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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Genetic Variability and Geographical Distribution of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium verticillioides Strains Isolated from Maize Fields in Texas
Ortiz, Carlos S. ; Richards, Casey ; Terry, Ashlee ; Parra, Joselyn ; Shim, Won-Bo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 203~211
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2015.0020
Maize is the dominant cereal crop produced in the US. One of the main fungal pathogens of maize is Fusarium verticillioides, the causative agent of ear and stalk rots. Significantly, the fungus produces a group of mycotoxins - fumonisins - on infested kernels, which have been linked to various illnesses in humans and animals. Nonetheless, durable resistance against F. verticillioides in maize is not currently available. In Texas, over 2.1 million acres of maize are vulnerable to fumonisin contamination, but understanding of the distribution of toxigenic F. verticillioides in maize-producing areas is currently lacking. Our goal was to investigate the genetic variability of F. verticillioides in Texas with an emphasis on fumonisin trait and geographical distribution. A total of 164 F. verticillioides cultures were isolated from 65 maize-producing counties. DNA from each isolate was extracted and analyzed by PCR for the presence of FUM1- a key fumonisin biosynthesis gene - and mating type genes. Results showed that all isolates are in fact F. verticillioides capable of producing fumonisins with a 1:1 mating-type gene ratio in the population. To further study the genetic diversity of the population, isolates were analyzed using RAPD fingerprinting. Polymorphic markers were identified and the analysis showed no clear correlation between the RAPD profile of the isolates and their corresponding geographical origin. Our data suggest the toxigenic F. verticillioides population in Texas is widely distributed wherever maize is grown. We also hypothesize that the population is fluid, with active movement and genetic recombination occurring in the field.
Development of a Species-specific PCR Assay for Three Xanthomonas Species, Causing Bulb and Flower Diseases, Based on Their Genome Sequences
Back, Chang-Gi ; Lee, Seung-Yeol ; Lee, Boo-Ja ; Yea, Mi-Chi ; Kim, Sang-Mok ; Kang, In-Kyu ; Cha, Jae-Soon ; Jung, Hee-Young ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 212~218
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2015.0049
In this study, we developed a species-specific PCR assay for rapid and accurate detection of three Xanthomonas species, X. axonopodis pv. poinsettiicola (XAP), X. hyacinthi (XH) and X. campestris pv. zantedeschiae (XCZ), based on their draft genome sequences. XAP, XH and XCZ genomes consist of single chromosomes that contain 5,221, 4,395 and 7,986 protein coding genes, respectively. Species-specific primers were designed from variable regions of the draft genome sequence data and assessed by a PCR-based detection method. These primers were also tested for specificity against 17 allied Xanthomonas species as well as against the host DNA and the microbial community of the host surface. Three primer sets were found to be very specific and no amplification product was obtained with the host DNA and the microbial community of the host surface. In addition, a detection limit of
per PCR reaction was detected when these primer sets were used to amplify corresponding bacterial DNAs. Therefore, these primer sets and the developed species-specific PCR assay represent a valuable, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic tool that can be used to detect three specific pathogens at early stages of infection and may help control diseases.
Development of a Rapid Detection Method for Potato virus X by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification
Jeong, Joojin ; Cho, Sang-Yun ; Lee, Wang-Hyu ; Lee, Kui-jae ; Ju, Ho-Jong ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 219~225
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0044
The primary step for efficient control of viral diseases is the development of simple, rapid, and sensitive virus detection. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been used to detect viral RNA molecules because of its simplicity and high sensitivity for a number of viruses. RT-LAMP for the detection of Potato virus X (PVX) was developed and compared with conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate its advantages over RT-PCR. RT-LAMP reactions were conducted with or without a set of loop primers since one out of six primers showed PVX specificity. Based on real-time monitoring, RT-LAMP detected PVX around 30 min, compared to 120 min for RT-PCR. By adding a fluorescent reagent during the reaction, the extra step of visualization by gel electrophoresis was not necessary. RT-LAMP was conducted using simple inexpensive instruments and a regular incubator to evaluate whether RNA could be amplified at a constant temperature instead of using an expensive thermal cycler. This study shows the potential of RT-LAMP for the diagnosis of viral diseases and PVX epidemiology because of its simplicity and rapidness compared to RT-PCR.
