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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
Selecting the target year
Current Insights into Research on Rice stripe virus
Cho, Won Kyong ; Lian, Sen ; Kim, Sang-Min ; Park, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 223~233
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.10.2012.0158
Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of the most destructive viruses of rice, and greatly reduces rice production in China, Japan, and Korea, where mostly japonica cultivars of rice are grown. RSV is transmitted by the small brown plant-hopper (SBPH) in a persistent and circulative-propagative manner. Several methods have been developed for detection of RSV, which is composed of four single-stranded RNAs that encode seven proteins. Genome sequence data and comparative phylogenetic analysis have been used to identify the origin and diversity of RSV isolates. Several rice varieties resistant to RSV have been selected and QTL analysis and fine mapping have been intensively performed to map RSV resistance loci or genes. RSV genes have been used to generate several genetically modified transgenic rice plants with RSV resistance. Recently, genome-wide transcriptome analyses and deep sequencing have been used to identify mRNAs and small RNAs involved in RSV infection; several rice host factors that interact with RSV proteins have also been identified. In this article, we review the current statues of RSV research and propose integrated approaches for the study of interactions among RSV, rice, and the SBPH.
Phylogenetics and Gene Structure Dynamics of Polygalacturonase Genes in Aspergillus and Neurospora crassa
Hong, Jin-Sung ; Ryu, Ki-Hyun ; Kwon, Soon-Jae ; Kim, Jin-Won ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Kyong-Cheul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 234~241
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2012.0157
Polygalacturonase (PG) gene is a typical gene family present in eukaryotes. Forty-nine PGs were mined from the genomes of Neurospora crassa and five Aspergillus species. The PGs were classified into 3 clades such as clade 1 for rhamno-PGs, clade 2 for exo-PGs and clade 3 for exo- and endo-PGs, which were further grouped into 13 sub-clades based on the polypeptide sequence similarity. In gene structure analysis, a total of 124 introns were present in 44 genes and five genes lacked introns to give an average of 2.5 introns per gene. Intron phase distribution was 64.5% for phase 0, 21.8% for phase 1, and 13.7% for phase 2, respectively. The introns varied in their sequences and their lengths ranged from 20 bp to 424 bp with an average of 65.9 bp, which is approximately half the size of introns in other fungal genes. There were 29 homologous intron blocks and 26 of those were sub-clade specific. Intron losses were counted in 18 introns in which no obvious phase preference for intron loss was observed. Eighteen introns were placed at novel positions, which is considerably higher than those of plant PGs. In an evolutionary sense both intron loss and gain must have taken place for shaping the current PGs in these fungi. Together with the small intron size, low conservation of homologous intron blocks and higher number of novel introns, PGs of fungal species seem to have recently undergone highly dynamic evolution.
Responses of Guava Plants to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Infested with Meloidogyne enterolobii
Campos, Maryluce Albuquerque Da Silva ; Silva, Fabio Sergio Barbosa Da ; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi ; Melo, Natoniel Franklin De ; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Regis ; Maia, Leonor Costa ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 242~248
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2012.0156
In the Northeast of Brazil, expansion of guava crops has been impaired by Meloidogyne enterolobii that causes root galls, leaf fall and plant death. Considering the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) improve plant growth giving protection against damages by plant pathogens, this work was carried out to select AMF efficient to increase production of guava seedlings and their tolerance to M. enterolobii. Seedlings of guava were inoculated with 200 spores of Gigaspora albida, Glomus etunicatum or Acaulospora longula and 55 days later with 4,000 eggs of M. enterolobii. The interactions between the AMF and M. enterolobii were assessed by measuring leaf number, aerial dry biomass,
evolution and arbuscular and total mycorrhizal colonization. In general, plant growth was improved by the treatments with A. longula or with G. albida. The presence of the nematode decreased arbuscular colonization and increased general enzymatic activity. Higher dehydrogenase activity occurred with the A. longula treatment and
evolution was higher in the control with the nematode. More spores and higher production of glomalin-related soil proteins were observed in the treatment with G. albida. The numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs were reduced in the presence of A. longula. Inoculation with this fungus benefitted plant growth and decreased nematode reproduction.
RNAseq-based Transcriptome Analysis of Burkholderia glumae Quorum Sensing
Kim, Sunyoung ; Park, Jungwook ; Kim, Ji Hyeon ; Lee, Jongyun ; Bang, Bongjun ; Hwang, Ingyu ; Seo, Young-Su ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 249~259
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2013.0044
Burkholderia glumae causes rice grain rot and sheath rot by producing toxoflavin, the expression of which is regulated by quorum sensing (QS). The QS systems of B. glumae rely on N-octanoyl homoserine lactone, synthesized by TofI and its cognate receptor TofR, to activate the genes for toxoflavin biosynthesis and an IclR-type transcriptional regulator gene, qsmR. To understand genome-wide transcriptional profiling of QS signaling, we employed RNAseq of the wild-type B. glumae BGR1 with QS-defective mutant, BGS2 (BGR1 tofI::
) and QS-dependent transcriptional regulator mutant, BGS9 (BGR1 qsmR::
). A comparison of gene expression profiling among the wild-type BGR1 and the two mutants before and after QS onset as well as gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis from differential expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that genes involved in motility were highly enriched in TofI-dependent DEGs, whereas genes for transport and DNA polymerase were highly enriched in QsmR-dependent DEGs. Further, a combination of pathways with these DEGs and phenotype analysis of mutants pointed to a couple of metabolic processes, which are dependent on QS in B. glumae, that were directly or indirectly related with bacterial motility. The consistency of observed bacterial phenotypes with GOs or metabolic pathways in QS-regulated genes implied that integration RNAseq with GO enrichment or pathways would be useful to study bacterial physiology and phenotypes.
