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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Specific and Sensitive Detection of Venturia nashicola, the Scab Fungus of Asian Pears, by Nested PCR
Koh, Hyun Seok ; Sohn, San Ho ; Lee, Young Sun ; Koh, Young Jin ; Song, Jang Hoon ; Jung, Jae Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 357~363
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2013.0055
The fungus Venturia nashicola is the causal agent of scab on Asian pears. For the rapid and reliable identification as well as sensitive detection of V. nashicola, a PCR-based technique was developed. DNA fingerprints of three closely related species, V. nashicola, V. pirina, and V. inaequalis, were obtained by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two RAPD markers specific to V. nashicola were identified by PCR, after which two pairs of sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed from the nucleotide sequences of the markers. The SCAR primer pairs, designated as D12F/D12R and E11F/E11R, amplified 535-bp and 525-bp DNA fragments, respectively, only from genomic DNA of V. nashicola. The specificity of the primer sets was tested on strains representing three species of Venturia and 20 fungal plant pathogens. The nested PCR primer pair specific to V. nashicola was developed based on the sequence of the species-specific 525-bp DNA fragment amplified by primer set E11F/E11R. The internal primer pair Na11F/Na11R amplified a 235-bp fragment from V. nashicola, but not from any other fungal species tested. The nested PCR assay was sensitive enough to detect the specific fragment in 50 fg of V. nashicola DNA.
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae RpfE Regulates Virulence and Carbon Source Utilization without Change of the DSF Production
Cho, Jung-Hee ; Yoon, Joo-Mi ; Lee, Sang-Won ; Noh, Young-Hee ; Cha, Jae-Soon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 364~373
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2013.0057
It has been known that most regulation of pathogenicity factor (rpf ) genes in xanthomonads regulates virulence in response to the diffusible signal factor, DSF. Although many rpf genes have been functionally characterized, the function of rpfE is still unknown. We cloned the rpfE gene from a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) Korean race KACC10859 and generated mutant strains to elucidate the role of RpfE with respect to the rpf system. Through experiments using the rpfE-deficient mutant strain, we found that mutation in rpfE gene in Xoo reduced virulence, swarm motility, and production of virulence factors such as cellulase and extracellular polysaccharide. Disease progress by the rpfE-deficient mutant strain was significantly slowed compared to disease progress by the wild type and the number of the rpfE-deficient mutant strain was lower than that of the wild type in the early phase of infection in the inoculated rice leaf. The rpfE mutant strain was unable to utilize sucrose or xylose as carbon sources efficiently in culture. The mutation in rpfE, however, did not affect DSF synthesis. Our results suggest that the rpfE gene regulates the virulence of Xoo under different nutrient conditions without change of DSF production.
Altered Gene Expression and Intracellular Changes of the Viable But Nonculturable State in Ralstonia solanacearum by Copper Treatment
Um, Hae Young ; Kong, Hyun Gi ; Lee, Hyoung Ju ; Choi, Hye Kyung ; Park, Eun Jin ; Kim, Sun Tae ; Murugiyan, Senthilkumar ; Chung, Eunsook ; Kang, Kyu Young ; Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 374~385
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2013.0067
Environmental stresses induce several plant pathogenic bacteria into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state, but the basis for VBNC is largely uncharacterized. We investigated the physiology and morphology of the copper-induced VBNC state in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in liquid microcosm. Supplementation of
copper sulfate to the liquid microcosm completely suppressed bacterial colony formation on culture media; however, LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability staining showed that the bacterial cells maintained viability, and that the viable cells contain higher level of DNA. Based on electron microscopic observations, the bacterial cells in the VBNC state were unchanged in size, but heavily aggregated and surrounded by an unknown extracellular material. Cellular ribosome contents, however, were less, resulting in a reduction of the total RNA in VBNC cells. Proteome comparison and reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that the Dps protein production was up-regulated at the transcriptional level and that 2 catalases/peroxidases were present at lower level in VBNC cells. Cell aggregation and elevated levels of Dps protein are typical oxidative stress responses.
levels also increased in VBNC cells, which could result if catalase/peroxidase levels are reduced. Some of phenotypic changes in VBNC cells of R. solanacearum could be an oxidative stress response due to
accumulation. This report is the first of the distinct phenotypic changes in cells of R. solanacearum in the VBNC state.
Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants
Hong, Jeum Kyu ; Kang, Su Ran ; Kim, Yeon Hwa ; Yoon, Dong June ; Kim, Do Hoon ; Kim, Hyeon Ji ; Sung, Chang Hyun ; Kang, Han Sol ; Choi, Chang Won ; Kim, Seong Hwan ; Kim, Young Shik ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 386~396
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2013.0043
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (
) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (
was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of
and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both
and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by
cfu/ml of R. solanacearum.
- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative `area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)` was calculated to compare disease protection by
and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither
nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but
+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that
and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.
