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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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The Plant Pathology Journal
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Plant Pathology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Controlling Botrytis elliptica Leaf Blight on Hybrid Lilies through the Application of Convergent Chemical X-ray Irradiation
Hong, Sung-Jun ; Koo, Tae-Hoon ; Yun, Sung-Chul ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 77~84
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2015.0187
X-ray irradiation with convergent chemicals such as nano-silver particles or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) has been used to control leaf blight on cut lilies. The oriental hybrid lily cultivars Siberia, Le Reve, and Sorbonne were irradiated five times by 200 Gy of X-rays in 2014. In 2015, Siberia and Sorbonne were irradiated three times by 150 Gy of X-rays. After artificial infection with Botrytis elliptica on the leaves and petals of cut lilies, this study used convergent chemical X-ray irradiation of 200 Gy or 150 Gy. Leaf and petal blight was measured in terms of incidence and severity at 8 days after infection using total 552 cuttings. Results indicate that the treatments of X-ray irradiation and NaDCC in 2014 and 2015 slightly decreased the severity of petal blight on Siberia and Sorbonne. However, the results were not significant and severity did not decrease as NaDCC concentration increased. Vase-life was observed separately after X-ray irradiation of 270 cut lilies in 2014 and 108 cut lilies in 2015. Chlorophyll content was not affected by either 200 Gy or 150 Gy of X-rays. The number of days of fully opened flowers at Siberia of 150 Gy and Le Revu of 200 Gy increased by 1-2 days. In addition, the relative fresh weights of the X-rayed flowers were 10% drier than the non-irradiated controls. Overall, leaf blight control by X-ray was inferior to the control by gamma rays, and petal color was bleached in Sorbonne and Le Reve cvs. by 150 Gy of X-rays.
3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus
Kankam, Frederick ; Long, Hai-Tao ; He, Jing ; Zhang, Chun-hong ; Zhang, Hui-Xiu ; Pu, Lumei ; Qiu, Huizhen ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 85~94
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2015.0159
Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and
. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0-8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue.
Genetics of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and Efficacy of Associated SSR Markers
Singh, Deepu ; Sinha, B. ; Rai, V.P. ; Singh, M.N. ; Singh, D.K. ; Kumar, R. ; Singh, A.K. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2015.0182
Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium wilt (FW) disease caused by Fusarium udum was investigated in pigeonpea using four different long duration FW resistant genotypes viz., BDN-2004-1, BDN-2001-9, BWR-133 and IPA-234. Based on the
segregation pattern, FW resistance has been reported to be governed by one dominant gene in BDN-2004-1 and BDN-2001-9, two duplicate dominant genes in BWR-133 and two dominant complimentary genes in resistance source IPA-234. Further, the efficacy of six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers namely, ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148, ASSR-229, ASSR-363 and ASSR-366 reported to be associated with FW resistance were also tested and concluded that markers ASSR-1, ASSR-23, ASSR-148 will be used for screening of parental genotypes in pigeonpea FW resistance breeding programs. The information on genetics of FW resistance generated from this study would be used, to introgress FW resistance into susceptible but highly adopted cultivars through marker-assisted backcross breeding and in conventional breeding programs.
Diversity Evaluation of Xylella fastidiosa from Infected Olive Trees in Apulia (Southern Italy)
Mang, Stefania M. ; Frisullo, Salvatore ; Elshafie, Hazem S. ; Camele, Ippolito ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 102~111
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2015.0153
Olive culture is very important in the Mediterranean Basin. A severe outbreak of Olive Quick Decline Syndrome (OQDS) caused by Xylella fastidiosa infection was first noticed in 2013 on olive trees in the southern part of Apulia region (Lecce province, southern Italy). Studies were carried out for detection and diversity evaluation of the Apulian strain of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of the pathogen in olive samples was detected by PCR amplifying the 16S rDNA, gyrase B subunit (gyrB) and HL hypothetical protein genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assessment was performed to genotype X. fastidiosa. Twelve SNPs were recorded over gyrB and six SNPs were found for HL gene. Less variations were detected on 16S rDNA gene. Only gyrB and HL provided sufficient information for dividing the Apulian X. fastidiosa olive strains into subspecies. Using HL nucleotide sequences was possible to separate X. fastidiosa into subspecies pauca and fastidiosa. Whereas, nucleotide variation present on gyrB gene allowed separation of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca from the other subspecies multiplex and fastidiosa. The X. fastidiosa strain from Apulia region was included into the subspecies pauca based on three genes phylogenetic analyses.
Optimization of a Virus-Induced Gene Silencing System with Soybean yellow common mosaic virus for Gene Function Studies in Soybeans
Kim, Kil Hyun ; Lim, Seungmo ; Kang, Yang Jae ; Yoon, Min Young ; Nam, Moon ; Jun, Tae Hwan ; Seo, Min-Jung ; Baek, Seong-Bum ; Lee, Jeom-Ho ; Moon, Jung-Kyung ; Lee, Suk-Ha ; Lee, Su-Heon ; Lim, Hyoun-Sub ; Moon, Jae Sun ; Park, Chang-Hwan ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 112~122
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2015.0063
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the study of soybean gene function. Successful VIGS depends on the interaction between virus spread and plant growth, which can be influenced by environmental conditions. Recently, we developed a new VIGS system derived from the Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV). Here, we investigated several environmental and developmental factors to improve the efficiency of a SYCMV-based VIGS system to optimize the functional analysis of the soybean. Following SYCMV: Glycine max-phytoene desaturase (GmPDS) infiltration, we investigated the effect of photoperiod, inoculation time, concentration of Agrobacterium inoculm, and growth temperature on VIGS efficiency. In addition, the relative expression of GmPDS between non-silenced and silenced plants was measured by qRT-PCR. We found that gene silencing efficiency was highest at a photoperiod of 16/8 h (light/dark) at a growth temperature of approximately
following syringe infiltration to unrolled unifoliolate leaves in cotyledon stage with a final SYCMV:GmPDS optimal density
of 2.0. Using this optimized protocol, we achieved high efficiency of GmPDS-silencing in various soybean germplasms including cultivated and wild soybeans. We also confirmed that VIGS occurred in the entire plant, including the root, stem, leaves, and flowers, and could transmit GmPDS to other soybean germplasms via mechanical inoculation. This optimized protocol using a SYCMV-based VIGS system in the soybean should provide a fast and effective method to elucidate gene functions and for use in large-scale screening experiments.
Principal Component Analysis and Molecular Characterization of Reniform Nematode Populations in Alabama
Nyaku, Seloame T. ; Kantety, Ramesh V. ; Cebert, Ernst ; Lawrence, Kathy S. ; Honger, Joseph O. ; Sharma, Govind C. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 123~135
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2015.0194
U.S. cotton production is suffering from the yield loss caused by the reniform nematode (RN), Rotylenchulus reniformis. Management of this devastating pest is of utmost importance because, no upland cotton cultivar exhibits adequate resistance to RN. Nine populations of RN from distinct regions in Alabama and one population from Mississippi were studied and thirteen morphometric features were measured on 20 male and 20 female nematodes from each population. Highly correlated variables (positive) in female and male RN morphometric parameters were observed for body length (L) and distance of vulva from the lip region (V) (r = 0.7) and tail length (TL) and c' (r = 0.8), respectively. The first and second principal components for the female and male populations showed distinct clustering into three groups. These results show pattern of sub-groups within the RN populations in Alabama. A one-way ANOVA on female and male RN populations showed significant differences (
) among the variables. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) of 18S rRNA sequences (421) showed lengths of 653 bp. Sites within the aligned sequences were conserved (53%), parsimony-informative (17%), singletons (28%), and indels (2%), respectively. Neighbor-Joining analysis showed intra and inter-nematodal variations within the populations as clone sequences from different nematodes irrespective of the sex of nematode isolate clustered together. Morphologically, the three groups (I, II and III) could not be distinctly associated with the molecular data from the 18S rRNA sequences. The three groups may be identified as being non-geographically contiguous.
Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere
Kong, Hyun Gi ; Kim, Nam Hee ; Lee, Seung Yeup ; Lee, Seon-Woo ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 136~144
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.08.2015.0172
Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer.