Prevalence of Tobacco mosaic virus in Iran and Evolutionary Analyses of the Coat Protein Gene
Alishiri, Athar ; Rakhshandehroo, Farshad ; Zamanizadeh, Hamid-Reza ; Palukaitis, Peter ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 260~273
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2012.0145
The incidence and distribution of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and related tobamoviruses was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on 1,926 symptomatic horticultural crops and 107 asymptomatic weed samples collected from 78 highly infected fields in the major horticultural crop-producing areas in 17 provinces throughout Iran. The results were confirmed by host range studies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The overall incidence of infection by these viruses in symptomatic plants was 11.3%. The coat protein (CP) gene sequences of a number of isolates were determined and disclosed to be a high identity (up to 100%) among the Iranian isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of all known TMV CP genes showed three clades on the basis of nucleotide sequences with all Iranian isolates distinctly clustered in clade II. Analysis using the complete CP amino acid sequence showed one clade with two subgroups, IA and IB, with Iranian isolates in both subgroups. The nucleotide diversity within each subgroup was very low, but higher between the two clades. No correlation was found between genetic distance and geographical origin or host species of isolation. Statistical analyses suggested a negative selection and demonstrated the occurrence of gene flow from the isolates in other clades to the Iranian population.
Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea
Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Nam, Moon ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Cha, Byeongjin ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 274~284
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2012.0190
The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79%) out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%), GS-II (3.9%) and GS-III (56.9%). BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.
Occurrence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus and Pepper golden mosaic virus in Potential New Hosts in Costa Rica
Castro, Ruth M. ; Moreira, Lisela ; Rojas, Maria R. ; Gilbertson, Robert L. ; Hernandez, Eduardo ; Mora, Floribeth ; Ramirez, Pilar ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 285~293
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2012.0182
Leaf samples of Solanum lycopersicum, Capsicum annuum, Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, Sechium edule and Erythrina spp. were collected. All samples were positive for begomoviruses using polymerase chain reaction and degenerate primers. A sequence of ~1,100 bp was obtained from the genomic component DNA-A of 14 samples. In addition, one sequence of ~580 bp corresponding to the coat protein (AV1) was obtained from a chayote (S. edule) leaf sample. The presence of Squash yellow mild mottle virus (SYMMoV) and Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) were confirmed. The host range reported for SYMMoV includes species of the Cucurbitaceae, Caricaceae and Fabaceae families. This report extends the host range of SYMMoV to include the Solanaceae family, and extends the host range of PepGMV to include C. moschata, C. pepo and the Fabaceae Erythrina spp. This is the first report of a begomovirus (PepGMV) infecting chayote in the Western Hemisphere.
A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper
Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 294~304
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2013.0002
To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.
β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage
Kim, Yeong Chae ; Kim, Yeon Hwa ; Lee, Young Hee ; Lee, Sang Woo ; Chae, Yun-Soek ; Kang, Hyun-Kyung ; Yun, Byung-Wook ; Hong, Jeum Kyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 305~316
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2012.0191
Non-protein amino acid,
-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant.
Taxonomic Re-evaluation of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Isolated from Strawberry in Korea
Nam, Myeong Hyeon ; Park, Myung Soo ; Lee, He Duck ; Yu, Seung Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 317~322
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.12.2012.0188
For the past two decades, the causal agent of anthracnose occurring on strawberry in Korea was considered Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. However, the recent molecular analysis has shown that the genus Colletotrichum has undergone many taxonomic changes with introduction of several new species. As a result, it revealed that C. gloeosporioides indeed consisted of more than 20 distinct species. Therefore, the Korean pathogen isolated from strawberry should be reclassified. The shape and size of the conidia of the pathogen were not distinctly different from those of C. gloeosporioides and C. fructicola, but it differed in shape of the appressoria. A combined sequence analysis of partial actin, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes, and the internal transcribed spacer regions showed that the strawberry isolates formed a monophyletic group with authentic strains of C. fructicola. On the basis of these results, the anthracnose fungi of the domestic strawberry in Korea were identified as C. fructicola and distinguished from C. gloeosporioides.
