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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Railway
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Railway
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Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 1, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 1, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
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Railway Governance and Power Structure in China
Lee, Jinjing ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 1, issue 4, 2008, Pages 129~133
Over the last
years, many countries have adopted policies of railway privatization to keep up with increasing competition from road and air transport. Although each country and case has its own history, market characteristics, political context as well as administrative process, railway privatizations (including railway restructure, concession etc.) in the west usually are accompanied with the establishment of new regulatory regimes. Therefore, railway governance has been innovating towards an interaction of government, regulator, industry bodies, user groups, trade unions and other interested groups within the regulatory framework. However, it is not the case in China. Although China had seen a partial privatization in some branch lines and is experiencing a much larger-scale privatization by establishing joint-ventures to build and operate high-speed passenger lines and implementing an asset-based securitization program, administrative control still occupies absolutely dominant position in the railway governance in China. Ministry of Railway (MOR) acts as the administrator, operator as well as regulator. There is no national policy that clearly positions railway in the transportation network and clarifies the role of government in railway development. There is also little participation from interested groups in the railway policy making, pricing, service standard or safety matter. Railway in China is solely governed by the mere executive agency. Efficiency-focused economic perspective explanation is far from satisfaction. A wider research perspective from political and social regime is of great potential to better explain and solve the problem. In the west, separation and constrains of power had long been established as a fundamental rule. In addition to internal separation of political power(legislation, execution and jurisdiction), rise of corporation in the 19th century and association revolution in the 20th century greatly fostered the growth of economic and social power. Therefore, political, social and economic organizations cooperate and compete with each other, which leads to a balanced and resonable power structure. While in China, political power, mainly party-controlled administrative power has been keeping a dominated position since the time of plan economy. Although the economic reform promoted the growth of economic power of enterprises, it is still not strong enough to compete with political power. Furthermore, under rigid political control, social organizations usually are affiliated to government, independent social power is still too weak to function. So, duo to the limited and slow reform in political and social regime in China, there is an unbalanced power structure within which political power is dominant, economic power expanding while social power still absent. Totally different power structure in China determines the fundamental institutional environment of her railway privatization and governance. It is expected that the exploration of who act behind railway governance and their acting strength (a power theory) will present us a better picture of railway governance as a relevant transportation mode. The paper first examines the railway governance in China and preliminarily establishes a linkage between railway governance and its fundamental institutional environment, i.e. power structure in a specific country. Secondly, the reason why there is no national policy in China is explored in the view of political power. In China, legislative power is more symbolic while party-controlled administrative power dominates political process and plays a fundamental role in Chinese railway governance. And then, in the part three railway finance reform is analyzed in the view of economic power, esp. the relationship of political power and economic power.
Meeting the Demands for Major International Traffic Flows through Railnet Austria's Maintenance and Capacity Planning Regime
Herbacek, R. ; Petri, K. ; Ertl, B. ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 1, issue 4, 2008, Pages 134~142
Serving as a strategic crossing point for major corridors in Central Europe, Railnet Austria's Infrastructure Network incurs continual increases in international traffic flows and is therefore subject to accumulating traffic congestion with potential restrictions to infrastructure access. This imposes challenges towards preserving open access to Railnet Austria's existing railway network and hinders quality infrastructure service during maintenance, repair, and upgrading. Through Railnet Austria's experiences, the economic viability of a railway network can be sustained through maintaining open access with good quality service of planned trainpaths, thus representing new challenges for future infrastructure maintenance and capacity planning. Railnet Austria's Capacity Management Department has proven that these challenges can be accommodated more effectively through recent technological developments in data warehousing and software development.
Barrier Free Accessibility to Trains for All
Rentzsch, Manfred ; Seliger, Denis ; Meissner, Thomas ; Wessner, Claudia ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 1, issue 4, 2008, Pages 143~148
This paper is the output of a collaborative European project concerning the barrier free accessibility for disabled persons to regional and long distance trains in Europe. Disabled people represent around 13% of the population in Europe. This is approximately 63 million people. The range of disabilities includes people with reduced mobility including wheel chair users, viewing and hearing impaired people and other forms of impairment. Improving accessibility aims at contributing to the provision of public transport services to all citizens in an equitable way. The purpose of the project was to analyse and to evaluate the existing solutions at selected European railways for all required modules at the entrance (doors, information and safety solutions), to derive a design concept, to develop a mock-up in meeting the needs of rail travellers with the above mentioned impairments and to test it with user groups. The project also aims at deriving components for the determination of standards. The EUPAX Design Mock-up test was performed to verify the advantages of the layout of the train segment including the different modules such as access area (including the access door, gaps between platform and train as well as boarding aid devices), entrance vestibule, information systems inside and outside the train, emergency facilities, toilet with all conveniences and the additional test arrangements regarding push buttons, steps and emergency equipment. For this purpose a questionnaire was developed for the assessment of the EUPAX segment and the additional test arrangements. With the help of this questionnaire it was possible to execute a quantitative and qualitative evaluation. During three test phases 67 experts and handicapped persons from 6 countries have evaluated the Industrial Design mock-up based on this questionnaire. The test group covered persons from North (Denmark) to the South (Italy) and from the West (Spain) to the Middle of Europe (Germany). This is especially important for the generalization (harmonisation) of the results for all European countries. According to COST 335 the information for people with reduced mobility should be clear, concise, accurate and timely. So that all information can be received from persons, they must be transferred on at least two of the three possible ways (acoustical, visual, tactile), a so called "2-sense-principle". Based on the results ergonomic specifications/ solutions for the ergonomic design of the access area, the acoustic, visual and tactile information and the emergency devices including the emergency communication system were developed, related to the benefiting passenger groups.
