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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Morphology, Molecular Phylogeny and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum panacicola Causing Anthracnose of Korean Ginseng
Choi, Kyung-Jin ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Kim, Hong-Gi ; Choi, Hyo-Won ; Lee, Young-Kee ; Lee, Byung-Dae ; Lee, Sang-Yeob ; Hong, Sung-Kee ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.001
Colletotrichum panacicola isolates were obtained from anthracnose lesions of Korean ginseng and compared with four Colletotrichum species in morphology, molecular phylogeny and pathogenicity. Based on morphological characteristics, C. panacicola was easily distinguished from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides but not from Colletotrichum higginsianum, Colletotrichum destructivum and Colletotrichum coccodes. A phylogenetic tree generated from ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences revealed that C. panacicola is remarkably distinguished from C. gloeosporioides and C. coccodes but not from C. higginsianum and C. destructivum. However, molecular sequence analysis of three combined genes (actin + elongation factor-
+ glutamine synthatase) provided sufficient variability to distinguish C. panacicola from other Colletotrichum species. Pathogencity tests showed that C. panacicola is pathogenic to Korean ginseng but not to other plants. These results suggest that C. panacicola is an independent taxon distin-zguishable from C. gloeosporioides and other morphologically similar Colletotrichum species.
Ultrastructural Study on Induced Resistance of Cucumber Plants against Sphaerotheca fuliginea by Oligochitosan
Ma, Qing ; Zhao, Xiao-Ming ; Sun, Hui ; Shang, Hong-Sheng ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.008
The induced resistance of cucumber leaves treated with oligochitosan to the infection of the cucumber powdery mildew, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that when the plants were treated with oligochitosan and challenged with inoculum, a significant decrease of the disease occurred. The mycelial development in the treated leaves was markedly inhibited. The cytoplasm of the powdery mildew mycelium was aggregated, with its organelles disintegrated and the cytoplasm collapsed. The protoplasm in haustoria became electron-dense. Haustoria became malformed, their organelles disintegrated, the hausterial wall thickened and eventually the whole complex necrotized. The host cells produced defence structures and materials associated with infection and a hypersensitive response. The host cell wall was thickened and deeply stained; several layers of papilla structure were produced under the cell wall; dark materials were deposited between the cell wall and plasmalemma; extrahaustorial plasmalemma was deeply stained and extrahaustorial matrix appositions had large deposits of electron-dense material; the cytoplasm was disordered, host organelles disintegrated and eventually the whole host cell disintegrated and necrotized.
Effect of Alternaria solani Exudates on Resistant and Susceptible Potato Cultivars from Two Different pathogen isolates
Shahbazi, Hadis ; Aminian, Heshmatollah ; Sahebani, Navazollah ; Halterman, Dennis ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 14~19
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.014
Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, is a ubiquitous disease in many countries around the world. Our previous screening of several Iranian potato cultivars found that significant variation in resistance phenotypes exists between two cultivars: resistant 'Diamond' and susceptible 'Granula'. Our previous analysis of five different pathogen isolates also identified varying degrees of aggressiveness regardless of the host cultivar. Here, a bioassay was used to study the role of liquid culture exudates produced in vitro on pathogenicity and elicitation of disease symptomology in seedlings as well as detached leaves. Responses of host genotypes to the exudates of the two A. solani isolates were significantly different. Detached leaves of the resistant cultivar 'Diamond' elicited fewer symptoms to each isolate when compared to the susceptible cultivar 'Granula'. Interestingly, the phytotoxicity effect of the culture filtrate from the more aggressive isolate A was higher than from isolate N suggesting an increased concentration or strength of the toxins produced. Our results are significant because they indicate a correlation between symptoms elicited by A. solani phytotoxins and their aggressiveness on the host.
