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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Antimicrobial Cyclic Peptides for Plant Disease Control
Lee, Dong Wan ; Kim, Beom Seok ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.08.2014.0074
Antimicrobial cyclic peptides derived from microbes bind stably with target sites, have a tolerance to hydrolysis by proteases, and a favorable degradability under field conditions, which make them an attractive proposition for use as agricultural fungicides. Antimicrobial cyclic peptides are classified according to the types of bonds within the ring structure; homodetic, heterodetic, and complex cyclic peptides, which in turn reflect diverse physicochemical features. Most antimicrobial cyclic peptides affect the integrity of the cell envelope. This is achieved through direct interaction with the cell membrane or disturbance of the cell wall and membrane component biosynthesis such as chitin, glucan, and sphingolipid. These are specific and selective targets providing reliable activity and safety for non-target organisms. Synthetic cyclic peptides produced through combinatorial chemistry offer an alternative approach to develop antimicrobials for agricultural uses. Those synthesized so far have been studied for antibacterial activity, however, the recent advancements in powerful technologies now promise to provide novel antimicrobial cyclic peptides that are yet to be discovered from natural resources.
Molecular Screening of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice using SSR Markers
Singh, A.K. ; Singh, P.K. ; Arya, Madhuri ; Singh, N.K. ; Singh, U.S. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 12~24
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2014.0054
Rice Blast is the most devastating disease causing major yield losses in every year worldwide. It had been proved that using resistant rice varieties would be the most effective way to control this disease. Molecular screening and genetic diversities of major rice blast resistance genes were determined in 192 rice germplasm accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The genetic frequencies of the 10 major rice blast resistance genes varied from 19.79% to 54.69%. Seven accessions IC337593, IC346002, IC346004, IC346813, IC356117, IC356422 and IC383441 had maximum eight blast resistance gene, while FR13B, Hourakani, Kala Rata 1-24, Lemont, Brown Gora, IR87756-20-2-2-3, IC282418, IC356419, PKSLGR-1 and PKSLGR-39 had seven blast resistance genes. Twenty accessions possessed six genes, 36 accessions had five genes, 41 accessions had four genes, 38 accessions had three genes, 26 accessions had two genes, 13 accessions had single R gene and only one accession IC438644 does not possess any one blast resistant gene. Out of 192 accessions only 17 accessions harboured 7 to 8 blast resistance genes.
Development of PCR and TaqMan PCR Assays to Detect Pseudomonas coronafaciens, a Causal Agent of Halo Blight of Oats
An, Ji-Hye ; Noh, Young-Hee ; Kim, Yong-Eon ; Lee, Hyok-In ; Cha, Jae-Soon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 25~32
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2014.0096
Pseudomonas coronafaciens causes halo blight on oats and is a plant quarantine bacterium in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. Using of the certificated seed is important for control of the disease. Since effective detection method of P. coronafaciens is not available yet, PCR and TaqMan PCR assays for specific detection of P. coronafaciens were developed in this study. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence of P. coronafaciens LMG 5060 which was obtained by the next-generation sequencing in this study. The PCR primer set Pc-12-F/Pc-12-R specifically amplified 498 bp from the 13 strains of P. coronafaciens isolated in the seven different countries (Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Germany, and New Zealand) and the nested primer set Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R specifically amplified 298 bp from those strains. The target-size PCR product was not amplified from the non-target bacteria with the PCR and nested primer sets. TaqMan PCR with Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R and a TaqMan probe, Pc-taqman, which were designed inside of the nested PCR amplicon, generated Ct values which in a dose-dependent manner to the amount of the target DNA and the Ct values of all the P. coronafaciens strains were above the threshold Ct value for positive detection. The TaqMan PCR generated positive Ct values from the seed extracts of the artificially inoculated oat seeds above 10 cfu/ml inoculation level. PCR and TaqMan PCR assays developed in this study will be useful tools to detect and identify the plant quarantine pathogen, P. coronafaciens.
Identification of Coupling and Repulsion Phase DNA Marker Associated With an Allele of a Gene Conferring Host Plant Resistance to Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.)
Daspute, Abhijit ; Fakrudin, B. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 33~40
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2014.0064
Pigeonpea Sterility Mosaic Disease (PSMD) is an important foliar disease caused by Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV) which is transmitted by eriophyid mites (Aceria cajani Channabasavanna). In present study, a F2 mapping population comprising 325 individuals was developed by crossing PSMD susceptible genotype (Gullyal white) and PSMD resistant genotype (BSMR 736). We identified a set of 32 out of 300 short decamer random DNA markers that showed polymorphism between Gullyal white and BSMR 736 parents. Among them, eleven DNA markers showed polymorphism including coupling and repulsion phase type of polymorphism across the parents. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA), revealed that the DNA marker, IABTPPN7, produced a single coupling phase marker (IABTPPN
) and a repulsion phase marker (IABTPPN
) co-segregating with PSMD reaction. Screening of 325 F2 population using IABTPPN7 revealed that the repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN
, was co-segregating with the PSMD responsive SV1 at a distance of 23.9 cM for Bidar PPSMV isolate. On the other hand, the coupling phase marker IABTPPN
did not show any linkage with PSMD resistance. Additionally, single marker analysis both IABTPPN
(P<0.0001) and IABTPPN
(P<0.0001) recorded a significant association with the PSMD resistance and explained a phenotypic variance of 31 and 36% respectively in
population. The repulsion phase marker, IABTPPN7983, could be of use in Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) in the PPSMV resistance breeding programmes of pigeonpea.
