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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture
Yoon, Mi-Young ; Cha, Byeongjin ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.05.2012.0072
Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.
Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia
Nyaka Ngobisa, A.I.C. ; Zainal Abidin, M.A. ; Wong, M.Y. ; Wan Noordin, M.W.D. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 10~16
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2012.0110
Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.
Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins
Lim, Hyoun-Sub ; Lee, Mi Yeon ; Moon, Jae Sun ; Moon, Jung-Kyung ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Cho, In Sook ; Bae, Hanhong ; DeBoer, Matt ; Ju, Hojong ; Hammond, John ; Jackson, Andrew O. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 17~30
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2012.0144
Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB) proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB) treat-ments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW). BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.
The First Identified Citrus tristeza virus Isolate of Turkey Contains a Mixture of Mild and Severe Strains
Cevik, Bayram ; Yardimci, Nejla ; Korkmaz, Sava ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 31~41
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2012.0141
The presence of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) has previously been reported in citrus growing regions of Turkey. All serologically and biologically characterized isolates including I
r, which was the first identified CTV isolates from Turkey, were considered mild isolates. In this study, molecular characteristics of the I d r isolate were determined by different methods. Analysis of the I
r isolate by western blot and BD-RT-PCR assays showed the presence of MCA13 epitope, predominantly found in severe isolates, in the I
r isolate revealing that it contains a severe component. For further characterization, the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-depen-dent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes representing the 3' and 5' half of CTV genome, respectively, were amplified from dsRNA by RT-PCR. Both genes were cloned separately and two clones for each gene were sequenced. Comparisons of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences showed that while two CP gene sequences were identical, two RdRp clones showed only 90% and 91% sequence identity in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, suggesting a mixed infection with different strains. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP and RdRp genes of I
r isolate with previously characterized CTV isolates from different citrus growing regions showed that the CP gene was clustered with NZRB-TH30, a resistance breaking isolate from New Zealand, clearly showing the presence of severe component. Furthermore, two different clones of the RdRp gene were clustered separately with different CTV isolates with a diverse biological activity. While the RdRp-1 was clustered with T30 and T385, two well-characterized mild isolates from Florida and Spain, respectively, the RdRp-2 was most closely related to NZRB-G90 and NZRB-TH30, two well-characterized resistance breaking and stem pitting (SP) isolates from New Zealand confirming the mixed infection. These results clearly demonstrated that the I
r isolate, which was previously described as biologically a mild isolate, actually contains a mixture of mild and severe strains.
Biocontrol Characteristics of Bacillus Species in Suppressing Stem Rot of Grafted Cactus Caused by Bipolaris cactivora
Bae, Sooil ; Kim, Sang Gyu ; Kim, Young Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 42~51
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2012.0116
One of the most important limiting factors for the production of the grafted cactus in Korea is the qualitative and quantitative yield loss derived from stem rots especially caused by Bipolaris cactivora. This study is aimed to develop microbial control agents useful for the control of the bipolaris stem rot. Two bacteria (GA1-23 and GA4-4) selected out of 943 microbial isolates because of their strong antibiotic activity against B. cactivora were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, respectively, by the cultural characteristics, Biolog program and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. Both bacterial isolates significantly inhibited the conidial germination and mycelial growth of the pathogen with no significant difference between the two, of which the inhibitory efficacies varied depending on the cultural conditions such as temperature, nutritional compositions and concentrations. Light and electron microscopy of the pathogen treated with the bacterial isolates showed the inhibition of spore germination with initial malformation of germ tubes and later formation of circle-like vesicles with no hyphal growth and hyphal disruption sometimes accompanied by hyphal swellings and shrinkages adjacent to the bacteria, suggesting their antibiotic mode of antagonistic activity. Control efficacy of B. subtilis GA1-23 and B. amyloliquefaciens GA4-4 on the cactus stem rot were not as high as but comparable to that of fungicide difenoconazole when they were treated simultaneously at the time of pathogen inoculation. All of these results suggest the two bacterial isolates have a good potential to be developed as biocontrol agents for the bipolaris stem rot of the grafted cactus.
Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum
Jung, Boknam ; Park, Sook-Young ; Lee, Yin-Won ; Lee, Jungkwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 52~58
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2012.0113
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed.
Bacterial Traits Involved in Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42
Dietel, Kristin ; Beator, Barbara ; Budiharjo, Anto ; Fan, Ben ; Borriss, Rainer ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 59~66
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2012.0155
Colonization studies previously performed with a green-fluorescent-protein, GFP, labeled derivative of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 revealed that the bacterium behaved different in colonizing surfaces of plant roots of different species (Fan et al., 2012). In order to extend these studies and to elucidate which genes are crucial for root colonization, we applied targeted mutant strains to Arabidopsis seedlings. The fates of root colonization in mutant strains impaired in synthesis of alternative sigma factors, non-ribosomal synthesis of lipopeptides and polyketides, biofilm formation, swarming motility, and plant growth promoting activity were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Whilst the wild-type strain heavily colonized surfaces of root tips and lateral roots, the mutant strains were impaired in their ability to colonize root tips and most of them were unable to colonize lateral roots. Ability to colonize plant roots is not only dependent on the ability to form biofilms or swarming motility. Six mutants, deficient in abrB-, sigH-, sigD-, nrfA-, yusV and RBAM017410, but not affected in biofilm formation, displayed significantly reduced root colonization. The nrfA- and yusV-mutant strains colonized border cells and, partly, root surfaces but did not colonize root tips or lateral roots.
Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici) Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7
Sopheareth, Mao ; Chan, Sarun ; Naing, Kyaw Wai ; Lee, Yong Seong ; Hyun, Hae Nam ; Kim, Young Cheol ; Kim, Kil Yong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 67~76
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2012.0114
A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-keto-gluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA). The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phyto-phthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M), M plus zoospore inoculation (MP), MPC-7 cultured broth (B) and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP). With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants.
Phyllosticta musarum Infection-Induced Defences Suppress Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum musae in Banana Fruits cv 'Embul'
Abayasekara, C.L. ; Adikaram, N.K.B. ; Wanigasekara, U.W.N.P. ; Bandara, B.M.R. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 77~86
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2012.0081
Anthracnose development by Colletotrichum musae was observed to be significantly less in the fruits of the banana cultivar 'Embul' (Mysore, AAB) infected with Phyllosticta musarum than in fruits without such infections. Anthracnose disease originates from quiescent C. musae infections in the immature fruit. P. musarum incites minute, scattered spots, referred to as freckles, in the superficial tissues of immature banana peel which do not expand during maturation or ripening. P. musarum does not appear to have a direct suppressive effect on C. musae as conidia of C. musae germinate on both freckled and non-freckled fruit forming quiescent infections. Our investigations have shown that P. musarum infection induced several defence responses in fruit including the accumulation of five phytoalexins, upregulation of chitinase and
-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and cell wall lignification.
NMR spectral data of one purified phytoalexin compared closely with 4'-hydroxyanigorufone. Some of the P. musarum-induced defences that retained during ripening, restrict C. musae development at the ripe stage. This paper examines the potential of P. musarum-induced defences, in the control of anthracnose, the most destructive postharvest disease in banana.
Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici
Kim, Min-Jeong ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 87~92
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2012.0031
This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (
sporangia/ml). At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840) showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904) were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora.
Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua
Chaves, Arielle ; Mitkowski, Nathaniel ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.08.2012.0127
Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease.
Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR
Choi, Hoseong ; Cho, Won Kyong ; Yu, Jisuk ; Lee, Jong-Seung ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2012.0142
To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was
. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea.
Feasibility Study for Detection of Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) Infection of Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Raman Spectroscopy
Kim, Saetbyeol ; Lee, Sanguk ; Chi, Hee-Youn ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Chung, Hoeil ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 105~109
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2012.0147
Raman spectroscopy provides many advantages compared to other common analytical techniques due to its ability of rapid and accurate identification of unknown specimens as well as simple sample preparation. Here, we described potential of Raman spectroscopic technique as an efficient and high throughput method to detect plants infected by economically important viruses. To enhance the detection sensitivity of Raman measurement, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was employed. Spectra of extracts from healthy and Turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) infected Chinese cabbage leaves were collected by mixing with gold (Au) nanoparticles. Our result showed that TYMV infected plants could be discriminated from non-infected healthy plants, suggesting the current method described here would be an alternative potential tool to screen virus-infection of plants in fields although it needs more studies to generalize the technique.
Theobroxide Treatment Inhibits Wild Fire Disease Occurrence in Nicotiana benthamiana by the Overexpression of Defense-related Genes
Ahn, Soon Young ; Baek, Kwang-Hyun ; Moon, Yong Sun ; Yun, Hae Keun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 110~115
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.08.2012.0131
Theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. To elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, Nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacterial cells was significantly retarded. Semiquantitative RT-PCRs using the primers of 18 defense-related genes were performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of resistance. Among the genes, the theobroxide treatment increased the expression of patho-genesis-related protein 1a (PR1a), pathogenesis-related protein 1b (PR1b), glutathione S-transferase (GST), allen oxide cyclase (AOC), and lipoxyganase (LOX). All these data strongly indicate that theobroxide treatment inhibits disease development by faster induction of defense responses, which can be possible by the induction of defense-related genes including PR1a, PR1b, and GST triggered by the elevated jasmonic acid.
Migrations and Multiplications of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in Pinus thumbergii in Relation to Their Pathogenicity
Son, Joung A ; Moon, Yil-Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 1, 2013, Pages 116~122
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2012.0091
To evaluate the mechanisms of pathogenicity and nonpathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus isolated in South Korea, we used 4-year-old P. thunbergii seedlings and 20-cm long one-year-old stem cuttings of 5-year-old Pinus thunbergii, and studied distributions and multiplications of pine wood nematodes after inoculation. The distributions of B. xylophilus in the 20-cm pine stem cuttings were not significantly different from that of B. mucronatus. Conversely, the proliferation rate of B. xylophilus on mycelial mats of Botrytis cinerea was significantly different from that of B. mucronatus. The study using 4-year-old P. thunbergii seedlings also showed that B. mucronatus can migrate to distal portions of the pine seedlings the same as B. xylophilus, but the populations of B. xylophilus remaining in the pine seedlings were relatively larger than those of B. mucronatus. Therefore, we concluded that the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus could be strongly influenced by its ability to multiply.