Relationships between Genetic Diversity and Fusarium Toxin Profiles of Winter Wheat Cultivars
Goral, Tomasz ; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga ; Busko, Maciej ; Boczkowska, Maja ; Walentyn-Goral, Dorota ; Wisniewska, Halina ; Perkowski, Juliusz ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 226~244
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0038
Fusarium head blight is one of the most important and most common diseases of winter wheat. In order to better understanding this disease and to assess the correlations between different factors, 30 cultivars of this cereal were evaluated in a two-year period. Fusarium head blight resistance was evaluated and the concentration of trichothecene mycotoxins was analysed. Grain samples originated from plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum and naturally infected with Fusarium species. The genetic distance between the tested cultivars was determined and data were analysed using multivariate data analysis methods. Genetic dissimilarity of wheat cultivars ranged between 0.06 and 0.78. They were grouped into three distinct groups after cluster analysis of genetic distance. Wheat cultivars differed in resistance to spike and kernel infection and in resistance to spread of Fusarium within a spike (type II). Only B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and nivalenol) produced by F. culmorum in grain samples from inoculated plots were present. In control samples trichothecenes of groups A (H-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, scirpentriol, diacetoxyscirpenol) and B were detected. On the basis of Fusarium head blight assessment and analysis of trichothecene concentration in the grain relationships between morphological characters, Fusarium head blight resistance and mycotoxins in grain of wheat cultivars were examined. The results were used to create of matrices of distance between cultivars - for trichothecene concentration in inoculated and naturally infected grain as well as for FHB resistance Correlations between genetic distance versus resistance/mycotoxin profiles were calculated using the Mantel test. A highly significant correlation between genetic distance and mycotoxin distance was found for the samples inoculated with Fusarium culmorum. Significant but weak relationships were found between genetic distance matrix and FHB resistance or trichothecene concentration in naturally infected grain matrices.
Reaction of Five Non-cereal Grasses to Five Races and Two Host Selective Toxins of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis
Ali, Shaukat ; Langham, M.A.C. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0028
Alternative hosts increase the difficulty of disease management in crops because these alternate hosts provide additional sources of primary inoculum or refuges for diversity in the pathogen gene pool. Agropyron cristatum (crested wheatgrass), Bromus inermis (smooth bromegrass), Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass), Stipa viridula (green needlegrass), and Thinopyrum intermedium (intermediate wheatgrass), commonly identified in range, prairie, verge, and soil reclamation habitats, serve as additional hosts for Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, the cause of tan spot in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). A. cristatum (five lines), B. inermis (seven lines), P. smithii (four lines), S. viridula (two lines), and T. intermedium (six lines) were tested for their reactions to 30 representative P. tritici-repentis isolates from races 1-5. Plants were grown until the two-three-leaf stage in a greenhouse, inoculated individually with the 30 isolates, held at high humidity for 24 h, and rated after 7 days. All lines developed lesion types 1-2 (resistant) based on a 1-5 rating scale. Also, leaves from an additional plant set were infiltrated with two host selective toxins, Ptr ToxA as a pure preparation and Ptr ToxB as a dilute crude culture filtrate. All lines were insensitive to the toxins. Results indicate that these grass hosts have a limited or nonsignificant role in tan spot epidemiology on wheat in the northern Great Plains. Additionally, the resistant reactions demonstrated by the grass species in this research indicate the presence of resistance genes that can be valuable to wheat breeding programs for improving wheat resistance to P. tritici-repentis.
Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene in Genetically Engineered Tomato Confers Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Early Blight
Jabeen, Nyla ; Chaudhary, Zubeda ; Gulfraz, Muhammad ; Rashid, Hamid ; Mirza, Bushra ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 252~258
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0026
This is the first study reporting the evaluation of transgenic lines of tomato harboring rice chitinase (RCG3) gene for resistance to two important fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) causing fusarium wilt and Alternaria solani causing early blight (EB). In this study, three transgenic lines TL1, TL2 and TL3 of tomato Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Riogrande genetically engineered with rice chitinase (RCG 3) gene and their R1 progeny was tested for resistance to Fol by root dip method and A. solani by detached leaf assay. All the R0 transgenic lines were highly resistant to these fungal pathogens compared to nontransgenic control plants. The pattern of segregation of three independent transformant for Fol and A. solani was also studied. Mendelian segregation was observed in transgenic lines 2 and 3 while it was not observed in transgenic line 1. It was concluded that introduction of chitinase gene in susceptible cultivar of tomato not only enhanced the resistance but was stably inherited in transgenic lines 2 and 3.
Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation
Kim, Min Jeong ; Shim, Chang Ki ; Kim, Yong Ki ; Hong, Sung Jun ; Park, Jong Ho ; Han, Eun Jung ; Kim, Jin Ho ; Kim, Suk Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 259~268
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.02.2015.0024
This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more
. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.
Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
Hong, Jeum Kyu ; Yang, Hye Ji ; Jung, Heesoo ; Yoon, Dong June ; Sang, Mee Kyung ; Jeun, Yong-Chull ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 269~277
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0027
Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for ecofriendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.
Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India
Naglot, A. ; Goswami, S. ; Rahman, I. ; Shrimali, D.D. ; Yadav, Kamlesh K. ; Gupta, Vikas K. ; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti ; Gogoi, H.K. ; Veer, Vijay ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 278~289
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.01.2015.0004
Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase,
-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity.