Molecular Characterization and Variation of the Broad bean wilt virus 2 Isolates Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences
Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Lee, Ye-Ji ; Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Cha, Byeongjin ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 397~409
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2013.0036
The full-genome sequences of fourteen isolates of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), collected from broad bean, pea, spinach, bell pepper and paprika plants in Korea during the years 2006-2012, were determined and analyzed comparatively along with fifteen previously reported BBWV2 genome sequences. Sequence analyses showed that RNA-1 and RNA-2 sequences of BBWV2 Korean isolates consisted of 5950-5956 and 3568-3604 nucleotides, respectively. Full-length genome sequence-based phylogenetic analyses revealed that the BBWV2 Korean isolates could be divided into three major groups comprising GS-I (isolates BB2 and RP7) along with isolate IP, GS-II (isolates BB5, P2, P3 and RP3) along with isolate B935, and GS-III including 16 BBWV2 Korean isolates. Interestingly, GS-III appears to be newly emerged and predominant in Korea. Recombination analyses identified two recombination events in the analyzed BBWV2 population: one in the RNA-1 of isolate K and another one in the RNA-2 of isolate XJ14-3. However, no recombination events were detected in the other 21 Korean isolates. On the other hand, out of 29 BBWV2 isolates, 16 isolates were found to be re-assortants, of which each RNA segment (i.e. RNA1 and RNA2) was originated from different parental isolates. Our findings suggested that reassortment rather than recombination is a major evolutionary force in the genetic diversification of BBWV population in Korea.
Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region
AL-Saleh, Mohammed A. ; Amer, Mahmoud A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 410~417
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.05.2013.0050
In 2011-2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV-Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.
Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas
Ozyilmaz, Umit ; Benlioglu, Kemal ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 418~426
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.11.2012.0176
Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (
cells/ml), ASM (
a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil.
Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide Production are Involved in Systemic Drought Tolerance Induced by 2R,3R-Butanediol in Arabidopsis thaliana
Cho, Song-Mi ; Kim, Yong Hwan ; Anderson, Anne J. ; Kim, Young Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 427~434
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2013.0069
2R,3R-Butanediol, a volatile compound produced by certain rhizobacteria, is involved in induced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana through mechanisms involving stomatal closure. In this study, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide in induced drought tolerance, because these are signaling agents in drought stress responses mediated by abscisic acid (ABA). Fluorescence-based assays showed that systemic nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production was induced by 2R,3R-butanediol and correlated with expression of genes encoding nitrate reductase and nitric oxide synthase. Co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with an inhibitor of nitrate reductase or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase lowered nitric oxide production and lessened induced drought tolerance. Increases in hydrogen peroxide were negated by co-treatment of 2R,3R-butanediol with inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, or peroxidase. These findings support the volatile 2R,3R-butanediol synthesized by certain rhizobacteria is an active player in induction of drought tolerance through mechanisms involving nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide production.
Comparative Analysis of the Korean Population of Magnaporthe oryzae by Multilocus Microsatellite Typing
Choi, Jaehyuk ; Kim, Hyojung ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 435~439
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.04.2013.0042
Rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, inflicts serious damage to global rice production. Due to high variability of this fungal pathogen, resistance of newly-released rice cultivars is easily broken down. To understand the population structure of M. oryzae, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the Korean population using multilocus microsatellite typing. Eleven microsatellite markers were applied to the population of 190 rice isolates which had been collected in Korea for two decades since the 1980`s. Average values of gene diversity and allele frequency were 0.412 and 6.5, respectively. Comparative analysis of the digitized allele information revealed that the Korean population exhibited a similar level of allele diversity to the integrated diversity of the world populations, suggesting a particularly high diversity of the Korean population. Therefore, these microsatellite markers and the comprehensive collection of field isolates will be useful genetic resources to identify the genetic diversity of M. oryzae population.
Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum
Jeon, Chi Sung ; Kim, Gyoung Hee ; Son, Kyeong In ; Hur, Jae-Seoun ; Jeon, Kwon-Seok ; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck ; Koh, Young Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 440~445
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.07.2013.0073
Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be
. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time.
Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae
Jung, Boknam ; Lee, Sehee ; Ha, Jiran ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Han, Sung-Sook ; Hwang, Ingyu ; Lee, Yin-Won ; Lee, Jungkwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 446~450
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.07.2013.0068
The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting.
A Simple Method for Assessing Severity of Common Root Rot on Barley
Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin ; Jawhar, Mohammad ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 451~453
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2013.0086
Common root rot caused by Cochliobolus sativus is a serious disease of barley. A simple and reliable method for assessing this disease would enhance our capacity in identifying resistance sources and developing resistant barley cultivars. In searching for such a method, a conidial suspension of C. sativus was dropped onto sterilized elongated subcrown internodes and incubated in sandwich filter paper using polyethylene transparent envelopes. Initial disease symptoms were easily detected after 48h of inoculation. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found in each experiment (A, B and C) between sandwich filter paper and seedling assays, indicating that this testing procedure was reliable. The method presented facilitates a rapid pre-selection under uniform conditions which is of importance from a breeder`s point of view.
