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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants
Jeon, Junhyun ; Kwon, Seomun ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.01.2014.0003
Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.
Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR
Mahmodi, Farshid ; Kadir, J.B. ; Puteh, A. ; Pourdad, S.S. ; Nasehi, A. ; Soleimani, N. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 10~24
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.05.2013.0054
Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific divergence (0.0 to 1.4%) and (15.5-19.9), respectively. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis clustered Colletotrichum spp. isolates into 3 well-defined clades, representing three distinct species; C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides. The ISSR and RAPD and cluster analysis exhibited a high degree of variability among different isolates and permitted the grouping of isolates of Colletotrichum spp. into three distinct clusters. Distinct populations of Colletotrichum spp. isolates were genetically in accordance with host specificity and inconsistent with geographical origins. The large population of C. truncatum showed greater amounts of genetic diversity than smaller populations of C. dematium and C. gloeosporioides species. Results of ISSR and RAPD markers were congruent, but the effective maker ratio and the number of private alleles were greater in ISSR markers.
A Simple Method for the Assessment of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in Korean Wheat Seedlings Inoculated with Fusarium graminearum
Shin, Sanghyun ; Kim, Kyeong-Hoon ; Kang, Chon-Sik ; Cho, Kwang-Min ; Park, Chul Soo ; Okagaki, Ron ; Park, Jong-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 25~32
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2013.0059
Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab) caused mainly by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) which are a major health concern for humans and animals. The objective of this research was to develop an easy seed or seedling inoculation assay, and to compare these assays with whole plant resistance of twenty-nine Korean winter wheat cultivars to FHB. The clip-dipping assay consists of cutting off the coleoptiles apex, dipping the coleoptiles apex in conidial suspension, covering in plastic bag for 3 days, and measuring the lengths of lesions 7 days after inoculation. There were significant cultivar differences after inoculation with F. graminearum in seedling relative to the controls. Correlation coefficients between the lesion lengths of clip-dipping inoculation and FHB Type II resistance from adult plants were significant (r=0.45; P<0.05). Results from two other seedling inoculation methods, spraying and pin-point inoculation, were not correlated with adult FHB resistance. Single linear correlation was not significant between seed germination assays (soaking and soak-dry) and FHB resistance (Type I and Type II), respectively. These results showed that clip-dipping inoculation method using F. graminearum may offer a real possibility of simple, rapid, and reliable for the early screening of FHB resistance in wheat.
Comparison of Trichothecene Biosynthetic Gene Expression between Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium asiaticum
Lee, Theresa ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Shin, Jean Young ; Kim, Hee-Kyoung ; Yun, Sung-Hwan ; Kim, Hwang-Yong ; Lee, Soohyung ; Ryu, Jae-Gee ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 33~42
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.11.2013.0107
Nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are predominant Fusarium-producing mycotoxins found in grains, which are mainly produced by Fusarium asiaticum and F. graminearum. NIV is found in most of cereals grown in Korea, but the genetic basis for NIV production by F. asiaticum has not been extensively explored. In this study, 12 genes belonging to the trichothecene biosynthetic gene cluster were compared at the transcriptional level between two NIV-producing F. asiaticum and four DON-producing F. graminearum strains. Chemical analysis revealed that time-course toxin production patterns over 14 days did not differ between NIV and DON strains, excluding F. asiaticum R308, which was a low NIV producer. Both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Northern analysis revealed that the majority of TRI gene transcripts peaked at day 2 in both NIV and DON producers, which is 2 days earlier than trichothecene accumulation in liquid medium. Comparison of the gene expression profiles identified an NIV-specific pattern in two transcription factor-encoding TRI genes (TRI6 and TRI10) and TRI101, which showed two gene expression peaks during both the early and late incubation periods. In addition, the amount of trichothecenes produced by both DON and NIV producers were correlated with the expression levels of TRI genes, regardless of the trichothecene chemotypes. Therefore, the reduced production of NIV by R308 compared to NIV or DON by the other strains may be attributable to the significantly lower expression levels of the TRI genes, which showed early expression patterns.
Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem
Lee, Yong-Bok ; An, Su Jung ; Park, Chung Gyoo ; Kim, Jinwoo ; Han, Sangjo ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 43~50
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2013.0093
Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease.
Development of the Large-Scale Oligonucleotide Chip for the Diagnosis of Plant Viruses and its Practical Use
Nam, Moon ; Kim, Jeong-Seon ; Lim, Seungmo ; Park, Chung Youl ; Kim, Jeong-Gyu ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ; Moon, Jae Sun ; Lee, Su-Heon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 51~57
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2013.0084
A large-scale oligonucleotide (LSON) chip was developed for the detection of the plant viruses with known genetic information. The LSON chip contains two sets of 3,978 probes for 538 species of targets including plant viruses, satellite RNAs and viroids. A hundred forty thousand probes, consisting of isolate-, species- and genus-specific probes respectively, are designed from 20,000 of independent nucleotide sequence of plant viruses. Based on the economic importance, the amount of genome information, and the number of strains and/or isolates, one to fifty-one probes for each target virus are selected and spotted on the chip. The standard and field samples for the analysis of the LSON chip have been prepared and tested by RT-PCR. The probe's specific and/or nonspecific reaction patterns by LSON chip allow us to diagnose the unidentified viruses. Thus, the LSON chip in this study could be highly useful for the detection of unexpected plant viruses, the monitoring of emerging viruses and the fluctuation of the population of major viruses in each plant.
Selective Interaction Between Chloroplast β-ATPase and TGB1L88 Retards Severe Symptoms Caused by Alternanthera mosaic virus Infection
Seo, Eun-Young ; Nam, Jiryun ; Kim, Hyun-Seung ; Park, Young-Hwan ; Hong, Seok Myeong ; Lakshman, Dilip ; Bae, Hanhong ; Hammond, John ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 58~67
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2013.0097
The multifunctional triple gene block protein 1 (TGB1) of the Potexvirus Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) has been reported to have silencing suppressor, cell-to-cell movement, and helicase functions. Yeast two hybrid screening using an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library with TGB1 as bait, and co-purification with TGB1 inclusion bodies identified several host proteins which interact with AltMV TGB1. Host protein interactions with TGB1 were confirmed by biomolecular fluorescence complementation, which showed positive TGB1 interaction with mitochondrial ATP synthase delta' chain subunit (ATP synthase delta'), light harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex I subunit A4 (LHCA4), chlorophyll a/b binding protein 1 (LHB1B2), chloroplast-localized IscA-like protein (ATCPISCA), and chloroplast
-ATPase. However, chloroplast
-ATPase interacts only with
, and not with weak silencing suppressor
. This selective interaction indicates that chloroplast
-ATPase is not required for AltMV movement and replication; however, TRV silencing of chloroplast
-ATPase in Nicotiana benthamiana induced severe tissue necrosis when plants were infected by AltMV
but not AltMV
, suggesting that
-ATPase selectively responded to
to induce defense responses.
Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate
Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Cho, In-Sook ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ; Choi, Seung-Kook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2013.0076
Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1) were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants.
Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita
Seo, Yunhee ; Park, Jiyeong ; Kim, Yong Su ; Park, Yong ; Kim, Young Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2013.0082
In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI
), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficient of variance (CV) of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.
Fungicide Sensitivity and Characterization of Cobweb Disease on a Pleurotus eryngii Mushroom Crop Caused by Cladobotryum mycophilum
Kim, Min Keun ; Seuk, Su Won ; Lee, Young Han ; Kim, Hye Ran ; Cho, Kye Man ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 82~89
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2013.0098
In 2009-2010, unusual symptoms were observed on Pleurotus eryngii grown in mushroom farms in Gyeongnam Province, Republic of Korea. One of the main symptoms was a cobweb-like growth of fungal mycelia over the surface of the mushroom. The colonies on the surface rapidly overwhelmed the mushrooms and developed several spores within 3-4 days. The colonized surface turned pale brown or yellow. The fruit body eventually turned dark brown and became rancid. Koch's postulates were completed by spraying and spotting using isolated strains. The phylogenetic tree obtained from the internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis showed that the isolated fungal pathogen corresponded to Cladobotryum mycophilum (99.5%). In the fungicide sensitivity tests, the
values for the isolate with respect to benomyl and carbendazim were from 0.29 to 0.31 ppm. Benzimidazole fungicides were most effective against C. mycophilum, a causal agent of cobweb disease in P. eryngii.
Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations
Shim, Chang Ki ; Kim, Min Jeong ; Kim, Yong Ki ; Jee, Hyeong Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 90~95
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.07.2013.0064
This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions), L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions), L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions), L. saligna (2 accessions), and L. serriola (1 accession); majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (
conidia/ml) of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease.
Molecular Characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Strains Isolated in Korea and a Multiplex PCR Assay for Haplotype Differentiation
Koh, Hyun Seok ; Kim, Gyoung Hee ; Lee, Young Sun ; Koh, Young Jin ; Jung, Jae Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 96~101
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2013.0095
The molecular features of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in Korea were compared with strains isolated in Japan and Italy. Sequencing of eight P. syringae pv. actinidiae and three P. syringae pv. theae strains revealed a total of 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 4,818 bp of the concatenated alignment of nine genes. A multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of P. syringae pv. actinidiae and for the specific detection of recent haplotype strains other than strains isolated since the 1980s in Korea. The primer pair, designated as TacF and TacR, specifically amplified a 545-bp fragment with the genomic DNA of new haplotype of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains. A multiplex PCR conducted with the TacF/TacR primer pair and the universal primer pair for all P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains can be simultaneously applied for the detection of P. syringae pv. actinidiae and for the differentiation of new haplotype strains.
Antifungal Activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis Strain T-9 Isolated from Soils against Several Plant Pathogenic Fungi
Xu, Sheng Jun ; Hong, Sae Jin ; Choi, Woobong ; Kim, Byung Sup ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2014, Pages 102~108
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.05.2013.0052
The bacterial strain T-9, which shows strong antifungal activity, is isolated from the soils of Samcheok, Gangwondo and identified as Paenibacillus kribbensis according to morphological and taxonomic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The P. kribbensis strain T-9 strongly inhibits the growth of various phytopathogenic fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Colletotricum acutatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, Magnaporthe oryzae, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium cepivorum in vitro. Also, the P. kribbensis strain T-9 exhibited similar or better control effects to plant diseases than in fungicide treatment through in vivo assays. In the 2-year greenhouse experiments, P. kribbensis strain T-9 was highly effective against clubroot. In the 2-year field trials, the P. kribbensis strain T-9 was less effective than the fungicide, but reduced clubroot on Chinese cabbage when compared to the control. The above-described results indicate that the strain T-9 may have the potential as an antagonist to control various phytopathogenic fungi.