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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
The Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Plants
Lim, Jeong-A ; Lee, Dong Hwan ; Heu, Sunggi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 109~116
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.04.2014.0036
There are an increasing number of outbreaks of human pathogens related to fresh produce. Thus, the growth of human pathogens on plants should be explored. Human pathogens can survive under the harsh environments in plants, and can adhere and actively invade plants. Plant-associated microbiota or insects contribute to the survival and transmission of enteric pathogens in plants. Human enteric pathogens also trigger plant innate immunity, but some pathogens-such as Salmonella-can overcome this defense mechanism.
Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea
Lee, Dong Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Beom ; Lim, Jeong-A ; Han, Sang-Wook ; Heu, Sunggi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2013.0117
The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.
Development of a Model to Predict the Primary Infection Date of Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) on Hot Pepper
Kim, Ji-Hoon ; Kang, Wee-Soo ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 125~135
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2013.0090
A population model of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on hot pepper was developed to predict the primary disease infection date. The model estimated the pathogen population on the surface and within the leaf of the host based on the wetness period and temperature. For successful infection, at least 5,000 cells/ml of the bacterial population were required. Also, wind and rain were necessary according to regression analyses of the monitored data. Bacterial spot on the model is initiated when the pathogen population exceeds
within the leaf. The developed model was validated using 94 assessed samples from 2000 to 2007 obtained from monitored fields. Based on the validation study, the predicted initial infection dates varied based on the year rather than the location. Differences in initial infection dates between the model predictions and the monitored data in the field were minimal. For example, predicted infection dates for 7 locations were within the same month as the actual infection dates, 11 locations were within 1 month of the actual infection, and only 3 locations were more than 2 months apart from the actual infection. The predicted infection dates were mapped from 2009 to 2012; 2011 was the most severe year. Although the model was not sensitive enough to predict disease severity of less than 0.1% in the field, our model predicted bacterial spot severity of 1% or more. Therefore, this model can be applied in the field to determine when bacterial spot control is required.
Roles of Forkhead-box Transcription Factors in Controlling Development, Pathogenicity, and Stress Response in Magnaporthe oryzae
Park, Jaejin ; Kong, Sunghyung ; Kim, Seryun ; Kang, Seogchan ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 136~150
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2014.0018
Although multiple transcription factors (TFs) have been characterized via mutagenesis to understand their roles in controlling pathogenicity and infection-related development in Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast, if and how forkhead-box (FOX) TFs contribute to these processes remain to be characterized. Four putative FOX TF genes were identified in the genome of M. oryzae, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that two of them (MoFKH1 and MoHCM1) correspond to Ascomycota-specific members of the FOX TF family while the others (MoFOX1 and MoFOX2) are Pezizomycotina-specific members. Deletion of MoFKH1 (
) resulted in reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination, abnormal septation and stress response, and reduced virulence. Similarly,
exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination. Conidia of
were more sensitive to one or both of the cell cycle inhibitors hydroxyurea and benomyl, suggesting their role in cell cycle control. On the other hand, loss of MoFOX1 (
) did not show any noticeable changes in development, pathogenicity, and stress response. Deletion of MoFOX2 was not successful even after repeated attempts. Taken together, these results suggested that MoFKH1 and MoHCM1 are important in fungal development and that MoFKH1 is further implicated in pathogenicity and stress response in M. oryzae.
Molecular Characterization of a Novel Putative Partitivirus Infecting Cytospora sacchari, a Plant Pathogenic Fungus
Peyambari, Mahtab ; Habibi, Mina Koohi ; Fotouhifar, Khalil-Berdi ; Dizadji, Akbar ; Roossinck, Marilyn J. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 151~158
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2014.0005
Three double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), approximately 1.85, 1.65 and 1.27 kb in size, were detected in an isolate of Cytospora sacchari from Iran. Partial nucleotide sequence revealed a 1,284 bp segment containing one ORF that potentially encodes a 405 aa protein. This protein contains conserved motifs related to RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) that showed similarity to RdRps of partitiviruses. The results indicate that these dsRNAs represent a novel Partitivirus that we tentatively designate Cytospora sacchari partitivirus (CsPV). Treatment of the fungal strain by cyclohexamide and also hyphal tip culture had no effect on removing the putative virus. Phylogenetic analysis of putative RdRp of CsPV and other partitiviruses places CsPV as a member of the genus Partitivirus in the family Partitiviridae, and clustering with Aspergillus ochraceous virus 1.
Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones
Phan, Mi Sa Vo ; Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 159~167
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2014.0014
Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from Glycine soja (wild soybean), named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean) and Pisum sativum (pea) as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species.
Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice
Yoo, Seung Jin ; Kim, Su-Hyun ; Kim, Min-Jeong ; Ryu, Choong-Min ; Kim, Young Cheol ; Cho, Baik Ho ; Yang, Kwang-Yeol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 168~177
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2013.0106
Plant has possessed diverse stress signals from outside and maintained its fitness. Out of such plant responses, it is well known that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays important role in wounding and pathogen attack in most dicot plants. However, little is understood about its role in wounding response for the economically important monocot rice plant. In this study, therefore, the involvement of MAPK was investigated to understand the wounding signaling pathway in rice. The OsMPK1 was rapidly activated by wounding within 10 min, and OsMPK1 was also activated by challenge of rice blast fungus. Further analysis revealed that OsMKK4, the upstream kinase of OsMPK1, phosphorylated OsMPK1 by wounding in vivo. Furthermore, OsMPK1 directly interacted with a rice defense-related transcription factor OsWRKY53. To understand a functional link between MAPK and its target transcription factor, we showed that OsMPK1 activated by the constitutively active mutant
phosphorylated OsWRKY53 in vitro. Taken together, components involving in the wounding signaling pathway, OsMKK4-OsMPK1-OsWRKY53, can be important players in regulating crosstalk between abiotic stress and biotic stress.
Development and Practical Use of RT-PCR for Seed-transmitted Prune dwarf virus in Quarantine
Lee, Siwon ; Shin, Yong-Gil ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 178~182
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.10.2013.0099
Among imported plants, seeds are the items that have many latent pathogens and are difficult to inspect. Also, they are the import and export items whose market is expected to expand. The biggest problem with seeds is viruses. Prune dwarf virus (PDV) is the virus that is commonly inspected in Prunus cerasifera, P. persica, P. armeniaca, P. mandshurica, P. cerasus, P. avium or P. serotina seeds. In this study, two RT-PCR primer sets, which can promptly and specifically diagnose plant quarantine seed-transmitted PDV, were developed; and nested PCR primers, where products amplify 739 and 673 nucleotides (nt), and an nested PCR-product, 305 nt, can be obtained as these products are amplified again, were developed. Also, a modified-positive control plasmid was developed, where the restriction enzyme XhoI, which can identify the contamination of samples from the control, was inserted. The method developed in this study has detected PDV in 18 cases since 2007, and is expected to continuously contribute to the plant quarantine in Korea.
Characteristics of a Lettuce mosaic virus Isolate Infecting Lettuce in Korea
Lim, Seungmo ; Zhao, Fumei ; Yoo, Ran Hee ; Igori, Davaajargal ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ; Moon, Jae Sun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 183~187
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.12.2013.0120
Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) causes disease of plants in the family Asteraceae, especially lettuce crops. LMV isolates have previously been clustered in three main groups, LMV-Yar, LMV-Greek and LMV-RoW. The first two groups, LMV-Yar and LMV-Greek, have similar characteristics such as no seed-borne transmission and non-resistance-breaking. The latter one, LMV-RoW, comprising a large percentage of the LMV isolates contains two large subgroups, LMV-Common and LMV-Most. To date, however, no Korean LMV isolate has been classified and characterized. In this study, LMV-Muju, the Korean LMV isolate, was isolated from lettuce showing pale green and mottle symptoms, and its complete genome sequence was determined. Classification method of LMV isolates based on nucleotide sequence divergence of the NIb-CP junction showed that LMV-Muju was categorized as LMV-Common. LMV-Muju was more similar to LMV-O (LMV-Common subgroup) than to LMV-E (LMV-RoW group but not LMV-Common subgroup) even in the amino acid domains of HC-Pro associated with pathogenicity, and in the CI and VPg regions related to ability to overcome resistance. Taken together, LMV-Muju belongs to the LMV-Common subgroup, and is expected to be a seed-borne, non-resistance-breaking isolate. According to our analysis, all other LMV isolates not previously assigned to a subgroup were also included in the LMV-RoW group.
Inheritance of Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Disease Resistance in Pigeonpea
Daspute, Abhijit ; Fakrudin, B. ; Bhairappanavar, Shivarudrappa B. ; Kavil, S.P. ; Narayana, Y.D. ; Muniswamy, Muniswamy ; Kaumar, Anil ; Krishnaraj, P.U. ; Yerimani, Abid ; Khadi, B.M. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 188~194
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.10.2013.0104
A comprehensive study was conducted using PPSMV resistant (BSMR 736) and susceptible (ICP 8863) genotypes to develop a segregating population and understand the inheritance of PPSMV resistance. The observed segregation was comparable to 13 (susceptible): 3 (resistant). Hence, the inheritance was controlled by two genes, SV1 and SV2, with inhibitory gene interaction.
Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea
Yoon, Ju Yeon ; Joa, Jae Ho ; Choi, Kyung San ; Do, Ki Seck ; Lim, Han Cheol ; Chung, Bong Nam ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 195~199
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.02.2014.0015
Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea.
First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea
Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Jeong, Rae-Dong ; Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ; Cha, Byeongjin ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 200~207
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.01.2013.0012
A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.
An Acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 Gene of Oryza grandiglumis is Involved in Disease Resistance Response Against Bacterial Infection
Shin, Sang Hyun ; Pak, Jung-Hun ; Kim, Mi Jin ; Kim, Hye Jeong ; Oh, Ju Sung ; Choi, Hong Kyu ; Jung, Ho Won ; Chung, Young Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 208~214
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.11.2013.0112
Wild rice, Oryza grandiglumis shows hyper-resistance response to pathogen infection. In order to identify genes necessary for defense response in plants, we have carried out a subtractive hybridization coupled with a cDNA macroarray. An acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) gene of the wild rice is highly identical to the acidic PR1 genes of different plant species. The OgPR1a cDNA has an apparent single open reading frame with a predicted molecular mass 40,621 Da and an isoelectic point of 5.14. Both in silico analysis and a transient expression assay in onion epidermal cells revealed that the OgPR1a protein could be localized in intercellular space in plants. The OgPR1a mRNA was strongly transcribed by the exogenous treatment with ethylene and jasmonic acid as well as protein phosphatase inhibitors. Additionally, ectopic expression of the OgPR1a conferred disease resistance on Arabidopsis to the bacterial and fungal infections.
The Sensor Kinase GacS Negatively Regulates Flagellar Formation and Motility in a Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6
Kim, Ji Soo ; Kim, Yong Hwan ; Anderson, Anne J. ; Kim, Young Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 215~219
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.11.2013.0109
The GacS/GacA two component system regulates various traits related to the biocontrol potential of plant-associated pseudomonads. The role of the sensor kinase, GacS, differs between strains in regulation of motility. In this study, we determined how a gacS mutation changed cell morphology and motility in Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. The gacS mutant cells were elongated in stationary-phase compared to the wild type and the complemented gacS mutant, but cells did not differ in length in logarithmic phase. The gacS mutant had a two-fold increase in the number of flagella compared with the wild type strain; flagella number was restored to that of the wild type in the complemented gacS mutant. The more highly flagellated gacS mutant cells had greater swimming motilities than that of the wild type strain. Enhanced flagella formation in the gacS mutant correlated with increased expression of three genes, fleQ, fliQ and flhF, involved in flagellar formation. Expression of these genes in the complemented gacS mutant was similar to that of the wild type. These findings show that this root-colonizing pseudomonad adjusts flagella formation and cell morphology in stationary-phase using GacS as a major regulator.
Proteomic Analysis of a Global Regulator GacS Sensor Kinase in the Rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6
Kim, Chul Hong ; Kim, Yong Hwan ; Anderson, Anne J. ; Kim, Young Cheol ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2014, Pages 220~227
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.02.2014.0012
The GacS/GacA system in the root colonizer Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a key regulator of many traits relevant to the biocontrol function of this bacterium. Proteomic analysis revealed 12 proteins were down-regulated in a gacS mutant of P. chlororaphis O6. These GacS-regulated proteins functioned in combating oxidative stress, cell signaling, biosynthesis of secondary metabolism, and secretion. The extent of regulation was shown by real-time RT-PCR to vary between the genes. Mutants of P. chlororaphis O6 were generated in two GacS-regulated genes, trpE, encoding a protein involved in tryptophan synthesis, and prnA, required for conversion of tryptophan to the antimicrobial compound, pyrrolitrin. Failure of the trpE mutant to induce systemic resistance in tobacco against a foliar pathogen causing soft rot, Pectobacterium carotovorum SCCI, correlated with reduced colonization of root surfaces implying an inadequate supply of tryptophan to support growth. Although colonization was not affected by mutation in the prnA gene, induction of systemic resistance was reduced, suggesting that pyrrolnitrin was an activator of plant resistance as well as an antifungal agent. Study of mutants in the other GacS-regulated proteins will indicate further the features required for biocontrol-activity in this rhizobacterium.