AltMV TGB1 Nucleolar Localization Requires Homologous Interaction and Correlates with Cell Wall Localization Associated with Cell-to-Cell Movement
Nam, Jiryun ; Nam, Moon ; Bae, Hanhong ; Lee, Cheolho ; Lee, Bong-Chun ; Hammond, John ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 454~459
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.04.2013.0045
The Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has multifunctional triple gene block (TGB) proteins, among which our studies have focused on the properties of the TGB1 protein. The TGB1 of AltMV has functions including RNA binding, RNA silencing suppression, and cell-to-cell movement, and is known to form homologous interactions. The helicase domains of AltMV TGB1 were separately mutated to identify which regions are involved in homologous TGB1 interactions. The yeast two hybrid system and Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) in planta were utilized to examine homologous interactions of the mutants. Helicase motif I of AltMV TGB1 was found to be critical to maintain homologous interactions. Mutations in the remaining helicase motifs did not inhibit TGB1 homologous interactions. In the absence of homologous interaction of TGB1, subcellular localization of helicase domain I mutants showed distinctively different patterns from that of WT TGB1. These results provide important information to study viral movement and replication of AltMV.
Occurrence of dsRNA Mycovirus (LeV-FMRI0339) in the Edible Mushroom Lentinula edodes and Meiotic Stability of LeV-FMRI0339 among Monokaryotic Progeny
Kim, Jung-Mi ; Yun, Suk-Hyun ; Park, Seung-Moon ; Ko, Han-Gyu ; Kim, Dae-Hyuk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 460~464
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.03.2013.0037
dsRNA was found in malformed cultures of Lentinula edodes strain FMRI0339, one of the three most popular sawdust cultivated commercial strains of shiitake, and was also found in healthy-looking fruiting bodies and actively growing mycelia. Cloning of the partial genome of the dsRNA revealed the presence of the RdRp sequence of a novel L. edodes mycovirus (LeV), and sequence comparison of the cloned amplicon showed identical sequences sequence to known RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes of LeV found in strain HKA. The meiotic stability of dsRNA was examined by measuring the ratio of the presence of dsRNA among sexual monokaryotic progeny. More than 40% of the monokaryotic progeny still contained the dsRNA, indicating the persistence of dsRNA during sexual reproduction. Comparing the mycelia growth of monokaryotic progeny suggested that there appeared to be a tendency toward a lower frequency of virus incidence in actively growing progeny.
Occurrence of Stolbur Phytoplasma Disease in Spreading Type Petunia hybrida Cultivars in Korea
Chung, Bong Nam ; Jeong, Myeong Il ; Choi, Seung Kook ; Joa, Jae Ho ; Choi, Kyeong San ; Choi, In Myeong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 465~470
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.05.2013.0048
In January 2012, spreading type petunia cv. Wave Pink plants showing an abnormal growth habit of sprouting unusual multiple plantlets from the lateral buds were collected from a greenhouse in Gwacheon, Gyeonggi Province, Korea. The presence of phytoplasma was investigated using PCR with the primer pairs P1/P6, and R16F1/R1 for nested-PCR. In the nested PCR, 1,096 bp PCR products were obtained, and through sequencing 12 Pet-Stol isolates were identified. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene of the 12 Pet-Stol isolates with other phytoplasmas belonging to aster yellows or Stolbur showed that Pet-Stol isolates were members of Stolbur. The presence of phytoplasma in petunia was also confirmed by microscopic observation of the pathogens. In this study, Stolbur phytoplasma was identified from spreading type petunia cultivars by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of phytoplasma and microscopic observation of phytoplasma bodies. This is the first report of Stolbur phytoplasma in commercial Petunia hybrida cultivars.
Arabidopsis PYL8 Plays an Important Role for ABA Signaling and Drought Stress Responses
Lim, Chae Woo ; Baek, Woonhee ; Han, Sang-Wook ; Lee, Sung Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2013, Pages 471~476
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.07.2013.0071
Plants are frequently exposed to numerous environmental stresses such as dehydration and high salinity, and have developed elaborate mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of stress. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role as an integrator of plant responses to water-limited condition to activate ABA signal transduction pathway. Although perception of ABA has been suggested to be important, the function of each ABA receptor remains elusive in dehydration condition. Here, we show that ABA receptor, pyrabactin resistance-like protein 8 (PYL8), functions in dehydration conditions. Transgenic plants overexpressing PYL8 exhibited hypersensitive phenotype to ABA in seed germination, seedling growth and establishment. We found that hypersensitivity to ABA of transgenic plants results in high degrees of stomatal closure in response to ABA leading to low transpiration rates and ultimately more vulnerable to drought than the wild-type plants. In addition, high expression of ABA maker genes also contributes to altered drought tolerance phenotype. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of ABA signaling by ABA receptor in stomata during defense response to drought stress.