Outbreaks of Yuzu Dieback in Goheung Area: Possible Causes Deduced from Weather Extremes
Kim, Kwang-Hyung ; Kim, Gyoung Hee ; Son, Kyeong In ; Koh, Young Jin ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 290~298
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.03.2015.0030
Starting in 2012, severe diebacks usually accompanied by abundant gum exudation have occurred on yuzu trees in Goheung-gun, Jeonnam Province, where severely affected trees were occasionally killed. On-farm surveys were conducted at 30 randomly-selected orchards located at Pungyang-myeon, Goheung-gun, and the resulting disease incidences were 18.5% and 39.6% for dieback and gumming symptoms, respectively. Black spots on branches and leaves also appeared on infected trees showing a typical dieback symptom. Morphological and molecular identifications of the isolated fungal organisms from lesions on the symptomatic leaves and branches revealed that they are identical to Phomopsis citri, known to cause gummosis. In order to find the reason for this sudden epidemic, we investigated the weather conditions that are exclusively distinct from previous years, hypothesizing that certain weather extremes might have caused the severe induction of pre-existing disease for yuzu. There were two extreme temperature drops beyond the yuzu`s cold hardiness limit right after an abnormally-warm-temperature-rise during the winter of 2011-12, which could cause severe frost damage resulting in mechanical injuries and physiological weakness to the affected trees. Furthermore, there was an increased frequency of strong wind events, seven times in 2012 compared to only a few times in the previous years, that could also lead to extensive injuries on branches. In conclusion, we estimated that the possible damages by severe frost and frequent strong wind events during 2012 could cause the yuzu trees to be vulnerable to subsequent fungal infection by providing physical entries and increasing plant susceptibility to infections.
Ultrastructure of the Rust Fungus Puccinia miscanthi in the Teliospore Stage Interacting with the Biofuel Plant Miscanthus sinensis
Kim, Ki Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 299~304
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.04.2015.0051
Interaction of the the rust fungus Puccinia miscanthi with the biofuel plant Miscanthus sinensis during the teliospore phase was investigated by light and electron microscopy. P. miscanthi telia were oval-shaped and present on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Teliospores were brown, one-septate (two-celled), and had pedicels attached to one end. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous electron-translucent lipid globules in the cytoplasm of teliospores. Extensive cell wall dissolution around hyphae was not observed in the host tissues beneath the telia. Hyphae were found between mesophyll cells in the leaf tissues as well as in host cells. Intracellular hyphae, possibly haustoria, possessed electron-dense fungal cell walls encased by an electron-transparent fibrillar extrahaustorial sheath that had an electron-dense extrahaustorial membrane. The infected host cells appeared to maintain their membrane-bound structures such as nuclei and chloroplasts. These results suggest that the rust fungus maintains its biotrophic phase with most mesophyll cells of M. sinensis. Such a nutritional mode would permit the rust fungus to obtain food reserves for transient growth in the course of host alteration.
Fitness is Recovered with the Decline of Dimethachlon Resistance in Laboratory-induced Mutants of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum after Long-term Cold Storage
Li, Jin-Li ; Wu, Feng-Ci ; Zhu, Fu-Xing ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 305~309
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2015.0066
After four years of cold storage, dimethachlon resistance of two laboratory-induced resistant Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates SCG7 and LA50 declined by 99.5% and 98.9%, respectively, and cross resistance to iprodione and procymidone also declined dramatically. Along with the decline of fungicide resistance, osmotic sensitivity to sodium chloride and glucose decreased tremendously; mycelial growth rate, sclerotia number and weight per potato dextrose agar (PDA) plate increased on average by 118.6%, 85. 5% and 64.5%, respectively; and virulence to detached leaves of oilseed rape increased by 72.7% on average. Significant negative correlations were detected between dimethachlon resistance levels and mycelial growth rate on PDA (r
Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Stimulate Vegetative Growth and Asexual Reproduction of Kalanchoe daigremontiana
Park, Yong-Soon ; Park, Kyungseok ; Kloepper, Joseph W. ; Ryu, Choong-Min ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 310~315
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.01.2015.0006
Certain bacterial species associate with plant roots in soil. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) stimulate plant growth and yield in greenhouse and field. Here, we examined whether application of known bacilli PGPR strains stimulated growth and asexual reproduction in the succulent plant Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Four PGPR strains B. amyloliquefaciens IN937a, B. cereus BS107, B. pumilus INR7, and B. subtilis GB03 were applied to young plantlets by soil-drenching, and plant growth and development was monitored for three months. Aerial growth was significantly stimulated in PGPR-inoculated plants, which was observed as increases in plant height, shoot weight, and stem width. The stimulated growth influenced plant development by increasing the total number of leaves per plant. Treatment with bacilli also increased the total root biomass compared with that of control plants, and led to a 2-fold increase in asexual reproduction and plantlet formation on the leaf. Collectively, our results firstly demonstrate that Bacillus spp. promote vegetative development of K. daigremontiana, and the enhanced growth stimulates asexual reproduction and plantlet formation.
Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species
Johnson, Eric T. ; Evans, Kervin O. ; Dowd, Patrick F. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 3, 2015, Pages 316~321
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.04.2015.0061
A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of
, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at
of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with
of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required
of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of
even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and
of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens.