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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
Selecting the target year
The Road to RNA Silencing is Paved with Plant-Virus Interactions
Palukaitis, Peter ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 197~206
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.197
RNA silencing has had a large impact on biology in general, as well as on our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions, especially interactions between plants and viruses. While most of what we know about the mechanism of RNA silencing was deduced in the last 12 years, many of the interactions between plants and viruses, as well as virus-virus interactions in plants, which we now know are manifestations of RNA silencing, were the subject of decades of work from numerous laboratories. These laboratories were examining the nature and extent of phenomena such as recovery from infection, the formation of dark green islands resistant to re-infection, synergy between unrelated viruses and cross-protection between related viruses, all first described in the late 1920s. In this review, the relationships between these phenomena and their place in the defense mechanism we call RNA silencing will be described, to show how they are all linked.
Potential Roles of Essential Oils on Controlling Plant Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas Species: A Review
Bajpai, Vivek K. ; Kang, So-Ra ; Xu, Houjuan ; Lee, Soon-Gu ; Baek, Kwang-Hyun ; Kang, Sun-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 207~224
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.207
Diseases caused by plant pathogenic bacteria constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Xanthomonas is a large genus of Gram-negative bacteria that cause disease in several host plants leading to considerable losses in productivity and quality of harvests. Despite the ranges of controlling techniques available, the microbiological safety of economically important crops and crop plants including fruits and vegetables continues to be a major concern to the agriculture industry. On the other hand, many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic, non-biodegradable and cause extended environmental pollution. Besides, the use of antibiotics has provoked an increased resistance among the bacterial pathogens and their pathovars. Thus, novel efficient and safe remedies for controlling plant bacterial diseases are necessary. There has been an increasing interest worldwide on therapeutic values of natural products such as essential oils, hence the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the published data on the antibacterial efficacy of essential oils that could be considered suitable for application in agriculture as biocontrol measures against plant pathogenic bacteria of Xanthomonas species. The current knowledge on the use of essential oils to control Xanthomonas bacteria in vitro and in vivo models has been discussed. A brief description on the legal aspects on the use of essential oils against bacterial pathogens has also been presented. Through this review, a mode of antibacterial action of essential oils along with their chemical nature and the area for future research have been thoroughly discussed.
Proteasome Inhibitors Affect Appressorium Formation and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae
Wang, Yiming ; Kim, Sang-Gon ; Wu, Jingni ; Yu, Seok ; Kang, Kyu-Young ; Kim, Sun-Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 225~231
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.225
Previously, we identified the 20S proteasome
-subunit of Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) induced during appressorium formation, and detected an increase in multiple protein ubiquitination during the early appressorium formation process (Kim et al., 2004). In this study, we further attempted to determine whether the proteasome is involved in the appressorium formation of M. oryzae both in vitro and in planta, using proteasome inhibitors. A significant increase in 20S proteasome during fungal germination and appressorium formation was observed using Western blot analysis with 20S proteasome antibody, demonstrating that proteasome-mediated protein degradation was involved in appressorium formation. Pharmacological analysis using proteasome inhibitors, MG-132, proteasome inhibitor I (PI) and proteasome inhibitor II (PII) revealed that germination and appressorium formation were delayed for 4 to 6 h on rice leaf wax-coated plates. Similarly, the treatment of proteasome inhibitors with fungal conidia on the rice leaf surface delayed appressorium formation and host infection processes as well. Additionally, fungal pathogenicity was strongly reduced at 4 days' postfungal infection. These data indicated that the fungal 20S proteasome might be involved in the pathogenicity of M. oryzae by the suppression of germination and appressorium formation.
Response of Bentgrass Cultivars to Microdochium nivale Isolates Collected from Golf Courses
Chang, Tae-Hyun ; Chang, Seog-Won ; Jung, Geun-Hwa ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 232~341
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.232
Pink snow mold, caused by Microdochium nivale, is a major disease on cool season turfgrasses in golf courses in northern Unites States. The relative susceptibility of 17 commercial cultivars of three bentgrass species (creeping, colonial and velvet bentgrass) to Microdochium nivale and the aggressiveness of M. nivale eight isolates obtained from infected turfgrasses on golf courses in Wisconsin were evaluated under controlled conditions. For the field trial, susceptibility of 2 year-old 12 commercial bentgrass cultivars was evaluated after inoculating three M. nivale isolates in the fields. There were significant differences in disease severities among the three bentgrass species, particularly between tetraploids (creeping and colonial) and diploid (velvet) species, and among cultivars within each species, indicating that there are varying levels of susceptibility in species and cultivars to M. nivale. Host resistance by days of cold hardening was confirmed, by detecting the resistance by 30 days of cold hardening treatments. In field trial, susceptibility of 12 bentgrass cultivars was highly correlated to the results obtained from growth chamber experiments. The positive correlation of the susceptibility between growth chamber experiments and field trials demonstrates that the growth chamber method is a useful technique for saving time, space and labor to evaluate efficiently pink snow mold susceptibility of bentgrass cultivars. This study could be applied to evaluating susceptibility of bentgrass to pink snow mold and also predicting a prospective evaluation of bentgrass cultivars to pink snow mold in fields in a breeding program.
Virulence Attenuation of Pectobacterium carotovorum Using N-Acyl-homoserine Lactone Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Potato Rhizosphere
Mahmoudi, Esmaeil ; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed ; Venturi, Vittorio ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 242~248
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.242
Several soil bacteria were found to degrade N-Acylhomoserine lactones (NAHLs), thereby interfering with the bacterial quorum sensing system. In this research, fifteen strains of NAHL degrading rhizobacteria were isolated from potato rhizosphere. Based on phenotypic characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analyses, the strains were identified as members of genera Bacillus, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas and Mesorhizobium. All tested isolates were capable to degrade both synthetic and natural NAHL produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) strain EMPCC. In quorum quenching experiments selected isolates, especially Mesorhizobium sp., were markedly reduced the pathogenicity of Pcc strain EMPCC in potato tubers and totally suppressed tissue maceration on potato tubers. These led to consider the latter as a useful biocontrol agent against Pectobacterium spp.
Direct Evidence of Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) Genotype Effect on Growth and Vertical Transmission of Endophyte in Tall Fescue (Schedonorus phoenix Scop.) Under Water Stress
Ju, Ho-Jong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 249~256
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.249
Tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix Scop.) is resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses through a symbiotic relationship with Neotyphodium coenophialum. However, this endophyte has been considered detrimental since it produces toxic alkaloids to animals. It is vital to understand mutuality between these two to maximize positive impact of the endophyte on agri-ecosystem. Little research has been conducted on endophyte transmission mechanism in planta. To provide basic information related to endophyte transmission, an experiment was conducted to examine the effect of endophyte genotype and water stress on endophyte transmission by imposing soil moisture deficits at different stages of panicle development. There was water stress effect on endophyte frequency but not on concentration, whereas endophyte genotype significantly influenced endophyte concentration in pseudostem of tall fescue at boot stage. Reproductive tillers showed greater endophyte frequency and concentration. Endophyte frequency in florets or seeds depended on position within panicle. There was no drought effect on endophyte concentration, but showed the effect of endophyte genotype on endophyte concentration in florets and seeds. Overall endophyte concentration in seeds was higher. From this study, we may conclude that although water stress reduced endophyte frequency in vegetative tiller, water stress does not have effect on endophyte transmission, suggesting that drought is not an important factor controlling the endophyte transmission from plant to seed. Endophyte genotype and seed position in a panicle affected endophyte transmission, indicating that these two factors are involved in endophyte transmission and may determine seed transmission of endophyte in tall fescue.
Selection of KYC 3270, a Cellulolytic Myxobacteria of Sorangium cellulosum, against Several Phytopathogens and a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Gray Mold in Stored Fruit
Kim, Sung-Taek ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 257~265
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.257
During 2002-2008 in Korea, 455 extracts from myxobacteria consisting of 318 cellulolytic and 137 bacteriolytic myxobacteria were isolated, which were then screened for antifungal activity against the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Penicillium sp., Pyricularia grisea, and Phytophthora capsici. 204 isolates had antifungal activity, causing both a clear zone due to blocked spore germination and inhibition of mycelial growth; most (199) were from cellulolytic (Sorangium cellulosum) and only five were from bacteriolytic myxobacteria. B. cinerea, the best controlled among the five tested pathogens, had a unique group of antifungal isolates of myxobacterial extracts compared to the other pathogens' groups. Among seventy-nine bioactive myxobacteria, four isolates, KYC 3130, KYC 3247, KYC 3248 and KYC 3270, were selected and all were cellulolytic. Liquid culture filtrates of these four myxobacteria were applied to tomato, cherry tomato, strawberry, and kiwi fruits 5 h before inoculation with gray mold conidia; then the treated fruits were placed in an airtight container and the experiment was repeated six to eight times. Incidence (%) of gray mold on fruit of the infected control treatment was 84-98%, whereas it was only 5-21% after the KYC 3270 treatment. After KYC 3270 treatment of the four fruits, mold control was 79-95%, which was highest among the filtrates and statistically the same as treatment with fludioxonil, a registered chemical against gray mold of stored fruits.
Effects of Heavy Metal Contamination from an Abandoned Mine on Tomato Growth and Root-knot Nematode Development
Park, Byeong-Yong ; Lee, Jae-Kook ; Ro, Hee-Myong ; Kim, Young-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 266~271
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.266
Physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal content of soils located along the drainage way of an abandoned mine at Busan, Korea (
) (contaminated soil; CS) and uncontaminated soils (50-70 m apart from the drainage way) (NS) were examined. Growth of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicom cv. Rutgers) in CS and NS, development of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) as root-knot gall formation on tomato plants, and non-parasitic nematode populations in soil were also examined. Growth of tomato plants, root-knot gall formation, and non-parasitic nematode populations were significantly reduced in CS with higher As content, lower pH, higher electrical conductivity (EC), and lower available phosphate (av.
) than in NS. None of the other physicochemical characters examined differed significantly between CS and NS (low and no significance) and were above or below the critical levels detrimental to plant growth and nematode development, suggesting that As may be the primary hazardous heavy metal in CS. The toxicity of As might be enhanced at low pH in CS because exchangeable forms of some heavy metals increase with the decrease of soil pH. The heavy metals, especially As, may have contributed to increasing EC and decreasing av.
. Therefore, the effects of mine drainage contamination from the abandoned mine were derived primarily from contamination by heavy metals such as As. These may have been enhanced in toxicity (solubility) by the lowered pH, increased soil salinity (EC) and decreased av.
. Our results suggest synergistic adverse effects on the plant and the nematode by decreasing osmotic potential and nutrient availability.
Identification and Transcriptional Analysis of Priming Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Induced by Root Colonization with Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6
Cho, Song-Mi ; Park, Ju-Yeon ; Han, Song-Hee ; Anderson, Anne J. ; Yang, Kwang-Yeol ; Gardener, Brian Mcspadden ; Kim, Young-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 272~279
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.272
Root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana with Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 induces systemic tolerance against diverse pathogens, as well as drought and salt stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that 11 genes in the leaves were up-regulated, and 5 genes were down-regulated as the result of three- to five-days root colonization by P. chlororaphis O6. The identified priming genes were involved in cell signaling, transcription, protein synthesis, and degradation. In addition, expression of selected priming genes were induced in P. chlororaphis O6-colonized plants subjected to water withholding. Genes encoding defense proteins in signaling pathways regulated by jasmonic acid and ethylene, such as VSP1 and PDF1.2, were additional genes with enhanced expression in the P. chlororaphis O6-colonized plants. This study indicated that the expression of priming genes, as well as genes involved in jasmonic acid- and ethylene-regulated genes may play an important role in the systemic induction of both abiotic and biotic stress due to root colonization by P. chlororaphis O6.
