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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Promoting Plant Protection by Root-Associated Microbes
Ryu, Choong-Min ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 123~124
Take-all of Wheat and Natural Disease Suppression: A Review
Kwak, Youn-Sig ; Weller, David M. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 125~135
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.07.2012.0112
In agro-ecosystems worldwide, some of the most important and devastating diseases are caused by soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogens, against which crop plants generally lack genetic resistance. However, plants have evolved approaches to protect themselves against pathogens by stimulating and supporting specific groups of beneficial microorganisms that have the ability to protect either by direct inhibition of the pathogen or by inducing resistance mechanisms in the plant. One of the best examples of protection of plant roots by antagonistic microbes occurs in soils that are suppressive to take-all disease of wheat. Take-all, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most economically important root disease of wheat worldwide. Take-all decline (TAD) is the spontaneous decline in incidence and severity of disease after a severe outbreak of take-all during continuous wheat or barley monoculture. TAD occurs worldwide, and in the United States and The Netherlands it results from a build-up of populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. during wheat monoculture. The antibiotic 2,4-DAPG has a broad spectrum of activity and is especially active against the take-all pathogen. Based on genotype analysis by repetitive sequence-based-PCR analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism of phlD, a key 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis gene, at least 22 genotypes of 2,4-DAPG producing fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been described worldwide. In this review, we provide an overview of G. graminis var. tritici, the take-all disease, Pseudomonas biocontrol agents, and mechanism of disease suppression.
Induced Systemic Resistance and the Rhizosphere Microbiome
Bakker, Peter A.H.M. ; Doornbos, Rogier F. ; Zamioudis, Christos ; Berendsen, Roeland L. ; Pieterse, Corne M.J. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 136~143
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.07.2012.0111
Microbial communities that are associated with plant roots are highly diverse and harbor tens of thousands of species. This so-called microbiome controls plant health through several mechanisms including the suppression of infectious diseases, which is especially prominent in disease suppressive soils. The mechanisms implicated in disease suppression include competition for nutrients, antibiosis, and induced systemic resistance (ISR). For many biological control agents ISR has been recognized as the mechanism that at least partly explains disease suppression. Implications of ISR on recruitment and functioning of the rhizosphere microbiome are discussed.
Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development
Park, Jun-Kyung ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Lee, Jang-Hoon ; Han, Songhee ; Kang, Hunseung ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Kim, Young Cheol ; McSpadden Gardener, Brian ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 144~153
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.01.2013.0015
Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bioprospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential.
Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici
Sang, Mee Kyung ; Shrestha, Anupama ; Kim, Du-Yeon ; Park, Kyungseok ; Pak, Chun Ho ; Kim, Ki Deok ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 154~167
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2012.0104
We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Phytophthora blight without influencing rhizosphere microbial populations; they showed similar or better levels of disease suppressions than in metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.
Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001
Li, Yan ; Han, Li-Rong ; Zhang, Yuanyuan ; Fu, Xuechi ; Chen, Xinyi ; Zhang, Lixia ; Mei, Ruhong ; Wang, Qi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 168~173
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.08.2012.0125
Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period.
Determinants of Plant Growth-promoting Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 Involved in Induction of Systemic Resistance against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum in Tobacco Leaves
Sumayo, Marilyn ; Hahm, Mi-Seon ; Ghim, Sa-Youl ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 174~181
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.09.2012.0143
The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 elicited induced systemic resistance (ISR) in tobacco against soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. We investigated of its factors involved in ISR elicitation. To characterize the ISR determinants, KUDC1013 cell suspension, heat-treated cells, supernatant from a culture medium, crude bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagella were tested for their ISR activities. Both LPS and flagella from KUDC1013 were effective in ISR elicitation. Crude cell free supernatant elicited ISR and factors with the highest ISR activity were retained in the n-butanol fraction. Analysis of the ISR-active fraction revealed the metabolites, phenylacetic acid (PAA), 1-hexadecene and linoleic acid (LA), as elicitors of ISR. Treatment of tobacco with these compounds significantly decreased the soft rot disease symptoms. This is the first report on the ISR determinants by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) KUDC1013 and identifying PAA, 1-hexadecene and LA as ISR-related compounds. This study shows that KUDC1013 has a great potential as biological control agent because of its multiple factors involved in induction of systemic resistance against phytopathogens.
Modulation of Quorum Sensing in Acyl-homoserine Lactone-Producing or -Degrading Tobacco Plants Leads to Alteration of Induced Systemic Resistance Elicited by the Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166
Ryu, Choong-Min ; Choi, Hye Kyung ; Lee, Chi-Ho ; Murphy, John F. ; Lee, Jung-Kee ; Kloepper, Joseph W. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 182~192
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.11.2012.0173
Numerous root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) are known to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. Bacterial cell-density-dependent quorum sensing (QS) is thought to be important for ISR. Here, we investigated the role of QS in the ISR elicited by the rhizobacterium, Serratia marcescens strain 90-166, in tobacco. Since S. marcescens 90-166 produces at least three QS signals, QS-mediated ISR in strain 90-166 has been difficult to understand. Therefore, we investigated the ISR capacity of two transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants that contained either bacterial acylhomoserine lactone-producing (AHL) or -degrading (AiiA) genes in conjunction with S. marcescens 90-166 to induce resistance against bacterial and viral pathogens. Root application of S. marcescens 90-166 increased ISR to the bacterial pathogens, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, in AHL plants and decreased ISR in AiiA plants. In contrast, ISR to Cucumber mosaic virus was reduced in AHL plants treated with S. marcescens 90-166 but enhanced in AiiA plants. Taken together, these data indicate that QS-dependent ISR is elicited by S. marcescens 90-166 in a pathogen-dependent manner. This study provides insight into QS-dependent ISR in tobacco elicited by S. marcescens 90-166.
Induction of Systemic Resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1
Elsharkawy, Mohsen Mohamed ; Shimizu, Masafumi ; Takahashi, Hideki ; Ozaki, Kouichi ; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 193~200
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.07.2012.0117
Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 is a microbial pesticide that is very effective against various diseases. Our study was undertaken to evaluate T. asperellum SKT-1 for induction of resistance against yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) in Arabidopsis plants. Disease severity was rated at 2 weeks post inoculation (WPI). CMV titre in Arabidopsis leaves was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 2 WPI. Our results demonstrated that among all Arabidopsis plants treated with barley grain inoculum (BGI) of SKT-1 NahG and npr1 plants showed no significant reduction in disease severity and CMV titre as compared with control plants. In contrast, disease severity and CMV titre were significantly reduced in all Arabidopsis plants treated with culture filtrate (CF) of SKT-1 as compared with control plants. RT-PCR results showed increased expression levels of SA-inducible genes, but not JA/ET-inducible genes, in leaves of BGI treated plants. Moreover, expression levels of SA- and JA/ET-inducible genes were increased in leaves of CF treated plants. In conclusion, BGI treatment induced systemic resistance against CMV through SA signaling cascade in Arabidopsis plants. While, treatment with CF of SKT-1 mediated the expression of a majority of the various pathogen related genes, which led to the increased defense mechanism against CMV infection.
Induction of Drought Stress Resistance by Multi-Functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in Pepper
Lim, Jong-Hui ; Kim, Sang-Dal ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 201~208
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.02.2013.0021
Drought stress is one of the major yield affecting factor for pepper plant. The effects of PGPRs were analyzed in relation with drought resistance. The PGPRs inoculated pepper plants tolerate the drought stress and survived as compared to non-inoculated pepper plants that died after 15 days of drought stress. Variations in protein and RNA accumulation patterns of inoculated and non-inoculated pepper plants subjected to drought conditions for 10 days were confirmed by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and differential display PCR (DD-PCR), respectively. A total of six differentially expressed stress proteins were identified in the treated pepper plants by 2D-PAGE. Among the stress proteins, specific genes of Cadhn, VA, sHSP and CaPR-10 showed more than a 1.5-fold expressed in amount in B. licheniformis K11-treated drought pepper compared to untreated drought pepper. The changes in proteins and gene expression patterns were attributed to the B. licheniformis K11. Accordingly, auxin and ACC deaminase producing PGPR B. licheniformis K11 could reduce drought stress in drought affected regions without the need for overusing agrochemicals and chemical fertilizer. These results will contribute to the development of a microbial agent for organic farming by PGPR.
Transcriptome Analysis of Induced Systemic Drought Tolerance Elicited by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 in Arabidopsis thaliana
Cho, Song-Mi ; Kang, Beom Ryong ; Kim, Young Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 2, 2013, Pages 209~220
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.SI.07.2012.0103
Root colonization by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 induces systemic drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Microarray analysis was performed using the 22,800-gene Affymetrix GeneChips to identify differentially-expressed genes from plants colonized with or without P. chlororaphis O6 under drought stressed conditions or normal growth conditions. Root colonization in plants grown under regular irrigation condition increased transcript accumulation from genes associated with defense, response to reactive oxygen species, and auxin- and jasmonic acid-responsive genes, but decreased transcription factors associated with ethylene and abscisic acid signaling. The cluster of genes involved in plant disease resistance were up-regulated, but the set of drought signaling response genes were down-regulated in the P. chlororaphis O6-colonized under drought stress plants compared to those of the drought stressed plants without bacterial treatment. Transcripts of the jasmonic acid-marker genes, VSP1 and pdf-1.2, the salicylic acid regulated gene, PR-1, and the ethylene-response gene, HEL, also were up-regulated in plants colonized by P. chlororaphis O6, but differed in their responsiveness to drought stress. These data show how gene expression in plants lacking adequate water can be remarkably influenced by microbial colonization leading to plant protection, and the activation of the plant defense signal pathway induced by root colonization of P. chlororaphis O6 might be a key element for induced systemic tolerance by microbes.