Genetic Diversity in the Coat Protein Genes of Prune dwarf virus Isolates from Sweet Cherry Growing in Turkey
Ozturk, Yusuf ; Cevik, Bayram ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 41~49
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2014.0063
Sweet cherry is an important fruit crop with increasing economical value in Turkey and the world. A number of viruses cause diseases and economical losses in sweet cherry. Prune dwarf virus (PDV), is one of the most common viruses of stone fruits including sweet cherry in the world. In this study, PDV was detected from 316 of 521 sweet cherry samples collected from 142 orchards in 10 districts of Isparta province of Turkey by double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). The presence of PDV in ELISA positive samples was confirmed in 37 isolates by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. A genomic region of 862 bp containing the coat protein (CP) gene of PDV was re-amplified from 21 selected isolates by RT-PCR. Amplified DNA fragments of these isolates were purified and sequenced for molecular characterization and determining genetic diversity of PDV. Sequence comparisons showed 84-99% to 81-100% sequence identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, of the CP genes of PDV isolates from Isparta and other parts of the world. Phylogenetic analyses of the CP genes of PDV isolates from different geographical origins and diverse hosts revealed that PDV isolates formed different phylogenetic groups. While isolates were not grouped solely based on their geographical origins or hosts, some association between phylogenetic groups and geographical origins or hosts were observed.
Characterization of Novel Trichoderma asperellum Isolates to Select Effective Biocontrol Agents Against Tomato Fusarium Wilt
El_Komy, Mahmoud H. ; Saleh, Amgad A. ; Eranthodi, Anas ; Molan, Younes Y. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 50~60
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2014.0087
The use of novel isolates of Trichoderma with efficient antagonistic capacity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is a promising alternative strategy to pesticides for tomato wilt management. We evaluated the antagonistic activity of 30 isolates of T. asperellum against 4 different isolates of FOL. The production of extracellular cell wall degrading enzymes of the antagonistic isolates was also measured. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied to assess the genetic variability among the T. asperellum isolates. All of the T. asperellum isolates significantly reduced the mycelial growth of FOL isolates but the amount of growth reduction varied significantly as well. There was a correlation between the antagonistic capacity of T. asperellum isolates towards FOL and their lytic enzyme production. Isolates showing high levels of chitinase and
-1,3-glucanase activities strongly inhibited the growth of FOL isolates. RAPD analysis showed a high level of genetic variation among T. asperellum isolates. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that T. asperellum isolates could not be grouped by their antagonistic behavior or lytic enzymes production. Six isolates of T. asperellum were highly antagonistic towards FOL and potentially could be used in commercial agriculture to control tomato wilt. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that understanding the genetic variation within Trichoderma isolates and their biochemical capabilities are required for the selection of effective indigenous fungal strains for the use as biocontrol agents.
Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight
Oh, Tae-Seok ; Koo, Han-Mo ; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo ; Jeong, Nam-Su ; Kim, Yeong-Jin ; Kim, Chang-Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.03.2014.0021
From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight.
Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China
Sun, Suli ; Xia, Changjian ; Zhang, Jiqing ; Duan, Canxing ; Wang, Xiaoming ; Wu, Xiaofei ; Lee, Suk-Ha ; Zhu, Zhendong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 67~71
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.07.2014.0069
During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean.
Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus
Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin ; AL-Daoude, Antonious ; Shoaib, Amina ; Jawhar, Mohammad ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 72~77
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2014.0130
Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus.
Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea
Deng, Jian Xin ; Lee, Ji Hye ; Paul, Narayan Chandra ; Cho, Hye Sun ; Lee, Hyang Burm ; Yu, Seung Hun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 78~82
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2014.0095
In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea.
Isolation and Genomic Characterization of the T4-Like Bacteriophage PM2 Infecting Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
Lim, Jeong-A ; Lee, Dong Hwan ; Heu, Sunggi ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2014.0099
In order to control Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, a novel virulent bacteriophage PM2 was isolated. Bacteriophage PM2 can infect 48% of P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and 78% of P. carotovorum subsp. brasilliensis but none of atrosepticum, betavasculorum, odoriferum and wasabiae isolates had been infected with PM2. PM2 phage belongs to the family Myoviridae, and contains a large head and contractile tail. It has a 170,286 base pair genome that encodes 291 open reading frames (ORFs) and 12 tRNAs. Most ORFs in bacteriophage PM2 share a high level of homology with T4-like phages including IME08, RB69, and JS98. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of terminase large subunits confirmed that PM2 is classified as a T4-like phage. It contains no integrase- or no repressor-coding genes related to the lysogenic cycle, and lifestyle prediction using PHACT software suggested that PM2 is a virulent bacteriophage.
Development of Multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Garlic Viruses and the Incidence of Garlic Viral Disease in Garlic Genetic Resources
Nam, Moon ; Lee, Yeong-Hoon ; Park, Chung Youl ; Lee, Min-A ; Bae, Yang-Soo ; Lim, Seungmo ; Lee, Joong Hwan ; Moon, Jae Sun ; Lee, Su-Heon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2015, Pages 90~96
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.10.2014.0114
Garlic generally becomes coinfected with several types of viruses belonging to the Potyvirus, Carlavirus, and Allexivirus genera. These viruses produce characteristically similar symptoms, they cannot be easily identified by electron microscopy (EM) or immunological detection methods, and they are currently widespread around the world, thereby affecting crop yields and crop quality adversely. For the early and reliable detection of garlic viruses, virus-specific sets of primers, including species-specific and genus-specific primers were designed. To effectively detect the twelve different types of garlic viruses, primer mixtures were tested and divided into two independent sets for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The multiplex PCR assays were able to detect specific targets up to the similar dilution series with monoplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Seventy-two field samples collected by the Gyeongbuk Agricultural Technology Administration were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. All seventy two samples were infected with at least one virus, and the coinfection rate was 78%. We conclude that the simultaneous detection system developed in this study can effectively detect and differentiate mixed viral infections in garlic.