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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Oomycetes RXLR Effectors Function as Both Activator and Suppressor of Plant Immunity
Oh, Sang-Keun ; Kamoun, Sophien ; Choi, Doil ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 209~215
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.209
Plant pathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora spp., are the causal agent of the most devastating plant diseases. During infection, these pathogens accomplish parasitic colonization of plants by modulating host defenses through an array of disease effector proteins. These effectors are classified in two classes based on their target sites in the host plant. Apoplastic effectors are secreted into the plant extracellular space, and cytoplasmic effectors are translocated inside the plant cell, through the haustoria that enter inside living host cell. Recent characterization of some oomycete Avr genes showed that they encode effector protein with general modular structure including N-terminal conserved RXLR-DEER motif. More detailed evidences suggest that these AVR effectors are secreted by the pathogenic oomycetes and then translocated into the host plant cell during infection. Recent findings indicated that one of the P. infestans effector, Avrblb2, specifically induces hypersensitive response (HR) in the presence of Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb2. On the other hand, another secreted RXLR protein PexRD8 originated from P. infestans suppressed the HCD triggered by the elicitin INF1. In this review, we described recent progress in characterized RXLR effectors in Phytophthora spp. and their dual functions as modulators of host plant immunity.
Genetic Diversity of Fusarium proliferatum Populations from Maize, Onion, Rice and Sugarcane in Iran Based on Vegetative Compatibility Grouping
Alizadeh, Alireza ; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad ; Fotouhifar, Khalil-Berdi ; Motlagh, Elahe Rabiee ; Rahjoo, Vahid ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 216~222
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.216
Fusarium proliferatum is the causal agent of stalk and root rot disease of maize, foot rot disease of rice, basal and root rot disease of onion and knife cut disease of sugarcane in Iran. In recent years, incidence and severity of these diseases have been increased in Iran. Fifty seven F. proliferatum single-spore isolates collected from diseased maize, rice, onion and sugarcane plants at different areas were used to study genetic diversity by determination of vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). Chlorate-resistant nitrate non-utilizing (nit) mutants were recovered from selected isolates of F. proliferatum and used in complementation tests. All isolates in which both nit1 and NitM (or nit3) mutants were recovered, demonstrated self-compatibility. Vegetative compatibility tests by pairing nit mutants identified 30 VCGs among 57 isolates. Twenty-three isolates belonged to singlemember VCGs and the remaining 34 isolates, belonged to other seven multimember VCGs. Segregation of F. proliferatum isolates obtained from various area and host plants into different VCGs in Iran is reported for the first time. In this study, none of isolates obtained from rice complemented with any other isolates from onion and sugarcane and, non complementation occurred between onion and sugarcane isolates. Also, only one complementation occurred between one isolate of maize and one isolate of sugarcane and rice. Thus, a correlation between VCGs grouping and host preferences was founded. It is concluded that natural populations of F. proliferatum in Iran are probably genetically divergent and include isolates representing a potential risk for disease development.
Molecular Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Isolates Causing Bacterial Fruit Rot of Apricot
Li, Bin ; Fang, Yuan ; Zhang, Guoqing ; Yu, Rongrong ; Lou, Miaomiao ; Xie, Guanlin ; Wang, Yanli ; Sun, Guochang ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 223~230
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.223
The Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates causing bacterial fruit rot of apricot were characterized by speciesspecific PCR tests, recA-HaeIII restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assays, rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, recA gene sequencing, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Results indicated that the isolates Bca 0901 and Bca 0902 gave positive amplifications with primers specific for B. vietnamiensis while the two bacterial isolates showed different recA-RFLP and rep-PCR profiles from those of B. vietnamiensis strains. In addition, the two bacterial isolates had a higher proteolytic activity compared with that of the non-pathogenic B. vietnamiensis strains while no cblA and esmR marker genes were detected for the two bacterial isolates and B. vietnamiensis strains. The two bacterial isolates were identified as Burkholderia seminalis based on recA gene sequence analysis and MLST analysis. Overall, this is the first characterization of B. seminalis that cause bacterial fruit rot of apricot.
Suppression of Bipolaris Stem Rot on Cactus by Heat-inactivated Conidial Suspension of Bipolaris cactivora
Choi, Min-Ok ; Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 231~237
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.231
The heat-inactivated (at
for 20 min) conidial suspension of Bipolaris cactivora (HICS) was evaluated for the control of Bipolaris stem rot of cactus caused by B. cactivora. Severe rot symptoms were developed on the cactus stem discs inoculated with B. cactivora from 5 days after inoculation. However, only small brownish spots developed on the stem discs treated with HICS 2 days prior to the pathogen inoculation. HICS also reduced symptom development on cactus stem discs inoculated with other fungal pathogens such as Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Fusarium oxysporum, suggesting its disease-inhibitory efficacy may not be pathogen-specific. HICS significantly reduced severities of the stem rot disease on several cactus species including Hylocereus trigonus, Cereus peruvianus, Chamaecereus silvestrii and Gymnocalycium mianovichii, but not on Cereus tetragonus. Extensive wound periderms were formed in the stem tissues of inoculation and/or wounding sites on C. peruvianus treated with HICS alone or prior to the pathogen inoculation, but not on C. tetragonus, indicating the structural modifications may be related to the mechanism of disease suppression by HICS. HICS also reduced the disease development on the grafted cactus (H. trigonus stock and G. mianovichii scion) with the control efficacy nearly equivalent to the application of a commercial fungicide. All of these results suggest HICS can be used as an environmental-friendly agent for the control of the cactus stem disease.
Spatial and Temporal Distribution of a Biocontrol Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis N1 on the Strawberry Plants
Kong, Hyun-Gi ; Lee, Hyoung-Ju ; Bae, Ju-Young ; Kim, Nam-Hee ; Moon, Byung-Ju ; Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 238~244
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.238
Spatial and temporal distribution of Bacillus licheniformis N1 was investigated over time on the leaves, petioles and crowns of the strawberry plants. Bacterial population on the strawberry plants was quantified over time by selective plating. Bacterial population of N1 containing a plasmid pWH43G carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) declined relatively faster on the plant surface as compared to the Strain N1 itself. However, this result was found to be enough to utilize the strain to visualize bacterial colonization on the plant surface. When B. licheniformis N1 was treated together with Silwet L-77 at 0.03%, the bacterial population on plant surface persisted for up to 7 days. B. licheniformis N1 (pWH43G) containing Silwet L-77 was applied on the strawberry plants and the GFP expressing bacteria were visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Bacterial persistence was also investigated in a growth chamber and in a plastic house after N1 bioformulation treatment on the strawberry plant. The Strain N1 colonized three different tissues well and persisted over 3 to 5 days on the strawberry plants. They formed bacterial aggregates on plant surfaces for at least 3 days, resulting in a biofilm to resist fluctuating plant surface environment. However, the bacterial persistence dramatically declined after 7 days in all tested tissues in a plastic house. This study suggest that B. licheniformis N1 colonizes the strawberry plant surface and persists for a long time in a controlled growth chamber, while it can not persist over 7 days on the plant surface in a plastic house.
Production of a Phytotoxic Compound, 3-Phenylpropionic Acid by a Bacterial Endophyte, Arthrobacter humicola YC6002 Isolated from the Root of Zoysia japonica
Chung, Eu-Jin ; Park, Joo-Hwang ; Park, Tae-Soon ; Ahn, Jong-Woong ; Chung, Young-Ryun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.245
An endophytic bacterial strain, Arthrobacter humicola YC6002, was isolated from a surface sterilized root of Korean turf grass (Zoysia japonica) collected from Jinju, Korea. This strain showed inhibitory effect on germination and shoot growth of radish. The inhibition of germination and shoot growth of radish seeds varied depending on the age of culture and the temperature at which it was incubated. The culture filtrate of 1/10-strength Tryptic Soy Broth medium, incubated for 48 hours at
, showed the highest inhibitory effect on radish seed germination and shoot growth (92% inhibition as compared to control). The active compound with seed germination and shoot growth inhibition was purified and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid. The purified compound had 53% and 93% inhibitory effect on seed germination and shoot growth of radish for 500 and 1000 ppm solutions, respectively.
Potential of the Volatile-Producing Fungus Nodulisporium sp. CF016 for the Control of Postharvest Diseases of Apple
Park, Myung-Soo ; Ahn, Ji-Ye ; Choi, Gyung-Ja ; Choi, Yong-Ho ; Jang, Kyoung-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 253~259
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.253
In vitro and in vivo mycofumigation effects of the volatileproducing fungus Nodulisporium sp. CF016 isolated from stem of Cinnamomum loureirii and the role of its volatile compounds were investigated against phytopathogenic fungi. The volatile compounds produced by Nodulisporium sp. CF016 inhibited and killed a wide range of plant and storage pathogens including to Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum coccodes, Magnaporthe oryzae, Alternaria panax, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum. Mycofumigation with wheat bran-rice hull cultures of Nodulisporium sp. CF016 showed in vivo antifungal activity against gray mold caused by B. cinerea and blue mold caused by P. expansum of apple. The most abundant volatile compound produced by Nodulisporium sp. CF016 was
-elemene followed by 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene,
-selinene. Nodulisporium sp. CF016 could be an attractive mycofumigant in controlling postharvest diseases of various fruits including apple.
Pathogenic Groups Identified Among Isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis
Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin ; Al-Shehadah, Eyad ; Jawhar, Mohammad ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 260~263
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.260
Scald, caused by Rhynchosporium secalis has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. In this study, pathogenic groups of R. secalis were identified to obtain a global picture of the assembly of isolates involved in Syrian populations which is essential for the development of scald-resistant barley cultivars. To identify a number of pathogenic groups, 49 isolates collected over ten years from major barley growing areas in Syria were evaluated on five differential barley genotypes. Genotypes presented a continuous range of response from highly susceptible to moderately resistant, but none were immune to the disease. A cluster analysis placed isolates in six distinct differential pathogenic groups. Mean disease rating of 39.24% was the separation point between avirulent and virulent reactions. Isolate Rs46 exhibited distinct differential virulence patterns associated with high frequency across all genotypes. Hence, the data presented here provides crucial information for future selection of isolates to develop durable barley scald resistance.
First Report of an Unrecorded Nematode-Trapping Fungus Species Monacrosporium phymatopagum in Korea
Wu, Hai-Yan ; Kim, Dong-Geun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 264~266
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.264
A fungus that can capture nematodes by means of sessile adhesive knobs was isolated from rotten wood in Uiseong, Korea. It was found to produce single, spindle-shaped, 3-4 septate (commonly 4-septate) conidia,
) long and
) wide. Conidiophores were found to be hyaline, erect, straight, and
high. On the basis of these morphological features, the fungus was identified as Monacrosporium phymatopagum. This is the first report of M. phymatopagum in Korea which can be a potential biological control resource of plant parasitic nematode.
Species-specific Detection of Erwinia pyrifoliae by PCR Assay Using Enterobacterial Repetivive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) Primers
Park, Duck-Hwan ; Thapa, Shree Prasad ; Kim, Won-Sik ; Hur, Jang-Hyun ; Lim, Chun-Keun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 267~270
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.267
We designed a sensitive and specific PCR-based method with enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) primer to detect Erwinia pyrifoliae, which cause shoot blight in Asian pear, from a mixed culture and infected plant materials. The primers specifically detected only E. pyrifoliae and showed no cross-reactivity with other bacterial phytopathogens.
Occurrence of Burkholderia glumae on Rice and Field Crops in Korea
Kim, Jin-Woo ; Kang, Yong-Sung ; Kim, Jung-Gun ; Choi, Ok-Hee ; Hwang, In-Gyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 271~272
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.271
Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial rice grain rot and bacterial wilt on many field crops. We developed a simple diagnostic streak method for the isolation of B. glumae from diseased plant material. The geographical distribution of 178 Korean isolates shows that B. glumae is widely spread in South Korea.
Evaluation on Red Pepper Germplasm lines (Capsicum spp.) for Resistance to Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutaum
Kim, Jeong-Soon ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Gwag, Jae-Gyun ; Kim, Chung-Kon ; Shim, Chang-Ki ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 273~279
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.273
We evaluated 209 Capsicum accessions from the National Agrobiodiversity of RDA, for their reaction against of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. Two hundred nine accessions of Capsicum were almost composed with Capsicum annuum var. annuum originated from 37 countries. The percentage of infection due to C. acutatum ranged from 11.1% to 100% on immature and matured pepper fruits at 21 days after inoculation. On immature fruits of pepper, one hundred seventy three accessions of tested pepper were found infected with C. acutatum. Out of the 173 accessions, eighty five accessions were susceptible to anthracnose with dark brown to black lesions and slowly increased in size at 21 days after inoculation. Only thirty six accessions showed resistance against C. acutatum. On mature fruits of pepper, one hundred ninety eight accessions were infected with C. acutatum at 21 days after inoculation. Twenty one accessions showed a resistance reaction against C. acutatum. The results of this work indicated that all of resistance accessions to C. acutatum were have a genetic potential for the resources of resistance can be further used in pepper breeding programme against anthracnose and also demand more detailed investigation in this.
Control Efficacy of Phloretin Isolated from Apple Fruits Against Several Plant Diseases
Shim, Sang-Hee ; Jo, Su-Jung ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Choi, Gyung-Ja ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 280~285
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.280
In the course of a searching natural antifungal compounds from plant sources, we found that the methanol extract (
) of Malus domestica fruits had potential of control against rice blast (Magnaporthe grisea) and tomato late blight (Phytophthora infestans). Under bioassay-guided purification, we isolated phloretin, a phenolic compound, with in vivo antifungal activity against M. grisea. By 1-day protective application of phloretin (
), the compound strongly inhibited the disease development of M. grisea and P. infestans on rice and tomato seedlings, respectively. And red pepper anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum coccodes also was moderately suppressed. However, rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani AG1), and barley powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) were hardly controlled. In addition, the compound showed in vitro antifungal activity against some plant pathogenic fungi including Phytophthora capsici, Alternaria panax, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, R. solani AG4, and M. grisea. This is the first report on the antifungal activity of phloretin against plant pathogenic fungi.
Microwave Irradiation-assisted RNA Extraction from Woody Tissues for Plant Virus Detection
Duong, Thanh Van ; Shin, Dong-Il ; Park, Hee-Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 286~288
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.286
Plant tissue homogenization using a mortar or mechanical equipment has been the preferred method for obtaining high yields of total RNA; this method, however, is both time-consuming and expensive. Additionally, homogenization may generate excessive endogenous RNases, polyphenolics, and other substances that reduce the quality and quantity of RNA. In this study, we describe the microwave irradiation-assisted RNA extraction (MIRE) technique which, without tissue disruption and homogenization, allows for the cost-effective and rapid generation of intact RNA from apple cane shavings and the reliable detection of apple virus by RT-PCR.
Simple and Reliable DNA Extraction Method for the Dark Pigmented Fungus, Cercospora sojina
Kim, Ji-Seong ; Seo, Sang-Gyu ; Jun, Byung-Ki ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 289~292
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.289
This study used a modified cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method to efficiently extract DNA from the plant pathogenic fungus Cercospora sojina. Total DNA yield obtained by this method was approximately 1 mg/g of mycelia (fresh weight), and the mean ratio of A260/A280 and A260/A230 were 2.04 and 2.1, respectively. The results of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, digestion with restriction enzymes, and Southern hybridization indicated that polysaccharides were effectively removed by this method, and the resulting DNA was sufficient for use in subsequent molecular analysis.
Occurrence of Rhamphospora nymphaeae on Nymphaea tetragona in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Denchev, Cvetomir M. ; Han, Kyung-Sook ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 293~293
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.293
Powdery Mildew of Crenate Deutzia Caused by Erysiphe deutziae in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Choi, Young-Joon ; Hong, Seung-Beom ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 294~294
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.294
First Confirmed Report on Powdery Mildew of Phlox paniculata Caused by Golovinomyces magnicellulatus in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Soon-Gu ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 295~295
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.295
Occurrence of Pink Mold Rot of Strawberry Caused by Trichothecium roseum in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Shen, Shun-Shan ; Kim, Jin-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 296~296
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.296
First Report of Stem Rot on Hosta plantaginea caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Chi, Tran Thi Phuong ; Kim, Jin-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 297~297
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.297
Park, Mi-Ra ; Kwon, Sun-Jung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 26, issue 3, 2010, Pages 298~298
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2010.26.3.298