Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
Selecting the target year
Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea
Hyun, Ik-Hwa ; Choi, Woobong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 331~342
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.07.2014.0068
Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues.
Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection
Wang, Yiming ; Kwon, Soon Jae ; Wu, Jingni ; Choi, Jaeyoung ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar ; Tamogami, Shigeru ; Rakwal, Randeep ; Park, Sang-Ryeol ; Kim, Beom-Gi ; Jung, Ki-Hong ; Kang, Kyu Young ; Kim, Sang Gon ; Kim, Sun Tae ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 343~354
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2014.0055
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.
Comparative Analysis of Defense Responses in Chocolate Spot-Resistant and -Susceptible Faba Bean (Vicia faba) Cultivars Following Infection by the Necrotrophic Fungus Botrytis fabae
El-Komy, Mahmoud H. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 355~366
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2014.0050
In this study, resistance responses were investigated during the interaction of Botrytis fabae with two faba bean cultivars expressing different levels of resistance against this pathogen, Nubaria (resistant) and Giza 40 (susceptible). Disease severity was assessed on leaves using a rating scale from 1 to 9. Accumulation levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) were measured in leaf tissues at different times of infection. The expression profiles of two pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) encoded by the genes PR-1 and
-1,3-glucanase were also investigated using reverse transcription RT-PCR analysis. The accumulation of these defense responses was induced significantly in both cultivars upon infection with B. fabae compared with un-inoculated controls. The resistant cultivar showed weaker necrotic symptom expression, less ROS accumulation, a lower rate of lipid peroxidation and higher activity of the enzymatic ROS scavenging system compared with susceptible cultivar. Interestingly, ROS accumulated rapidly in the resistant leaf tissues and peaked during the early stages of infection, whereas accumulation was stronger and more intense in the susceptible tissues in later stages. Moreover, the response of the resistant cultivar to infection was earlier and stronger, exhibiting high transcript accumulation of the PR genes. These results indicated that the induction of oxidant/antioxidant responses and the accumulation of PRPs are part of the faba bean defense mechanism against the necrotrophic fungus B. fabae with a different intensity and timing of induction, depending on the resistance levels.
Analysis of in planta Expressed Orphan Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae
Sadat, Md. Abu ; Jeon, Junhyun ; Mir, Albely Afifa ; Kim, Seongbeom ; Choi, Jaeyoung ; Lee, Yong-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 367~374
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2014.0072
Genomes contain a large number of unique genes which have not been found in other species. Although the origin of such "orphan" genes remains unclear, they are thought to be involved in species-specific adaptive processes. Here, we analyzed seven orphan genes (MoSPC1 to MoSPC7) prioritized based on in planta expressed sequence tag data in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Expression analysis using qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of four genes (MoSPC1, MoSPC2, MoSPC3 and MoSPC7) during plant infection. However, individual deletion mutants of these four genes did not differ from the wild-type strain for all phenotypes examined, including pathogenicity. The length, GC contents, codon adaptation index and expression during mycelial growth of the four genes suggest that these genes formed during the evolutionary history of M. oryzae. Synteny analyses using closely related fungal species corroborated the notion that these genes evolved de novo in the M. oryzae genome. In this report, we discuss our inability to detect phenotypic changes in the four deletion mutants. Based on these results, the four orphan genes may be products of de novo gene birth processes, and their adaptive potential is in the course of being tested for retention or extinction through natural selection.
Isolation and Characterization of the Colletotrichum acutatum ABC Transporter CaABC1
Kim, Suyoung ; Park, Sook-Young ; Kim, Hyejeong ; Kim, Dongyoung ; Lee, Seon-Woo ; Kim, Heung Tae ; Lee, Jong-Hwan ; Choi, Woobong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 375~383
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2014.0077
Fungi tolerate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including cytotoxic compounds and fungicides, via their ATP-driven efflux pumps belonging to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. To clarify the molecular basis of interaction between the fungus and various abiotic stresses including fungicides, we constructed a cDNA library from germinated conidia of Colletotrichum acutatum, a major anthracnose pathogen of pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Over 1,000 cDNA clones were sequenced, of which single clone exhibited significant nucleotide sequence homology to ABC transporter genes. We isolated three fosmid clones containing the C. acutatum ABC1 (CaABC1) gene in full-length from genomic DNA library screening. The CaABC1 gene consists of 4,059 bp transcript, predicting a 1,353-aa protein. The gene contains the typical ABC signature and Walker A and B motifs. The 5'-flanking region contains a CAAT motif, a TATA box, and a Kozak region. Phylogenetic and structural analysis suggested that the CaABC1 is a typical ABC transporter gene highly conserved in various fungal species, as well as in Chromista, Metazoans, and Viridiplantae. We also found that CaABC1 was up-regulated during conidiation and a minimal medium condition. Moreover, CaABC1 was induced in iprobenfos, kresoxim-methyl, thiophanate-methyl, and hygromycin B. These results demonstrate that CaABC1 is necessary for conidiation, abiotic stress, and various fungicide resistances. These results will provide the basis for further study on the function of ABC transporter genes in C. acutatum.
