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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Alteration of Genetic Make-up in Karnal Bunt Pathogen (Tilletia indica) of Wheat in Presence of Host Determinants
Gupta, Atul K. ; Seneviratne, J.M. ; Bala, Ritu ; Jaiswal, J.P. ; Kumar, Anil ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 97~107
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2014.0106
Alteration of genetic make-up of the isolates and mono-sporidial strains of Tilletia indica causing Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat was analyzed using DNA markers and SDS-PAGE. The generation of new variation with different growth characteristics is not a generalized feature and is not only dependant on the original genetic make up of the base isolate/monosporidial strains but also on interaction with host. Host determinant(s) plays a significant role in the generation of variability and the effect is much pronounced in monosporidial strains with narrow genetic base as compared to broad genetic base. The most plausible explanation of genetic variation in presence of host determinant(s) are the recombination of genetic material from two different mycelial/sporidia through sexual mating as well as through parasexual means. The morphological and development dependent variability further suggests that the variation in T. indica strains predominantly derived through the genetic rearrangements.
Construction of a High-Quality Yeast Two-Hybrid Library and Its Application in Identification of Interacting Proteins with Brn1 in Curvularia lunata
Gao, Jin-Xin ; Jing, Jing ; Yu, Chuan-Jin ; Chen, Jie ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 108~114
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2015.0001
Curvularia lunata is an important maize foliar fungal pathogen that distributes widely in maize growing area in China, and several key pathogenic factors have been isolated. An yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library is a very useful platform to further unravel novel pathogenic factors in C. lunata. To construct a high-quality full length-expression cDNA library from the C. lunata for application to pathogenesis-related protein-protein interaction screening, total RNA was extracted. The SMART (Switching Mechanism At 5' end of the RNA Transcript) technique was used for cDNA synthesis. Double-stranded cDNA was ligated into the pGADT7-Rec vector with Herring Testes Carrier DNA using homologous recombination method. The ligation mixture was transformed into competent yeast AH109 cells to construct the primary cDNA library. Eventually, a high qualitative library was successfully established according to an evaluation on quality. The transformation efficiency was about
pGADT7-Rec. The titer of the primary cDNA library was
. The numbers for the cDNA library was
. Randomly picked clones show that the recombination rate was 88.24%. Gel electrophoresis results indicated that the fragments ranged from 0.4 kb to 3.0 kb. Melanin synthesis protein Brn1 (1,3,8-hydroxynaphthalene reductase) was used as a "bait" to test the sufficiency of the Y2H library. As a result, a cDNA clone encoding VelB protein that was known to be involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including control of secondary metabolism containing melanin and toxin production in many filamentous fungi was identified. Further study on the exact role of the VelB gene is underway.
Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon
Gang, Geun-Hye ; Cho, Hyun Ji ; Kim, Hye Sun ; Kwack, Yong-Bum ; Kwak, Youn-Sig ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 115~122
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0033
Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the
-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and
-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.
Validation and Application of a Real-time PCR Protocol for the Specific Detection and Quantification of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus in Potato
Cho, Min Seok ; Park, Duck Hwan ; Namgung, Min ; Ahn, Tae-Young ; Park, Dong Suk ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 123~131
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2015.0019
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) multiplies very rapidly, passing through the vascular strands and into the stems and petioles of a diseased potato. Therefore, the rapid and specific detection of this pathogen is highly important for the effective control of the pathogen. Although several PCR assays have been developed for detection, they cannot afford specific detection of Cms. Therefore, in this study, a computational genome analysis was performed to compare the sequenced genomes of the C. michiganensis subspecies and to identify an appropriate gene for the development of a subspecies-specific PCR primer set (Cms89F/R). The specificity of the primer set based on the putative phage-related protein was evaluated using genomic DNA from seven isolates of Cms and 27 other reference strains. The Cms89F/R primer set was more specific and sensitive than the existing assays in detecting Cms in in vitro using Cms cells and its genomic DNA. This assay was also able to detect at least
of cloned-amplified target DNA, 5 fg of DNA using genomic DNA or
dilution point of 0.12 at
units of cells per reaction using a calibrated cell suspension.
Evaluation of Bt-cotton Genotypes for Resistance to Cotton Leaf Curl Disease under High Inoculum Pressure in the Field and Using Graft Inoculation in Glasshouse
Akhtar, Khalid Pervaiz ; Hussain, Manzoor ; Hassan, Mahmood-Ul ; Sarwar, Muhammad ; Sarwar, Nighat ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 132~139
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2015.0014
Bt-cotton germplasm, consisting of 75 genotypes was evaluated against cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) under high inoculum pressure in the field and using graft inoculation in glasshouse by visual symptom scoring assessments. None of the tested genotype was found disease free under both evaluation tests. Under field conditions in 2011, 3 genotypes were found resistant, 4 moderately resistant, 3 tolerant, 2 moderately susceptible and one susceptible; in 2012, 3 genotypes were tolerant, 7 moderately susceptible, 5 susceptible and 38 highly susceptible; in 2013, one was moderately susceptible and 51 were highly susceptible with varying degree of percent disease index (PDI) and severity index (SI). However, through graft evaluation in glasshouse, none of the graft inoculated plant was symptomless. All tested genotypes showed disease symptoms with SI values ranging between 5.0 and 6.0, and latent period between 12 and 14 days. Of the 75 genotypes evaluated using graft inoculation, 11 were found susceptible with SI values of 5.0 to 5.4 while remaining 64 were highly susceptible with SI values of 5.5 to 6.0. Inoculated plants of all tested genotypes exhibited severe disease symptoms within 10 days after the appearance of initial symptoms. No reduction in SI value was observed until the end of the experiment i.e., 90 days after grafting. Information generated under the present study clearly demonstrates that no sources of resistance to CLCuD are available among the tested Bt-cotton genotypes. So, a breeding programme is needed to introgress the CLCuD-resistance from other resistant sources to agronomically suitable Bt-cotton genotypes.
Rhizosphere Inhibition of Cucumber Fusarium Wilt by Different Surfactinexcreting Strains of Bacillus subtilis
Jia, Ke ; Gao, Yu-Han ; Huang, Xiao-Qin ; Guo, Rong-Jun ; Li, Shi-Dong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 140~151
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.10.2014.0113
Bacillus subtilis B006 strain effectively suppresses the cucumber fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc). The population dynamics of Foc, strain B006 and its surfactin over-producing mutant B841 and surfactin-deficient mutant B1020, in the rhizosphere were determined under greenhouse conditions to elucidate the importance of the lipopeptides excreted by these strains in suppressing Foc. Results showed that B. subtilis strain B006 effectively suppressed the disease in natural soil by 42.9%, five weeks after transplanting, whereas B841 and B1020 suppressed the disease by only 22.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Quantitative PCR assays showed that effective colonization of strain B006 in the rhizosphere suppressed Foc propagation by more than 10 times both in nursery substrate and in field-infected soil. Reduction of Foc population at the cucumber stems in a range of
was attained at the third and the fifth weeks of B006 treatment in nursery substrate. In field-infected soil, all three treatments with B. subtilis suppressed Foc infection, indicated by the reduction of Foc population at a range of
at the stem base, one week after transplanting. This study reveals that the suppression of fusarium wilt disease is affected by the effective colonization of the surfactin-producing B. subtilis strain in the rhizosphere. These results improved our understanding of the biocontrol mechanism of the B. subtilis strain B006 in the natural soil and facilitate its application as biocontrol agent in the field.
Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov., an Endophytic Bacterium Isolated from the Roots of Rice with Antimicrobial, Plant Growth Promoting, and Systemic Resistance Inducing Activities in Rice
Chung, Eu Jin ; Hossain, Mohammad Tofajjal ; Khan, Ajmal ; Kim, Kyung Hyun ; Jeon, Che Ok ; Chung, Young Ryun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 152~164
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2014.0136
Biological control of major rice diseases has been attempted in several rice-growing countries in Asia during the last few decades and its application using antagonistic bacteria has proved to be somewhat successful for controlling various fungal diseases in field trials. Two novel endophytic Bacillus species, designated strains YC7007 and
, with antimicrobial, plant growth-promoting, and systemic resistance-inducing activities were isolated from the roots of rice in paddy fields at Jinju, Korea, and their multifunctional activities were analyzed. Strain YC7007 inhibited mycelial growth of major rice fungal pathogens strongly in vitro. Bacterial blight and panicle blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (KACC 10208) and Burkholderia glumae (KACC 44022), respectively, were also suppressed effectively by drenching a bacterial suspension (
) of strain YC7007 on the rhizosphere of rice. Additionally, strain YC7007 promoted the growth of rice seedlings with higher germination rates and more tillers than the untreated control. The taxonomic position of the strains was also investigated. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belong to the genus Bacillus, with high similarity to the closely related strains, Bacillus siamensis KACC
(99.67%), Bacillus methylotrophicus KACC
(99.65%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum KACC
(99.60%), and Bacillus tequilensis KACC
(99.45%). The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain
and the most closely related strain, B. siamensis KACC
, but it was
between two strains YC7007 and
, indicating the same species. The major fatty acids of two strains were anteiso-
. Both strains contained MK-7 as a major respiratory quinone system. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of two strains were 50.5 mol% and 51.2 mol%, respectively. Based on these polyphasic studies, the two strains YC7007 and
represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryzicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is
). Taken together, our findings suggest that novel endophytic Bacillus strains can be used for the biological control of rice diseases.
Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea
Han, Joon-Hee ; Shim, Hongsik ; Shin, Jong-Hwan ; Kim, Kyoung Su ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 165~175
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0036
Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.
Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Postharvest Fungal Pathogens
Jeong, Rae-Dong ; Shin, Eun-Jung ; Chu, Eun-Hee ; Park, Hae-Jun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 176~180
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.03.2015.0040
Postharvest diseases cause losses in a wide variety of crops around the world. Irradiation, a useful nonchemical approach, has been used as an alternative treatment for fungicide to control plant fungal pathogens. For a preliminary study, ionizing radiations (gamma, X-ray, or e-beam irradiation) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer through mycelial growth, spore germination, and morphological analysis under various conditions. Different fungi exhibited different radiosensitivity. The inhibition of fungal growth showed in a dose-dependent manner. Three fungal pathogens have greater sensitivity to the e-beam treatment compared to gamma or X-ray irradiations. The inactivation of individual fungal-viability to different irradiations can be considered between 3-4 kGy for B. cinerea and 1-2 kGy for P. expansum and R. stolonifer based on the radiosensitive and radio-resistant species, respectively. These preliminary data will provide critical information to control postharvest diseases through radiation.
Reaction of Cauliflower Genotypes to Black Rot of Crucifers
da Silva, Lincon Rafael ; da Silva, Renan Cesar Dias ; Cardoso, Atalita Francis ; de Mello Pela, Glaucia ; Carvalho, Daniel Diego Costa ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 181~185
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2015.0013
This study aimed to evaluate six cauliflower genotypes regarding their resistance to black rot and their production performance. To do so, it was conducted two field experiments in Ipameri,
, Brazil, in 2012 and 2013. It was used a randomized block design, with four replications (total of 24 plots). Each plot consisted of three planting lines 2.5 m long (six plants/line), spaced 1.0 m apart, for a total area of
. Evaluations of black rot severity were performed at 45 days after transplanting, this is, 75 days after sowing (DAS), and yield evaluations at 90 to 105 DAS. The Verona 184 genotype was the most resistant to black rot, showing 1.87 and 2.25% of leaf area covered by black rot symptom (LACBRS) in 2012 and 2013. However, it was not among the most productive materials. The yield of the genotypes varied between 15.14 and 25.83 t/ha in both years, Lisvera F1 (21.78 and 24.60 t/ha) and Cindy (19.95 and 23.56 t/ha) being the most productive. However, Lisvera F1 showed 6.37 and 9.37% of LACBRS and Cindy showed 14.25 and 14.87% of LACBRS in 2012 and 2013, being both considered as tolerant to black rot.
Isolation and Physiological Characterization of a Novel Algicidal Virus Infecting the Marine Diatom Skeletonema costatum
Kim, JinJoo ; Kim, Chang-Hoon ; Youn, Seok-Hyun ; Choi, Tae-Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 186~191
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.03.2015.0029
Diatoms are a major component of the biological community, serving as the principal primary producers in the food web and sustaining oxygen levels in aquatic environments. Among marine planktonic diatoms, the cosmopolitan Skeletonema costatum is one of the most abundant and widespread species in the world's oceans. Here, we report the basic characteristics of a new diatom-infecting S. costatum virus (ScosV) isolated from Jaran Bay, Korea, in June 2008. ScosV is a polyhedral virus (45-50 nm in diameter) that propagates in the cytoplasm of host cells and causes lysis of S. costatum cultures. The infectivity of ScosV was determined to be strain- rather than species-specific, similar to other algal viruses. The burst size and latent period were roughly estimated at 90-250 infectious units/cell and <48 h, respectively.
NPR1 is Instrumental in Priming for the Enhanced flg22-induced MPK3 and MPK6 Activation
Yi, So Young ; Min, Sung Ran ; Kwon, Suk-Yoon ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 192~194
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.10.2014.0112
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), essential components of plant defense signaling. Salicylic acid (SA) is also central to plant resistance responses, but its specific role in regulation of MAPK activation is not completely defined. We have investigated the role of SA in PAMP-triggered MAPKs pathways in Arabidopsis SA-related mutants, specifically in the flg22-triggered activation of MPK3 and MPK6. cim6, sid2, and npr1 mutants exhibited wild-type-like flg22-triggered MAPKs activation, suggesting that impairment of SA signaling has no effect on the flg22-triggered MAPKs activation. Pretreatment with low concentrations of SA enhanced flg22-induced MPK3 and MPK6 activation in all seedlings except npr1, indicating that NPR1 is involved in SA-mediated priming that enhanced flg22-induced MAPKs activation.
Activation of Pathogenesis-related Genes by the Rhizobacterium, Bacillus sp. JS, Which Induces Systemic Resistance in Tobacco Plants
Kim, Ji-Seong ; Lee, Jeongeun ; Lee, Chan-Hui ; Woo, Su Young ; Kang, Hoduck ; Seo, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Sun-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 2, 2015, Pages 195~201
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.11.2014.0122
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to confer disease resistance to plants. Bacillus sp. JS demonstrated antifungal activities against five fungal pathogens in in vitro assays. To verify whether the volatiles of Bacillus sp. JS confer disease resistance, tobacco leaves pre-treated with the volatiles were damaged by the fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani and oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae. Pre-treated tobacco leaves had smaller lesion than the control plant leaves. In pathogenesis-related (PR) gene expression analysis, volatiles of Bacillus sp. JS caused the up-regulation of PR-2 encoding
-1,3-glucanase and acidic PR-3 encoding chitinase. Expression of acidic PR-4 encoding chitinase and acidic PR-9 encoding peroxidase increased gradually after exposure of the volatiles to Bacillus sp. JS. Basic PR-14 encoding lipid transfer protein was also increased. However, PR-1 genes, as markers of salicylic acid (SA) induced resistance, were not expressed. These results suggested that the volatiles of Bacillus sp. JS confer disease resistance against fungal and oomycete pathogens through PR genes expression.