Genetic Variation and Biological Control of Fusarium graminearum Isolated from Wheat in Assiut-Egypt
Mahmoud, Amer F. ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 145~156
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.OA.09.2015.0201
Fusarium graminearum Schwabe causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and other cereal crops. Twelve isolates of F. graminearum were collected from naturally infected spikes of wheat from Assiut Egypt. These isolates were compared using SRAP. The results indicated distinct genetic groups exist within F. graminearum, and demonstrated that these groups have different biological properties, especially with respect to their pathogenicity on wheat. There were biologically significant differences between the groups; with group (B) isolates being more aggressive towards wheat than groups (A) and (C). Furthermore, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) and Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) which isolated from wheat kernels were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. They significantly reduced the growth of F. graminearum colonies in culture. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, highly antagonistic isolates of T. harzianum and B. subtilis were selected, based on their in vitro effectiveness, for greenhouse test. It was revealed that T. harzianum and B. subtilis significantly reduced FHB severity. The obtained results indicated that T. harzianum and B. subtilis are very effective biocontrol agents that offer potential benefit in FHB and should be harnessed for further biocontrol applications. The accurate analysis of genetic variation and studies of population structures have significant implications for understanding the genetic traits and disease control programs in wheat. This is the first known report of the distribution and genetic variation of F. graminearum on wheat spikes in Assiut Egypt.
Control of Postharvest Bacterial Soft Rot by Gamma Irradiation and its Potential Modes of Action
Jeong, Rae-Dong ; Chu, Eun-Hee ; Park, Duck Hwan ; Park, Hae-Jun ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 157~161
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.08.2015.0165
Gamma irradiation was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against a postharvest bacterial pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). Gamma irradiation in a bacteria cell suspension resulted in a dramatic reduction of the viable counts as well as an increase in the amounts of DNA and protein released from the cells. Gamma irradiation showed complete inactivation of Ecc, especially at a dose of 0.6 kGy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy of irradiated cells revealed severe damage on the surface of most bacterial cells. Along with the morphological changes of cells by gamma irradiation, it also affected the membrane integrity in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanisms by which the gamma irradiation decreased the bacterial soft rot can be directly associated with the disruption of the cell membrane of the bacterial pathogen, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent cell inactivation. These findings suggest that gamma irradiation has potential as an antibacterial approach to reduce the severity of the soft rot of paprika.
Development of Specific Markers for Identification of Biovars 1 and 2 Strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae
Lee, Young Sun ; Kim, Gyoung Hee ; Koh, Young Jin ; Zhuang, Qiguo ; Jung, Jae Sung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 162~167
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.10.2015.0224
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of canker in kiwifruit, can be divided into three biovars (biovars 1, 2, and 3). Strains belonging to biovar 1 produce phaseolotoxin and were isolated in Japan and Italy before 2008. Strains of biovar 2 produce coronatine instead of phaseolotoxin and have been isolated only in Korea. Strains belonging to biovar 3 produce neither phaseolotoxin nor coronatine and are responsible for the global outbreak of bacterial canker of kiwifruit in recent years. The biovar 3-specific primer set was developed in a previous work. In this study, two sets of PCR primers specific to strains of biovars 1 and 2, respectively, were developed based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses. Primers PsaJ-F and PsaJ-R produced a 481-bp region with genomic DNA of biovar 1 strains, whereas primers PsaK-F and PsaK-R amplified a 413-bp region present only in the genome of biovar 2 strains.
Dual Effect of the Cubic Ag
Crystal on Pseudomonas syringae Growth and Plant Immunity
Kim, Mi Kyung ; Yeo, Byul-Ee ; Park, Heonyong ; Huh, Young-Duk ; Kwon, Chian ; Yun, Hye Sup ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 168~170
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.NT.09.2015.0191
We previously found that the antibacterial activity of silver phosphate crystals on Escherichia coli depends on their structure. We here show that the cubic form of silver phosphate crystal (SPC) can also be applied to inhibit the growth of a plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae bacterium. SPC pretreatment resulted in reduced in planta multiplication of P. syringae. Induced expression of a plant defense marker gene PR1 by SPC alone is suggestive of its additional plant immunity-stimulating activity. Since SPC can simultaneously inhibit P. syringae growth and induce plant defense responses, it might be used as a more effective plant disease-controlling agent.
Kang, Minji ; Seo, Jang Kyun ; Choi, Hoseong ; Choi, Hong Soo ; Kim, Kook Hyung ;
The Plant Pathology Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2016, Pages 171~171
DOI : 10.5423/PPJ.ER.08.2015.0173