The RpoS Sigma Factor Negatively Regulates Production of IAA and Siderophore in a Biocontrol Rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6
Oh, Sang A ; Kim, Ji Soo ; Park, Ju Yeon ; Han, Song Hee ; Dimkpa, Christian ; Anderson, Anne J. ; Kim, Young Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 323~329
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.01.2013.0013
The stationary-phase sigma factor, RpoS, influences the expression of factors important in survival of Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 in the rhizosphere. A partial proteomic profile of a rpoS mutant in P. chlororaphis O6 was conducted to identify proteins under RpoS regulation. Five of 14 differentially regulated proteins had unknown roles. Changes in levels of proteins in P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant were associated with iron metabolism, and protection against oxidative stress. The P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant showed increased production of a pyoverdine-like siderophore, indole acetic acid, and altered isozyme patterns for peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide exposure increased in the P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant, compared with the wild type. Taken together, RpoS exerted regulatory control over factors important for the habitat of P. chlororaphis O6 in soil and on root surfaces. The properties of several of the proteins in the RpoS regulon are currently unknown.
Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus
Lee, Joo Hyun ; Choi, Jae Young ; Tao, Xue Ying ; Kim, Jae Su ; Kim, Woojin ; Je, Yeon Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 330~337
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.01.2013.0001
Rice stripe virus (RSV), the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS) and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS) adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction.
Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction-based System for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Lily-infecting Viruses
Kwon, Ji Yeon ; Ryu, Ki Hyun ; Choi, Sun Hee ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 338~343
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.04.2013.0041
A detection system based on a multiplex reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to simultaneously identify multiple viruses in the lily plant. The most common viruses infecting lily plants are the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), lily mottle virus (LMoV), lily symptomless virus (LSV). Leaf samples were collected at lily-cultivation facilities located in the Kangwon province of Korea and used to evaluate the detection system. Simplex and multiplex RT-PCR were performed using virus-specific primers to detect single- or mixed viral infections in lily plants. Our results demonstrate the selective detection of 3 different viruses (CMV, LMoV and LSV) by using specific primers as well as the potential of simultaneously detecting 2 or 3 different viruses in lily plants with mixed infections. Three sets of primers for each target virus, and one set of internal control primers were used to evaluate the detection system for efficiency, reliability, and reproducibility.
Morphometric Variation in Pine Wood Nematodes, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus, Isolated from Multiple Locations in South Korea
Moon, Yil-Sung ; Son, Joung A ; Jung, Chan Sik ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 344~349
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2012.0135
Intraspecific variation in morphometry of pine wood nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in relation to geographical locations in South Korea was investigated using morphometric characters (body length, a, b and c ratio, stylet length, and spicule length for a male nematode and V (%) value for a female nematode). B. xylophilus was isolated from Pinus thunbergii in Jinju (1998), Ulsan (2000), Yangsan (2000), Mokpo (2001) and Jeju (2004), and from P. densiflora in Gumi (2001). B. mucronatus was isolated from P. thunbergii in Jinju (1991) and from P. densiflora in Milyang (2001). The body length of male and female B. xylophilus had the highest coefficient of variability and showed significant differences among geographical locations. The V (%) value for female B. xylophilus showed the lowest coefficient of variability, changing little with geographical area and host plant. All morphometric characters in B. mucronatus except for stylet length and female body length showed no significant differences between locations or hosts, suggesting they may not be affected by geographical area or host plant.
Systemic Induction of the Small Antibacterial Compound in the Leaf Exudate During Benzothiadiazole-elicited Systemic Acquired Resistance in Pepper
Lee, Boyoung ; Park, Yong-Soon ; Yi, Hwe-Su ; Ryu, Choong-Min ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 3, 2013, Pages 350~355
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.02.2013.0018
Plants protect themselves from diverse potential pathogens by induction of the immune systems such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Most bacterial plant pathogens thrive in the intercellular space (apoplast) of plant tissues and cause symptoms. The apoplastic leaf exudate (LE) is believed to contain nutrients to provide food resource for phytopathogenic bacteria to survive and to bring harmful phytocompounds to protect plants against bacterial pathogens. In this study, we employed the pepper-Xanthomonas axonopodis system to assess whether apoplastic fluid from LE in pepper affects the fitness of X. axonopodis during the induction of SAR. The LE was extracted from pepper leaves 7 days after soil drench-application of a chemical trigger, benzothiadiazole (BTH). Elicitation of plant immunity was confirmed by significant up-regulation of four genes, CaPR1, CaPR4, CaPR9, and CaCHI2, by BTH treatment. Bacterial fitness was evaluated by measuring growth rate during cultivation with LE from BTH- or water-treated leaves. LE from BTH-treatment significantly inhibited bacterial growth when compared to that from the water-treated control. The antibacterial activity of LE from BTH-treated samples was not affected by heating at
for 30 min. Although the antibacterial molecules were not precisely identified, the data suggest that small (less than 5 kDa), heat-stable compound(s) that are present in BTH-induced LE directly attenuate bacterial growth during the elicitation of plant immunity.