Occurrence of Tropical Race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Indonesia
Wibowo, A. ; Subandiyah, S. ; Sumardiyono, C. ; Sulistyowati, L. ; Taylor, P. ; Fegan, M. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 280~284
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.280
Fusarium wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is widespread in Indonesia. However, the distribution of tropical race 4 strains has not been well studied. Thirty nine isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense were collected from Java and 7 isolates were from Sumatera, Bangka, and Kalimantan. All isolates produced volatile odor when grown on steamed rice. These isolates were further tested for their vegetative compatibility with nitM testers of 20 reported vegetative compatibility groups representing strains that belong to race 1, 2, and 4. Three isolates formed heterokaryons with nitM testers belong to race 1, 11 isolates with race 4, and the rest did not form heterokaryons with all nitM testers used. F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 specific primer pair was used to amplify a 1400 bp fragment of tropical race 4 DNA. Seven isolates (Bnt2, Mln1, Srg1, Bgl3, Bgl6, Lmp1, and Kjg1) produced the 1400 bp amplification product were therefore tropical race 4.
Molecular Characterization of Fusarium Graminearum Virus 2 Isolated from Fusarium graminearum Strain 98-8-60
Yu, Ji-Suk ; Lee, Kyung-Mi ; Son, Moon-Il ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 285~290
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.285
Fusarium graminearum virus 2 (FgV2) infects Fusarium graminearum strain 98-8-60 and has at least five segments of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), denoted as dsRNA-1 to dsRNA-5. In this study, the genome of FgV2 was sequenced and its phylogenetic relationship with other mycoviruses was analyzed. The lengths of FgV2 dsRNAs 1-5 ranged from 2414 to 3580 base pairs (bp). The 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) are highly conserved, and each dsRNA segment had 78-105 and 84-306 bp of 5' and 3' UTRs, respectively. Each dsRNA segment contained a single open reading frame (ORF). Computer analysis of dsRNA-1 revealed a putative open reading frame (ORF) that shows high sequence identity with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) containing eight conserved motifs. dsRNAs 2-5 also each contain one putative ORF coding for products of unknown function. The sequences of FgV2 dsRNA-2 and dsRNA-3 have significant sequence identity with Magnaporthe oryzae chrysovirus 1 (MoCV1) dsRNA-3 and -4, respectively. When compared to other dsRNA mycoviruses in a phylogenetic analysis of the putative RdRp protein, FgV2 was found to form a distinct virus clade with Aspergillus mycovirus 1816 and MoCV1 in the family Chrysoviridae.
RT-PCR Detection of Five Quarantine Plant RNA Viruses Belonging to Potyand Tospoviruses
Lee, Jong-Seung ; Cho, Won-Kyong ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 291~296
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.291
In order to detect quarantine plant viruses, we developed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primer pairs for five single-stranded (ss) plant RNA viruses that are not currently reported in Korea but could be potential harmful plant viral pathogens. Three viruses such as Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV), Colombian datura virus (CDV), and Tobacco etch virus (TEV) belong to the genus Potyvirus while Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) and Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) are members of the genus Tospovirus. To design RT-PCR primers, we used reported gene sequences corresponding to the capsid protein and polyprotein for ChiVMV, CDV, and TEV while using nucleocapsid protein regions for CSNV and IYSV. At least two different primer pairs were designed for each virus. Fifteen out of 16 primer pairs were successfully applied in detection of individual quarantine virus with high specificity and efficiency. Taken together, this study provides a rapid and useful protocol for detection of five quarantine viruses.
First Report of Rust Disease Caused by Puccinia nishidana on Cirsium setidens
Park, Mi-Jeong ; Choi, Jun-Keun ; Kakishima, Makoto ; Shin, Hyeon-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 297~297
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.297
Black Rot of Kiwifruit Caused by Alternaria alternata in Korea
Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Cheon, Mi-Geon ; Kim, Jin-Woo ; Kwack, Yong-Bum ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 298~298
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.298
First Report of White Rot on Malus coronaria caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea in Korea
Choi, Ok-Hee ; Jung, Mi-Na ; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk ; Kim, Jin-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 27, issue 3, 2011, Pages 299~299
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.2011.27.3.299