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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Regulation of Pathogenesis by Light in Cercospora zeae-maydis: An Updated Perspective
Kim, Hun ; Ridenour, John B. ; Dunkle, Larry D. ; Bluhm, Burton H. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.103
The fungal genus Cercospora is one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant pathogenic fungi, and gray leaf spot caused by C. zeae-maydis is one of the most widespread and damaging foliar diseases of maize in the world. While light has been implicated as a critical environmental regulator of pathogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, the relationship between light and the development of disease is not fully understood. Recent discoveries have provided new insights into how light influences pathogenesis and morphogenesis in C. zeae-maydis, particularly at the molecular level. This review is focused on integrating old and new information to provide an updated perspective of how light influences pathogenesis, and provides a working model to explain some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Ultimately, a thorough molecular-level understanding of how light regulates pathogenesis will augment efforts to manage gray leaf spot by improving host resistance and disease management strategies.
Aggressiveness in Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew)
Sakr, Nachaat ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 110~115
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.110
Aggressiveness was studied in seven Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) pathotypes: 100, 300, 304, 314, 704, 710 and 714. Aggressiveness criteria including percentage infection, latent period, sporulation density and reduction of hypocotyl length (dwarfing) were analysed in one sunflower inbred line showing a high level of quantitative resistance. Genetic relationships were detected between the seven pathotypes using 12 EST-derived markers. Pathotypes 100, 300, 304 and 314 were characterized with shorter latent period and higher sporulation density than pathotypes 710, 704 and 714. All pathotypes showed high percentage infection values and caused a large reduction in seedling size except for pathotype 314 involved in dwarfing. Pathotypes 714, 704 and 314 had an intermediary genetic position between the pathotypes 100 and 710. No correlation was detected between aggressiveness traits and EST genotypes.
Vegetative Compatibility Groups and Virulence Variation Among Isolates of Pyrenophora graminea
Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin ; Jawhar, Mohammad ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 116~119
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.116
Pyrenophora graminea, the causal agent of leaf stripe disease, is an economically important pathogen of barley found worldwide. Forty-four isolates of diverse geographical origin within Syria were grouped into vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) by demonstrating heterokaryosis by complementation tests using nitrate nonutilizing (nit) mutants. All isolates were grouped into three VCGs-1-A, 1-B and 1-C. No self-incompatibility was observed in any of the isolates tested. VCG 1-A was the most common group within growing regions in Syria and proved to be the most virulent of the VCGs identified. These data indicate that the level of virulence in P. graminea is related to VCG.
Identification of Alternaria alternata as a Causal Agent for Leaf Blight in Syringa Species
Mmbaga, Margaret T. ; Shi, Ainong ; Kim, Mee-Sook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 120~127
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.120
While many isolates of Alternaria alternata are common saprophytes on trees and shrubs, this study clearly demonstrated that A. alternata is a primary pathogen in lilac (Syringa sp.), causing a leaf-blight that affects different Syringa species. Isolates of Alternaria sp. were collected from leaf blight samples of lilacs in the field. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and morphological characterization were used to identify lilac blight pathogen. Based on 100% ITS nucleotide sequence identities to the Alternaria genus in the GenBank and morphological features, these isolates were identified as A. alternata. Disease symptoms were reproduced in lilac plants inoculated with A. alternata mycelial plugs and sprayed with a fungus-free culture filtrate, indicating that pathogenesis in lilac involves secondary metabolites or toxins. Diagnostic primers were developed to detect Alternaria sp. and A. alternata in lilac leaf blight based on ITS region and four known genes associated with pathogenesis in A. alternata: mixed-linked glucanase precursor, endopolygalacturonase, hsp70, and histone genes. The results from our study indicated A. alternata is a primary pathogen in lilac leaf blight, and these diagnostic primers can be used as a tool for the fast detection of A. alternata associated with lilac leaf blight.
Diversity of Macrophomina phaseolina Based on Morphological and Genotypic Characteristics in Iran
Mahdizadeh, Valiollah ; Safaie, Naser ; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 128~137
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.128
Fifty two Macrophomina phaseolina isolates were recovered from 24 host plant species through the 14 Iranian provinces. All isolates were confirmed to species using species-specific primers. The colony characteristics of each isolate were recorded, including chlorate phenotype, relative growth rate at
, average size of microsclerotia, and time to microsclerotia formation. The feathery colony phenotype was the most common (63.7%) on the chlorate selective medium and represented the chlorate sensitive phenotype of the Iranian Macrophomina phaseolina population. Meantime, inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) Markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of the fungus. Unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic means (UPGMA) clustering of data showed that isolates did not clearly differentiate to the specific group according to the host or geographical origins, however, usually the isolates from the same host or the same geographic origin tend to group nearly. Our results did not show a correlation between the genetic diversity based on the ISSR and phenotypic characteristics. Similar to the M. phaseolina populations in the other countries, the Iranian isolates were highly diverse based on the phenotypic and the genotypic characteristics investigated and needs more studies using neutral molecular tools to get a deeper insight into this complex species.
