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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Heat Shock Proteins: A Review of the Molecular Chaperones for Plant Immunity
Park, Chang-Jin ; Seo, Young-Su ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 323~333
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.RW.08.2015.0150
As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to persistently changing stresses and have to be able to interpret and respond to them. The stresses, drought, salinity, chemicals, cold and hot temperatures, and various pathogen attacks have interconnected effects on plants, resulting in the disruption of protein homeostasis. Maintenance of proteins in their functional native conformations and preventing aggregation of non-native proteins are important for cell survival under stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) functioning as molecular chaperones are the key components responsible for protein folding, assembly, translocation, and degradation under stress conditions and in many normal cellular processes. Plants respond to pathogen invasion using two different innate immune responses mediated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or resistance (R) proteins. HSPs play an indispensable role as molecular chaperones in the quality control of plasma membrane-resident PRRs and intracellular R proteins against potential invaders. Here, we specifically discuss the functional involvement of cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) HSPs/chaperones in plant immunity to obtain an integrated understanding of the immune responses in plant cells.
Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains
Dastjerdi, Raana ; Karlovsky, Petr ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 334~342
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.05.2015.0088
Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides.
Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits
Song, Min-A ; Park, Jae Sin ; Kim, Ki Deok ; Jeun, Yong Chull ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2015.0106
Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing
of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The
value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits.
BGRcast: A Disease Forecast Model to Support Decision-making for Chemical Sprays to Control Bacterial Grain Rot of Rice
Lee, Yong Hwan ; Ko, Sug-Ju ; Cha, Kwang-Hong ; Park, Eun Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 350~362
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2015.0136
A disease forecast model for bacterial grain rot (BGR) of rice, which is caused by Burkholderia glumae, was developed in this study. The model, which was named 'BGRcast', determined daily conduciveness of weather conditions to epidemic development of BGR and forecasted risk of BGR development. All data that were used to develop and validate the BGRcast model were collected from field observations on disease incidence at Naju, Korea during 1998-2004 and 2010. In this study, we have proposed the environmental conduciveness as a measure of conduciveness of weather conditions for population growth of B. glumae and panicle infection in the field. The BGRcast calculated daily environmental conduciveness,
, based on daily minimum temperature and daily average relative humidity. With regard to the developmental stages of rice plants, the epidemic development of BGR was divided into three phases, i.e., lag, inoculum build-up and infection phases. Daily average of
was calculated for the inoculum build-up phase (
) and the infection phase (
were considered environmental conduciveness for the periods of inoculum build-up in association with rice plants and panicle infection during the heading stage, respectively. The BGRcast model was able to forecast actual occurrence of BGR at the probability of 71.4% and its false alarm ratio was 47.6%. With the thresholds of
, the model was able to provide advisories that could be used to make decisions on whether to spray bactericide at the preand post-heading stage.
Effects of Temperature on Systemic Infection and Symptom Expression of Turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris)
Chung, Bong Nam ; Choi, Kyung San ; Ahn, Jeong Joon ; Joa, Jae Ho ; Do, Ki Seck ; Park, Kyo-Sun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 363~370
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.06.2015.0107
Using the Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris) cultivar 'Chun-goang' as a host and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) as a pathogen, we studied the effects of ambient temperature (
) on disease intensity and the speed of systemic infection. The optimal temperature for symptom expression of TuMV was
. However, symptoms of viral infection were initiated at
and 6 days post infection (dpi). Plants maintained at
were systemically infected as early as 6 dpi and remained symptomless until 12 or 22 dpi, depending on growth stage at the time of inoculation. It took 45 days for infection of plants grown at
. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) results showed that the accumulation of virus coat protein was greater in plants grown at
. The speed of systemic infection increased linearly with rising ambient temperature, up to
. The zero-infection temperature was
. To study the effects of abruptly elevated temperatures on systemic infection, plants inoculated with TuMV were maintained at
for 20 d; transferred to a growth chamber at temperatures of
for 1, 2, or 3 d; and then moved back to
. The numbers of plants infected increased as duration of exposure to higher temperatures and dpi increased.
Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphidborne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea
Choi, Seung-Kook ; Yoon, Ju-Yeon ; Choi, Gug-Seoun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 371~378
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2015.0103
Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo), oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon), and cucumber (C. sativus) were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV) was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii) transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP) gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.
Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea
Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Cho, Jeom-Deog ; Lee, Joong-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-sung ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 379~387
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.11.2014.0124
Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30-65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10-40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28-30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were
and a 1:8,000-1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon.
Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences
Kwak, Hae-Ryun ; Kim, Jaedeok ; Kim, Mi-Kyeong ; Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Jung, Mi-Nam ; Kim, Jeong-Soo ; Lee, Sukchan ; Choi, Hong-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 388~401
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2015.0072
Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L.) are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV), have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95%) incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88%) nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.
Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate
Mahmoud, Amer F. ; Hassan, Mohamed I. ; Amein, Karam A. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 402~413
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.12.2014.0127
Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 <9 with an average of 7.29, which exceeded the Egyptian bread wheat cultivar Giza-168 (5.58). Thirty three RILs were included among the acceptable range having RRI value >2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R) against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI). Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR), eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.
Antifungal Activities of Crude Extractum from Camellia semiserrata Chi (Nanshancha) Seed Cake Against Colletotrichum musae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo Fruit Test
Meng, Xiangchun ; Li, Jun ; Bi, Fangcheng ; Zhu, Lixue ; Ma, Zhiyu ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 414~420
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.06.2015.0098
Antifungal activities of crude extractum of Nanshancha Seed Cake (NSC), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. Highest inhibitory rate was found against C. musae, C. gloeosporioides and C. papaya P.Henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. Compared to tea saponin, effects of NSC extractum was relatively weak and similar on C. gloeosporioides Penzig and P. italicum. In an in vivo study, best controlling effects by NSC extractum was found with banana anthracnose disease development, which showed no inhibitory effects by tea saponin. NSC extractum controlled in vitro C. musae growth through directly inhibiting germination rate and germ tube elongation, and causing distortation, rupture and indentation of C. musae mycelium. In banana fruit subject to C. musae inoculation, higher PAL, POD, GLU and CHT activity was observed in banana fruit treated with crude NSC extractum than that of water control fruits. Current study proved the best controlling effects of crude NSC extractum in C. musae in vitro and in vivo development, which through direct inhibition of C. musae growth and increasing defense system of the banana fruit.
Physical Changes in Satsuma Mandarin Leaf after Infection of Elsinoë fawcettii Causing Citrus Scab Disease
Paudyal, Dilli Prasad ; Hyun, Jae-Wook ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 421~427
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.05.2015.0086
Citrus scab disease is one of the destructive diseases that reduce the value of fruit for the fresh market. We analyzed the process of symptom development after infection with scab pathogen
fawcettii in the susceptible satsuma mandarin leaves to observe the structural modification against pathogen. The cuticle and epidermal cells along with 3-5 layers of mesophyll tissue were degraded 1-2 days post inoculation. Surrounding peripheral cells of degraded tissues grew rapidly and then enveloped the necrotic area along with the growing conidia. Cross sections through the lesion revealed hyphal colonization in epidermis and mesophyll tissues. In response to the pathogen colonization, host cell walls were lignified, inner cells were rapidly compartmentalized and a semi-circular boundary was formed that separated the infected region from the non-infected region, and finally prevented the intercellular pathogen spread.
Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea
Wai, Khin Pa Pa ; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan ; Mo, Hwang-Sung ; Yoo, Hee Ju ; Byeon, Si-Eun ; Jegal, Yoonhyuk ; Mekuriaw, Alebel A. ; Kim, Byung-Soo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 428~432
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.05.2015.0074
Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying
, and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047.
Establishment of an Agrobacterium-mediated Inoculation System for Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus
Kang, Minji ; Seo, Jang-Kyun ; Song, Dami ; Choi, Hong-Soo ; Kim, Kook-Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 433~437
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.06.2015.0123
The infectious full-length cDNA clones of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolates KW and KOM, which were isolated from watermelon and oriental melon, respectively, were constructed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. We successfully inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana with the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM by Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration. Virulence and symptomatic characteristics of the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM were tested on several indicator plants. No obvious differences between two cloned isolates in disease development were observed on the tested indicator plants. We also determined full genome sequences of the cloned CGMMV isolates KW and KOM. Sequence comparison revealed that only four amino acids (at positions 228, 699, 1212, and 1238 of the replicase protein region) differ between the cloned isolates KW and KOM. A previous study reported that the isolate KOM could not infect Chenopodium amaranticolor, but the cloned KOM induced chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves. When compared with the previously reported sequence of the original KOM isolate, the cloned KOM contained one amino acid mutation (Ala to Thr) at position 228 of the replicase protein, suggesting that this mutation might be responsible for induction of chlorotic spots on the inoculated leaves of C. amaranticolor.
Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants
Lee, Siwon ; Kim, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Jang, Won-Cheoul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 438~440
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.06.2015.0110
We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.
Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes
Seo, Yunhee ; Kim, Yong Su ; Park, Yong ; Kim, Young Ho ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2015, Pages 441~445
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.06.2015.0115
Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their pathological responses to M. incognita and M. hapla 7 weeks after inoculation with about 1,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematodes. All the carrot cultivars and lines showed susceptible responses to both nematodes with the gall index (GI) of 2.4-4.4, which were always higher on the carrot plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla. Gall sizes were remarkably larger with more serious reduction of the root growths in the plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla, suggesting the carrot lines examined in our study were more susceptible to the former than the latter. In the infection sites of the root tissues, giant cells were more extensively formed, occupying larger stellar regions with the prominent destruction of adjacent xylem vessels by M. incognita than M. hapla. All of these results suggest M. incognita affect more seriously on the carrot plants that are grown in greenhouses, compared to M. hapla that has a major distribution in open carrot fields, which would be used for determining cropping systems based on target nematode species, their damage and pathological characteristics.