Development of an Imaging Based Gang Protection System
Grimm, M. ; Pelz, M. ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 1, issue 4, 2008, Pages 149~156
During maintenance or construction works in or at the tracks of railways, high risks for passengers and railway staff, especially for the workers on the construction site exist. The high risks result out of the movement of rail vehicles, like trains or construction vehicles, which must be faced by using any available technical and operational technologies for securing them against the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the level of protection continuously and to identify new and innovative methods and technologies for the protection of the gang (construction worker, machines and material). Especially on construction sites at line sections with two or more parallel tracks but also with single tracks, there are still a lot of incidents and accidents mostly with seriously injured persons or fatalities. These were mainly gang members that breach the railway-loading gage. By using proper warning or protection systems, the avoidance of such accidents must be achieved. The latest developments. in gang protection systems concern on the one hand fixed barriers in the middle between the construction site and the operated track and on the other hand construction vehicles equipped with automatic warning systems. The disadvantage of such protection methods is that the gang can be warned against an approaching train but a monitoring of the gang members cannot be performed. Only one part of a potential dangerous situation will be detected. If the gang members will overhear the acoustic warning signal of the security staff and the workers will not leave the danger zone in the track, the driver of the approaching train had no chance to react to the dangerous situation. An accident is often inevitable. While the detection of acoustic warning signals by the gang members working on a construction site is very difficult, the acoustical planning of an automatic warning system has to be designed for an acoustic short range level of one meter besides the construction vehicle. The decision about the use of today's technical warning system (fixed systems, automatic warning systems, etc.) must be geared to the technical feasibility and the level of safety which is needed. Criteria for decision guidance to block a track should be developed by danger estimation and economical variables. To realize the actual jurisdiction and to minimize the hazards of railway operations by the use of construction vehicles near the tracks further developments are needed. This means, that the warning systems have to be enhanced to systems for protection, which monitor the realization of the warning signal as a precondition for giving a movement authority to a train. This method can protect against accidents caused by predictable wrongdoing. The actual state of the art technique of using a collective warning combined with additional security staff is no longer acceptable. Therefore, the Institute of Transportation System of the German Aerospace Center in Braunschweig (Germany) will develop a gang warning and protection system based upon imaging methods, with optical sensors such as video in visible and invisible ranges, radar, laser, and other. The advantage of such a system based on the possibility to monitor both the gang itself and the railway-loading gauge either of the parallel track or of the same track still in use. By monitoring both situations, the system will be able to generate a warning message for the approaching train, that there are obstacles in the track, so that the train can be stopped to prevent an accident. And also the gang workers will be warned, while they breach their area.
Safety Levels Apportionment in Railway System
Rafrafi, Meriem ; El Koursi, El Miloudi ; Bourdeaud'Huy, Thomas ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 1, issue 4, 2008, Pages 157~168
The creation of a single European rail transport market it is important to increase confidence between the actors on the market and between member states who shall ensure that railway safety is generally maintained and, where reasonably practicable, continuously improved. For this purpose the European railway safety directive introduces a mechanism to adopt a Common Safety Targets (CST) expressed in risk acceptance criteria for individuals and for society. This paper focuses on the apportionment of safety targets for European railway system. We develop a generic approach based on the Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA), to analyse the safety of railway systems for a unified European network and to comply with the CSTs required by the European railway Safety Directive. We suggest to combine the FHA technique with the functional railway architecture to allocate the safety targets to the railway functions.
Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Pressure Variation of KTX Passing Through Tunnel
Nam, Seong-Won ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 1, issue 4, 2008, Pages 169~174
Experimental study has been conducted to clarify the internal and external pressure variation characteristics for KTX(Korea Train eXpress) passing through tunnel. Abrupt pressure variation gives rise to the ear-discomfort for passenger and fatigue for car body. In this study, the internal and external pressure variation are measured by using KTX real train experiment and on-board portable data acquisition system in Gyeongbu high speed commercial line. The tunnels from 200 m to 4000 m in length are chosen for the investigation of tunnel length effects. From the results of experiment, the internal pressure variation rate for all the test tunnels is lower than the standard criteria of 200 Pa/s. And, the critical tunnel lengths for pressure wave pattern are classified into 7 groups by using the theoretical L-t diagram analysis.