Roles of Ascospores and Arthroconidia of Xylogone ganodermophthora in Development of Yellow Rot in Cultivated Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum
Kang, Hyo-Jung ; Chang, Who-Bong ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ; Lee, Yin-Won ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 138~147
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.138
Xylogone ganodermophthora, an ascomycetous fungus, is known to cause yellow rot in the cultivated mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. In this study, we investigated the dissemination of this fungal pathogen in G. lucidum grown in cultivation houses. To determine the role of ascospores produced by X. ganodermophthora in disease development, we constructed a green fluorescent protein-labeled transgenic strain. This X. ganodermophthora strain produced a number of ascomata in the tissues of oak logs on which G. lucidum had been grown and on the mushroom fruit bodies. However, the ascospores released from the ascomata were not able to germinate on water agar or potato dextrose agar. Moreover, less than 0.1% of the ascospores showed green fluorescence, indicating that most ascospores of X. ganodermophthora were not viable. To determine the manner in which X. ganodermophthora disseminates, diseased oak logs were either buried in isolated soil beds as soil-borne inocula or placed around soil beds as air-borne inocula. In addition, culture bottles in which G. lucidum mycelia had been grown were placed on each floor of a five-floor shelf near X. ganodermophthora inocula. One year after cultivation, yellow rot occurred in almost all of the oak logs in the soil beds, including those in beds without soil-borne inocula. In contrast, none of the G. lucidum in the culture bottles was infected, suggesting that dissemination of X. ganodermophthora can occur via the cultivation soil.
Genetic Reassortment of Rice stripe virus RNA Segments Detected by RT-PCR Restriction Enzyme Analysis-based Method
Jonson, Miranda Gilda ; Lian, Sen ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Gwan-Seok ; Kim, Chang-Suk ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 148~155
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.148
Our previous sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the Korean Rice stripe virus (RSV) suggested possible genetic reassortment of RNA segments, but whether this RNA variation contributed to the recent RSV outbreaks in Korea is yet unclear. To further clarify these RSV-RNA segment variations, we developed a reverse transcription-polymerase reaction/restriction enzyme (RT-PCR/RE) analysis-based method. We identified five REs, including DraI, EcoR1, NdeI/AseI, and SpeI, that could differentiate RSV RNA 1-4 subtypes, respectively. Our RT-PCR/RE results provided a clear pattern of RNA reassortment, i.e., different groups of isolates having their RNA segments derived from two to three different RSV ancestors, such as from Eastern and Southwestern Chinese or Japanese M and T isolates. We also found that the migratory small brown planthopper from Eastern China caught by aerial net traps that possesses RSV-RNA3 genotypes corresponds mainly to Eastern China, with a few for Southwestern China based on RT-PCR/RE, sequence and phylogenetic analyses, indicating that RSV populations in Eastern China may also have strong RNA variation. The development of an RE analysisbased method proved a useful epidemiological tool for rapid genotyping and identification of mixed infections by RSV strain and by different subtype.
Biocontrol with Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper
Kim, Sung-Taek ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 156~163
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.156
Antifungal activity of three Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126, 1136, and 2001, was tested in vitro against three phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, and Pyricularia grisea). Spore germination and mycelial growth of the three pathogenic fungi were completely inhibited by bioactive substances from a myxobacterium KYC 1126. In addition, the activity of KYC 1126 was fungicidal, but liquid culture filtrate of KYC 1126 did not affect protoplast reversion in C. acutatum. A bioassay of KYC 1126 filtrate against anthracnose in hot pepper was conducted in the greenhouse and field at 2009 and 2010. The incidence of anthracnose in control seedlings was 74%, but was reduced to 29% after KYC 1126 treatment. The control value with KYC 1126 was 60% while that with the fungicide dithianon was 42%. In the greenhouse, disease incidence with KYC 1126 was consistentely 10-35% lower than with fungicide as a positive control. The control value with KYC 1126 was 13.4% and 41.0%, whereas that with the fungicide was 52.3% and 63% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Although anti-anthracnose activity of KYC 1126 was not maintained for long time in the field, the bacteriolytic myxobacterium KYC 1126 could be a prospective biocontrol agent.
Potential for Augmentation of Fruit Quality by Foliar Application of Bacilli Spores on Apple Tree
Ryu, Choong-Min ; Shin, Jung-Nam ; Qi, Wang ; Ruhong, Mei ; Kim, Eui-Joong ; Pan, Jae-Gu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 164~169
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.164
Previous studies have addressed the management of phyllosphere pathogens by leaf and root-associated microbes. The present study evaluated the effect of the foliar application of three strains of Bacillus spp. on plant growth and fruit quality. The application of a bacilli spore preparation significantly improved leaf growth parameters such as leaf thickness and photosynthesis capacity, indicating that bacilli treatment directly promoted leaf growth. In addition, foliar treatment resulted in an improvement in the key indicators of fruit quality including water, glucose, and sucrose contents. The present results suggest that foliar spraying of beneficial bacilli is a potential treatment of wide application for the improvement of apple quality. Foliar application of bacilli preparation as effective plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria broadens the spectrum of their availability for orchard application.
Suppression of UDP-glycosyltransferase-coding Arabidopsis thaliana UGT74E2 Gene Expression Leads to Increased Resistance to Psuedomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Infection
Park, Hyo-Jun ; Kwon, Chang-Seob ; Woo, Joo-Yong ; Lee, Gil-Je ; Kim, Young-Jin ; Paek, Kyung-Hee ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 170~182
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.170
Plants possess multiple resistance mechanisms that protect themselves against pathogen attack. To identify unknown components of the defense machinery in Arabidopsis, gene-expression changes were monitored in Arabidopsis thaliana under 18 different biotic or abiotic conditions using a DNA microarray representing approximately 25% of all Arabidopsis thaliana genes (www.genevestigator.com). Seventeen genes which are early responsive to salicylic acid (SA) treatment as well as pathogen infection were selected and their T-DNA insertion mutants were obtained from SALK institute. To elucidate the role of each gene in defense response, bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 was inoculated onto individual T-DNA insertion mutants. Four mutants exhibited decreased resistance and five mutants displayed significantly enhanced resistance against Pst DC3000-infection as measured by change in symptom development as compared to wild-type plants. Among them, member of uridin diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferase (UGT) was of particular interest, since a UGT mutant (At1g05680) showed enhanced resistance to Pst-infection in Arabidopsis. In systemic acquired resistance (SAR) assay, this mutant showed enhanced activation of SAR. Also, the enhanced SAR correlated with increased expression of defense-related gene, AtPR1. These results emphasize that the glycosylation of UGT74E2 is a part of the SA-mediated disease-resistance mechanism.
Differential Responses of Soybean Cultivars to Cercospora sojina Isolates, the Causal Agent of Frogeye Leaf Spot in Korea
Kim, Ji-Seong ; Lee, Young-Su ; Kim, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Ki-Deok ; Kim, Jin-Won ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 183~186
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.183
During the summer of 2005, specimens of soybean cultivars (Daepung, Daewon, Hwanggeum and Taegwang) showing frogeye leaf spot (FLS) were obtained from various areas in Korea. Eight isolates identified as Cercospora sojina were inoculated on the adaxial leaf surfaces of 63 Korean soybean cultivars; the disease responses to each isolate were evaluated 14 days and 21 days after inoculation. Based on the disease responses (resistant or susceptible) of the cultivars by the isolates, a set of cultivars (Anpeong, Bogwang, Cheongdu No. 1, Cheongja No. 3, Dachae, Daemang, Jangwon, Namhae, Sowon, Taegwang) were selected and inoculated with seven isolates for further testing pathogenic variance. Interestingly, 6 out of 7 tested C. sojina isolates revealed differential ability in infecting different soybean cultivars. This result may indicate the possibility of new race occurrence or pathogenic variation; this also presents evidence for prevalent FLS occurrence during humid and hot weather in Korea.
Strawberry mild yellow edge potexvirus from Strawberry in Korea
Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Chung, Bong-Nam ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 187~190
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.187
Symptoms induced in the leaves of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), 'Seolhyang' and 'Eyeberry', were mosaic, distortion and black colored edge on leaves at Nonsan area, one of the important production areas in Korea. Electron microscopy by quick-dip revealed the flexuous rod-shape particles having about 550-600 nm length. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies composed of aggregated virus particles were observed frequently in mesophyll parenchyma and epidermal cells for the leaves of strawberry. The specific primers amplifying products of 635 bp and 729 bp were developed for RT-PCR detection of Strawberry mild yellow edge virus (SMYEV). Nucleotide identity of the CP gene of SMYEV was 92.8-99.2% with those of other SMYEV isolates from Gen-Bank database.
Powdery Mildew of Rudbeckia hirta var. pulcherrima Caused by Podosphaera fusca
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Soon-Gu ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 191~191
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.191
White Blister Rust Caused by Albugo candida on Oilseed Rape in Korea
Choi, Young-Joon ; Park, Mi-Jeong ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 192~192
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.192
Occurrence of Leaf Spot on Mulberry Caused by Phloeospora maculans in Korea
Hong, Sung-Kee ; Kim, Wan-Gyu ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Choi, Hyo-Won ; Lee, Young-Kee ; Shim, Hong-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Yeob ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 2, 2011, Pages 193~193
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.2.193