Evidence for Genetic Similarity of Vegetative Compatibility Groupings in Sclerotinia homoeocarpa
Chang, Seog Won ; Jo, Young-Ki ; Chang, Taehyun ; Jung, Geunhwa ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 384~396
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2014.0075
Vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) are determined for many fungi to test for the ability of fungal isolates to undergo heterokaryon formation. In several fungal plant pathogens, isolates belonging to a VCG have been shown to share significantly higher genetic similarity than those of different VCGs. In this study we sought to examine the relationship between VCG and genetic similarity of an important cool season turfgrass pathogen, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa. Twenty-two S. homoeocarpa isolates from the Midwest and Eastern US, which were previously characterized in several studies, were all evaluated for VCG using an improved nit mutant assay. These isolates were also genotyped using 19 microsatellites developed from partial genome sequence of S. homoeocarpa. Additionally, partial sequences of mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase II and mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rRNA, and the atp6-rns intergenic spacer, were generated for isolates from each nit mutant VCG to determine if mitochondrial haplotypes differed among VCGs. Of the 22 isolates screened, 15 were amenable to the nit mutant VCG assay and were grouped into six VCGs. The 19 microsatellites gave 57 alleles for this set. Unweighted pair group methods with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) tree of binary microsatellite data were used to produce a dendrogram of the isolate genotypes based on microsatellite alleles, which showed high genetic similarity of nit mutant VCGs. Analysis of molecular variance of microsatellite data demonstrates that the current nit mutant VCGs explain the microsatellite genotypic variation among isolates better than the previous nit mutant VCGs or the conventionally determined VCGs. Mitochondrial sequences were identical among all isolates, suggesting that this marker type may not be informative for US populations of S. homoeocarpa.
Characterization of the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum and the Effect of Fungicides on Their Mycelial Growth and Colony Formation
Shin, Jong-Hwan ; Han, Joon-Hee ; Lee, Ju Kyong ; Kim, Kyoung Su ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 397~406
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2014.0078
Maize is a socioeconomically important crop in many countries. Recently, a high incidence of stalk rot disease has been reported in several maize fields in Gangwon province. In this report, we show that maize stalk rot is associated with the fungal pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum. Since no fungicides are available to control these pathogens on maize plants, we selected six fungicides (tebuconazole, difenoconazole, fluquinconazole, azoxystrobin, prochloraz and kresoxim-methyl) and examined their effectiveness against the two pathogens. The in vitro antifungal effects of the six fungicides on mycelial growth and colony formation were investigated. Based on the inhibition of mycelial growth, the most toxic fungicide was tebuconazole with 50% effective concentrations (
) of <
for both pathogens, while the least toxic fungicide was azoxystrobin with
values of 0.7 and
for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, and
values of >
for both pathogens. Based on the inhibition of colony formation by the two pathogens, kresoxim-methyl was the most toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations of 0.1 and
for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, whereas azoxystrobin was the least toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations >
for both pathogens.
Detection of Multiple Potato Viruses in the Field Suggests Synergistic Interactions among Potato Viruses in Pakistan
Hameed, Amir ; Iqbal, Zafar ; Asad, Shaheen ; Mansoor, Shahid ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 407~415
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.05.2014.0039
Viral diseases have been a major limiting factor threating sustainable potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production in Pakistan. Surveys were conducted to serologically quantify the incidence of RNA viruses infecting potato; Potato virus X (PVX), Potato virus Y (PVY), Potato virus S (PVS), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus M (PVM) and Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) in two major potato cultivars (Desiree and Cardinal). The results suggest the prevalence of multiple viruses in all surveyed areas with PVY, PVS and PVX dominantly widespread with infection levels of up to 50% in some regions. Co-infections were detected with the highest incidence (15.5%) for PVX and PVS. Additionally the data showed a positive correlation between co-infecting viruses with significant increase in absorbance value (virus titre) for at least one of the virus in an infected plant and suggested a synergistic interaction. To test this hypothesis, glasshouse grown potato plants were challenged with multiple viruses and analyzed for systemic infections and symptomology studies. The results obtained conclude that multiple viral infections dramatically increase disease epidemics as compared to single infection and an effective resistance strategy in targeting multiple RNA viruses is required to save potato crop.
