing Bacterial Head Rot of Broccoli
Li, Bin ; Liu, Baoping ; Su, Ting ; Fang, Yuan ; Xie, Guanlin ; Wang, Guofen ; Wang, Yanli ; Sun, Guochang ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 189~193
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.189
The in vitro antibacterial properties of two kinds of chitosan solutions and their effect in protection of broccoli from bacterial head rot disease were evaluated. Results showed that the two kinds of chitosan solution at different concentrations exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, the antibacterial activity of chitosan A solution increased with the increase of chitosan concentration up to 0.10 mg/ml while the antibacterial activity of chitosan B solution increased with the increase of chitosan concentration up to 0.05 mg/ml. In addition, the antibacterial activity of chitosan A and chitosan B solution of 0.10 mg/ml increased with the incubation time within 12 h and 24 h, respectively. The disease incidence and the lesion diameter of broccoli inoculated with P. fluorescens were significantly reduced when plants were either pretreated or post-treated with six different combinations of chitosan solutions. Overall, the results indicated that the two kinds of chitosan solutions had a potential in controlling bacterial head rot of broccoli.
Viral Infection of Tissue Cultured Orchids and Evaluation of Damages
Chung, Bong-Nam ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Kim, Mi-Sun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 194~197
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.194
Most orchids are propagated by tissue culture. To survey the viral infection of tissue cultured Orchids, total RNA was extracted from in vitro Cymbridium and Phalaenopsis spp. collected from companies producing tissue-cultured orchids, and RT-PCR analysis was conducted with primer pairs specific to Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ring spot virus(ORSV), which are infecting wide range of orchid genera. The bulb size of Cymbidium infected with CymMV and ORSV was compared with healthy one at 10 months after planting in vitro orchids in the glasshouse. The CymMV or ORSV infection in 97 Cymbidium and 55 Phalaenopsis plants was 84.5 and 89.1 %, respectively. Mixed infection was found in 52.6 and 47.3% of Cymbidium and Phalaenopsis tested, whereas virus-free orchids were 15.5 and 10.9%, respectively. The CymMV and ORSV reduced the bulb size by 2.7-50% depending on the cultivars of Cymbidium. The both viruses caused yellowing, mottle and mosaic with or without necrosis in 4 Cymbidium cultivars.
The Effect of Soil Physico-chemical Properties on Rhizome Rot and Wilt Disease Complex Incidence of Ginger Under Hill Agro-climatic Region of West Bengal
Sharma, B.R. ; Dutta, S. ; Roy, S. ; Debnath, A. ; Roy, M. De ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 198~202
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.198
A study was conducted to find out the relationship of physico-chemical properties (viz. organic carbon(OC), pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content) of ginger growing soil with incidence percentage of rhizome rot and wilt disease complex of ginger. Organic carbon content and pH of the ginger soil contributed significantly (93%) in the prediction of ginger rhizome rot and wilt disease complex incidence with negative correlation. Soil having weak acidic reaction with OC percent greater than 2.25 was observed to have the lower average incidence of the disease.
Leaf Spot of Nymphoides peltata Caused by Septoria villarsiae in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Kwon, Young-Dae ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 203~203
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.203
First Korean Report of Powdery Mildew on Tropaeolum majus
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Kim, Jin-Young ; Han, Jae-Gu ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 204~204
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.204
Powdery Mildew Outbreak on Kale Caused by Erysiphe cruciferarum in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Kim, Jin-Young ; Han, Jae-Gu ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 205~205
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.205
Erratum : Development of Recombinant Coat Protein Antibody Based IC-RT-PCR and Comparison of Its Sensitivity with Other Immunoassays for the Detection of Papaya ringspot virus Isolates from India
Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 2, 2010, Pages 207~214
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.2.207