GzRUM1, Encoding an Ortholog of Human Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 2, is Required for Ascospore Development in Gibberella zeae
Kim, Hee-Kyoung ; Lee, Yin-Won ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 20~25
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.020
Gibberella zeae (anamorph: Fusarium graminearum), a homothallic (self-ferile) ascomycete with ubiquitous geographic distribution, causes serious diseases in several cereal crops. Ascospores (sexual spores) produced by this fungal pathogen have been suggested as the main source of primary inoculum in disease development. Here, we report the function of a gene designated GzRUM1, which is essential for ascospore formation in G. zeae. The deduced product of GzRUM1 showed significant similarities to the human retinoblastoma (tumor suppressor) binding protein 2 and a transcriptional repressor, Rum1 in the corn smut fungus (Ustilago maydis). The transcript of GzRUM1 was detected during the both vegetative and sexual stages, but was more highly accumulated during the latter stage. In addition, no GzRUM1 transcript was detected in a G. zeae strain lacking a mating-type gene (MAT1-2), a master regulator for sexual development in G. zeae. Targeted deletion of GzRUM1 caused no dramatic changes in several traits except ascospore formation. The
GzRUM1 strain produced perithecia (sexual fruit bodies) but not asci nor ascospores within them. This specific defect leading to an arrest in ascospore development suggests that GzRUM1, as Rum1 in U. maydis, functions as a transcriptional regulator during sexual reproduction in G. zeae.
Genetic Diversity of avrBs-like Genes in Three Different Xanthomonas Species Isolated in Korea
Oh, Chang-Sik ; Lee, Seung-Don ; Heu, Sung-Gi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 26~32
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.026
Plant-pathogenic bacteria including Xanthomonas spp. carry genetic diversity in composition of avirulence genes for interaction with their host plants. Previously, we reported genetic diversity of avirulence genes in X. axonopodis pv. glycines. In this study, we determined genetic diversity of five avirulence genes, avrBs1, avrBs2, avrBs3, avrBs4, and avrRxv, in three other Xanthomonas species isolated in Korea by genomic southern hybridization. Although Korean races of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria that were isolated from year 1995 to 2002 had the same avirulence gene patterns as those that already reported, there was race shift from race 3 to race 1 by acquisition of avrBs3 genes. X. campestris pv. campestris isolated from Chinese cabbage, but not from cabbage or radish, carried two avrBs3 genes, and one of them affected HR-eliciting ability of this bacterium in broccoli. X. oryzae pv. oryzae carried eight to thirteen avrBs3 gene homologs, and this bacterium showed dynamic changes of resistance patterns in rice probably by losing or obtaining avrBs3 genes. These results indicate that avrBs3 gene is more diverse in Xanthomonas spp. than other four avirulence genes and also host ranges of these bacteria can be easily changed by loss or acquisition of avrBs3 genes.
Identification of a New Potyvirus Associated with Chlorotic Vein Banding Disease of Spathiphyllum spp., in Andhra Pradesh, India
Padmavathi, M. ; Srinivas, K.P. ; Reddy, Ch. V. Subba ; Ramesh, B. ; Navodayam, K. ; Krishnaprasadji, J. ; Babu, P. Ratan ; Sreenivasulu, P. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 33~36
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.033
The genome of a potyvirus isolate associated with chlorotic spots and vein banding symptoms on Spathiphyllum spp., in Andhra Pradesh state, India was amplified by RT-PCR using degenerate potyvirus primers, amplicons cloned, and sequence (1.6 kb) analyzed. This virus isolate shared maximum identity of 74.8% and 80.2% at coat protein (CP) gene nucleotide (906 nucleotides) and amino acid (302 amino acids) levels, respectively with Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV)-M13 isolate reported from China. But its 3'-UTR (258 nucleotides) had maximum identity of 62.5% with DsMV-Vietnam isolate. The deduced molecular weight of CP is 33.57 kDa and it contained DAG triplet in its N-terminal region. In CP amino acid based phylogenetic analysis, this virus isolate represented a separate branch but closer to DsMV isolates cluster. Based on the molecular criteria set for the discrimination of species and genus in the Potyviridae family, the present virus isolate was identified as a distinct virus species in the genus Potyvirus and proposed the name Spathiphyllum chlorotic vein banding virus (SCVbV).
Generation of Antibodies Against Rice stripe virus Proteins Based on Recombinant Proteins and Synthetic Polypeptides
Lian, Sen ; Jonson, Miranda Gilda ; Cho, Won-Kyong ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Je, Yeon-Ho ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 37~43
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.037
Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of serious epidemic pathogens for rice species grown in many Asian countries. Therefore, it is necessary to produce a diagnostic detection kit applicable in fields for RSV detection. In this study, RSV proteins that were derived from recombinant proteins and synthetic polypeptides as antigens were generated and were raised in rabbits for antiserum production. Among seven proteins in RSV, genes that code for NCP and NS3 proteins were cloned and subcloned into vector carrying His-tag protein and were expressed in E. coli. Of two recombinant proteins, only anti-NCP displayed stable hybridization signals in western blot analysis. Alternately, synthetic RSV polypeptides for CP, NCP, NS3 and NSvc4 we also generated and only antibodies against CP and NCP were very effective to detect RSV in both RSV infected rice and weed plants. However, antibodies against NS3 and NSvc4 showed weak specific bands as well as strong non-specific background due to the difference of viral proteins produced in the infected leaves. In summary, the antibodies generated against RSV proteins produced in this study will be useful for various assays such as for RSV diagnostic detection, immunoprecipitation, protein purification, and western blot analysis.
Detection of Viruses Infecting Stone Fruits in Western Mediterranean Region of Turkey
Yardimci, Bayram Cevik Nejla ; Culal-Klllc, Handan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 44~52
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.044
Field surveys were conducted in 45 stone fruit orchards in seven districts of Isparta Province located in western Mediterranean region of Turkey important for stone fruit production. Leaf samples were collected from 175 trees showing virus-like symptoms. These samples were first tested by ELISA for five different RNA viruses including Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf ilarvirus (PDV), Plum pox potyvirus (PPV), Apple chlorotic leafspot trichovirus (ACLSV). While no ApMV and PPV infection was found, 46, 24 and 16 samples were tested positive for PDV, ACLSV and PNRSV, respectively, in ELISA showing about 45% of symptomatic trees in the region were infected with at least one of these viruses. In addition, it was found that nine sweet cherry trees were mixed infected with two or three of these viruses and PDV with an infection rate of 26.3% was the most widespread virus in symptomatic trees in western Mediterranean region. Thirty samples were selected and tested by a multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) for simultaneous detection of these viruses. While PPV was not detected, more than half of the tested 20 samples were individually or mixed infected with ApMV, ACLSV, PNRSV and PDV. The mRT-PCR results were confirmed by detection of these viruses individually in some of the field samples using RT-PCR with primes specific to each virus. Comparison of ELSA and mRT-PCR results of 30 samples showed that numbers of infected and mixed infected samples as well as infection and mixed infection rates were significantly higher in RT-PCR (20 and 66.7%) than in ELISA (14 and 46.7%). The results confirm that mRT-PCR is more sensitive than ELISA.
Application of Jasmonic Acid Followed by Salicylic Acid Inhibits Cucumber mosaic virus Replication
Luo, Ying ; Shang, Jing ; Zhao, Pingping ; Xi, Dehui ; Yuan, Shu ; Lin, Honghui ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 53~58
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.053
Systemic acquired resistance is a form of inducible resistance that is triggered in systemic healthy tissues of local-infected plants. Several candidate signaling molecules emerged in the past two years, including the methylated derivatives of well-known defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). In our present study, the symptom on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infected Arabidopsis leaves in 0.1 mM SA or 0.06 mM JA pre-treated plants was lighter (less reactive oxygen species accumulation and less oxidative damages) than that of the control group. JA followed by SA (JA
SA) had the highest inhibitory efficiency to CMV replication, higher than JA and SA simultaneous co-pretreatment (JA+SA), and higher than a JA or a SA single pretreatment. The crosstalk between the two hormones was further investigated at the transcriptional levels of pathogenesis-related genes. The time-course measurement showed JA might play a more important role in the interaction between JA and SA.
Isolation and Identification of Burkholderia pyrrocinia CH-67 to Control Tomato Leaf Mold and Damping-off on Crisphead Lettuce and Tomato
Lee, Kwang-Youll ; Kong, Hyun-Gi ; Choi, Ki-Hyuck ; Lee, Seon-Woo ; Moon, Byung-Ju ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.059
A bacterial strain CH-67 which exhibits antagonism towards several plant pathogenic fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Fulvia fulva, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum sp. and Phytophthora sp. was isolated from forest soil by a chitin-baiting method. This strain was identified as Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) and belonging to genomovar IX (Burkholderia pyrrocinia) by colony morphology, biochemical traits and molecular method like 16S rRNA and recA gene analysis. This strain was used to develop a bio-fungicide for the control of tomato leaf mold caused by Fulvia fulva. Various formulations of B. pyrrocinia CH-67 were prepared using fermentation cultures of the bacterium in rice oil medium. The result of pot experiments led to selection of the wettable powder formulation CH67-C containing modified starch as the best formulation for the control of tomato leaf mold. CH67-C, at 100-fold dilution, showed a control value of 85% against tomato leaf mold. Its disease control efficacy was not significantly different from that of the chemical fungicide triflumidazole. B. pyrrocinia CH-67 was also effective in controlling damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani PY-1 in crisphead lettuce and tomato plants. CH67-C formulation was recognized as a cell-free formulation since B. pyrrocinia CH-67 was all lethal during formulation process. This study provides an effective biocontrol formulation of biofungicide using B. pyrrocinia CH-67 to control tomato leaf mold and damping-off crisphead lettuce and tomato.
Evaluation of the Biocontrol Potential of Some Medicinal Plant Materials Alone and in Combination with Trichoderma harzianum Against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1
Lee, Hye-Min ; Khan, Zakaullah ; Kim, Sang-Gyu ; Baek, Nam-In ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 68~77
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.068
Fifty five species of medicinal plant materials were tested for their antifungal activity in vitro against Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 and Trichoderma harzianum to select plant species that can be used to improve the biocontrol efficacy of T. harzianum. Six species were effective against R. solani AG 2-1 but were also antagonistic to T. harzianum, except for Cinnamomum loureirii stem bark (CSB). CSB inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani AG 2-1 by 73.7% but showed an inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of T. harzianum by only 2.2%. Scanning electron microscophs showed that the CSB treatment resulted in deformed R. solani AG 2-1 hyphal cells, and transmission electron microscophs revealed degenerated cell structures such as degenerated cytoplasm and disentangled cell wall and the accumulation of electron-dense inclusions (asterisks) in the CSB treatment. The biocontrol efficacy of radish damping-off increased greatly following the combined treatments of T. harzianum and CSB and the combined treatment increased efficacy from 6.4-23.1% to 37.1-87.3% compared with either treatment alone. CSB did not affect T. harzianum population growth, as it was almost the same in rice-bran peat medium (culture) amended with 0.1% and 1.0% CSB powder as in non-amended medium. The formulation of T. harzianum in rice-bran peat medium amended with CSB powder reduced the severity of radish damping-off by 80.6%, suggesting that T. harzianum and CSB can be formulated as a biocontrol product for the control of R. solani AG 2-1.
Screening of Rhizobacteria for Biological Control of Cucumber Root and Crown Rot Caused by Phytophthora drechsleri
Maleki, Mojdeh ; Mokhtarnejad, Lachin ; Mostafaee, Somayyeh ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 78~84
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.078
Antagonistic rhizobacteria, more specifically fluorescent pseudomonads and certain species of Bacillus, are known as biocontrol agents of fungal root diseases of agronomic crops. In this study, 144 bacteria were isolated from cucumber rhizosphere and screened as potential biological control agents against Phytophthora drechsleri, the causal agent of cucumber root rot, in vitro condition. Non-volatile compounds of 23 isolates showed noticeable inhibition zone (> 30%) against P. drechsleri, whereas volatile compounds of 7 isolates could prevent more than 30% of the mycelial growth of the fungus. All promising isolates, except of Pseudomonas flourescens V69, promoted significantly plant growth under in vitro condition. P. flourescens CV69 and V11 exhibited the highest colonization on the root. Results of the greenhouse studies showed that a reduction in disease incidence by use of some strains, and particularly use of strains CV6 and V11 as a soil treatment, exhibited a reduction in disease incidence so that suppressed disease by 85.71 and 69.39% respectively. Pseudomonas flourescens CV6 significantly suppressed disease in comparison to Ridomil fungicide. The use of mixture bacterial strains in the soil inoculated by the fungus resulting in falling down the most of the plants which didn't show significant difference with infected control soils without bacteria.
Outbreak of Powdery Mildew on Zinnia elegans by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in Korea, 2008-2010
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Hong-Gi ; Lee, Soon-Gu ; Koh, Young-Jin ; Kim, Byung-Sup ; Cha, Byeong-Jin ; Lee, Hyang-Burm ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 85~88
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.085
Podosphaera fusca (syn. Sphaerotheca fusca, S. fuliginea) is a causal agent of powdery mildew infections on Zinnia elegans, and has been documented in Korea since 1967. An outbreak involving about 1,000 plants in October 2008, in Yangpyeong, Korea, was caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Further surveys of zinnia powdery mildew from 2008-2010 confirmed the widespread occurrence of Zinnia-Golovinomyces association in Korea. Chasmothecia of this fungus have not been found on Z. elegans in Korea. Analysis of internal transcribed spacer rDNA from five Korean collections confirmed the powdery mildew as G. cichoracearum. Comparison with the those from GenBank revealed 100% identity with sequences from zinnia powdery mildew, forming a monophyletic clade with 100% bootstrap support, and with those of G. cichoracearum parasitic on the hosts belonging to the tribe Heliantheae of the family Asteraceae.
Mutation in clp
Reduces Virulence and Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10859
Cho, Jung-Hee ; Jeong, Kyu-Sik ; Han, Jong-Woo ; Kim, Woo-Jae ; Cha, Jae-Soon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 89~92
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.089
Cyclic AMP receptor-like protein (Clp), is known to be a global transcriptional regulator for the expression of virulence factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Sequence analysis showed that Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) contains a gene that is strongly homologous to the Xcc clp. In order to determine the role of the Clp homolog in Xoo, a marker exchange mutant of
was generated. Virulence and virulence factors, such as the production of cellulase, xylanase, and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and swarming motility were significantly decreased in the
mutant. Moreover, the mutation caused the strain to be more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and to over-produce siderophores. Complementation of the mutant restored the mutation-related phenotypes. Expression of
, assessed by reverse-transcription realtime PCR and clp promoter activity, was significantly reduced in the rpfB, rpfF, rpfC, and rpfG mutants. These results suggest that the clp homolog,
, is involved in the control of virulence and resistance against oxidative stress, and that expression of the gene is controlled by RpfC and RpfG through a diffusible signal factor (DSF) signal in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae KACC10859.
Development of RT-PCR Based Method for Detecting Five Non-reported Quarantine Plant Viruses Infecting the Family Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae
Lee, Jong-Seung ; Cho, Won-Kyong ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.093
For quarantine purpose, we selected five plant RNA viruses including Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), Potato aucuba mosaic virus (PAMV), Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV), and Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), which are not reported in Korea and cause serious economic losses to the family Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae. To detect those viruses, we employed RT-PCR technique with specific oligonucleotide primer pairs and tested their detection efficiency for each virus. To design RT-PCR primers, coat protein was used for CVYV, CYSDV, and ToCV whereas RNA polymerase and nucleocapsid regions were used for PAMV and PYDV, respectively. The development of an RT-PCR based method proved a useful tool for rapid detection and identification of quarantine virus infections.
Powdery Mildew of Acer takesimense Caused by Sawadaea polyfida in Korea
Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Kyung-Hee ; Park, Mi-Jeong ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 98~98
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.098
Powdery Mildew of Momordica charantia Caused by Podosphaera fusca in Korea
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 99~99
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.099
First Report of Fruit Black Spot of Diospyros kaki Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Kim, Jin-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 100~100
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.100
First Report of Powdery Mildew Caused by Phyllactinia fraxini on Chinese Fringe Tree in Korea
Kim, Chang-Jeon ; Jang, Hyoung-Yeol ; Glawe, Dean A. ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ; Lee, Hyang-Burm ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 1, 2011, Pages 101~101
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.1.101