The Current Incidence of Viral Disease in Korean Sweet Potatoes and Development of Multiplex RT-PCR Assays for Simultaneous Detection of Eight Sweet Potato Viruses
Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Shin, Jun-Chul ; Lee, Ye-Ji ; Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Lee, Hyeong-Un ; Jung, Mi-Nam ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 416~424
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2014.0029
Sweet potato is grown extensively from tropical to temperate regions and is an important food crop worldwide. In this study, we established detection methods for 17 major sweet potato viruses using single and multiplex RT-PCR assays. To investigate the current incidence of viral diseases, we collected 154 samples of various sweet potato cultivars showing virus-like symptoms from 40 fields in 10 Korean regions, and analyzed them by RT-PCR using specific primers for each of the 17 viruses. Of the 17 possible viruses, we detected eight in our samples. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and sweet potato virus C (SPVC) were most commonly detected, infecting approximately 87% and 85% of samples, respectively. Furthermore, Sweet potato symptomless virus 1 (SPSMV-1), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet potato virus 2 ( SPV2), Sweet potato chlorotic fleck virus (SPCFV), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV) were detected in 67%, 58%, 47%, 41%, 31%, and 20% of samples, respectively. This study presents the first documented occurrence of four viruses (SPVC, SPV2, SPCFV, and SPSMV-1) in Korea. Based on the results of our survey, we developed multiplex RT-PCR assays for simple and simultaneous detection of the eight sweet potato viruses we recorded.
Transcriptome Analysis of the Barley-Rhynchosporium secalis Interaction
Al-Daoude, Antonious ; Shoaib, Amina ; Al-Shehadah, Eyad ; Jawhar, Mohammad ; Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 425~431
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.04.2014.0033
Leaf scald caused by the infection of Rhynchosporium secalis, is a worldwide crop disease resulting in significant loss of barley yield. In this study, a systematic sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was chosen to obtain a global picture of the assembly of genes involved in pathogenesis. To identify a large number of plant ESTs, which are induced at different time points, an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) display of complementary DNA (cDNA) was utilized. Transcriptional changes of 140 ESTs were observed, of which 19 have no previously described function. Functional annotation of the transcripts revealed a variety of infection-induced host genes encoding classical pathogenesis-related (PR) or genes that play a role in the signal transduction pathway. The expression analyses by a semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that Rar1 and Rpg4 are defense inducible genes, and were consistent with the cDNA-AFLP data in their expression patterns. Hence, the here presented transcriptomic approach provides novel global catalogue of genes not currently represented in the EST databases.
Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Cylindrocarpon destructans Using Radicicol
Kang, Yunhee ; Lee, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Jungkwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 432~436
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.08.2014.0073
The soil-borne ascomycete fungus Cylindrocarpon destructans causes ginseng root rot disease and produces various secondary metabolites such as brefeldin A and radicicol. The slow growth of this fungus compared with other plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi in soil disturbs isolation of this fungus from soil and infected ginseng. In this study, we developed a selective medium for C. destructans using radicicol produced by this fungus. Supplementing 50 mg/L of radicicol to medium inhibited the mycelia growth of other fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria panax, but did not affect the growth of C. destructans. In addition, conidia germination of other fungal species except for C. destructans was inhibited in submerged culture supplemented with radicicol. This medium provides a very efficient tool for isolating C. destructans and also can be used as an enrichment medium for this fungus.
Simple Method to Produce in vitro Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Teleomorph
Benslimane, Hamida ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 437~439
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.06.2014.0049
A fungus Pyrenophora tritici-repentis induces tan spot of wheat which is a foliar disease that causes yield loss to wheat crops worldwide. In this study, a new, simple and non-costly technique was performed to produce the sexual stage of this fungus in culture, within 9 weeks using wheat straw. This protocol will be helpful to researchers studying the biology of sexual stage development, disease epidemiology and genetics of this fungus.
Development of a PCR Diagnostic System for Iris yellow spot tospovirus in Quarantine
Shin, Yong-Gil ; Rho, Jae-Young ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 440~444
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.06.2014.0052
Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a plant pathogenic virus which has been reported to continuously occur in onion bulbs, allium field crops, seed crops, lisianthus, and irises. In South Korea, IYSV is a "controlled" virus that has not been reported, and inspection is performed when crops of the genus Iris are imported into South Korea. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR inspection methods, which can detect IYSV, from imported crops of the genus Iris at quarantine sites, were developed. In addition, a modified positive plasmid, which can be used as a positive control during inspection, was developed. This modified plasmid can facilitate a more accurate inspection by enabling the examination of a laboratory contamination in an inspection system. The inspection methods that were developed in this study are expected to contribute, through the prompt and accurate inspection of IYSV at quarantine sites to the plant quarantine in South Korea.
Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR
Lee, Seung-Yeol ; Yea, Mi-Chi ; Back, Chang-Gi ; Choi, Kwang-Shik ; Kang, In-Kyu ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Jung, Hee-Young ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 445~449
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.05.2014.0041
The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan) in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.
Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids
Seo, Yunhee ; Kim, Young Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 30, issue 4, 2014, Pages 450~455
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.07.2014.0062
This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (
) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields.