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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Railway
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Korean Society for Railway
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Formal Validation Method and Tools for French Computerized Railway Interlocking Systems
Antoni, Marc ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 2, issue 3, 2009, Pages 99~106
Checks and tests before putting safety facilities into service as well as the results of these tests are essential, time consuming and may show great variations between each other. Economic constraints and the increasing complexity associated with the development of computerized tools tend to limit the capacity of the classic approval process (manual or automatic). A reduction of the validation cover rate could result in practice. This is not compatible with the French national plan to renew the interlocking systems of the national network. The method and the tool presented in this paper makes it possible to formally validate new computerized systems or evolutions of existing French interlocking systems with real-time functional interpreted Petri nets. The aim of our project is to provide SNCF with a method for the formal validation of French interlocking systems. A formal proof method by assertion, which is applicable to industrial automation equipment such as interlocking systems, and which covers equally the specification and its real software implementation, is presented in this paper. With the proposed method we completely verify that the system follows all safety properties at all times and does not show superfluous conditions: it replaces all the indoor checks (not the outdoor checks). The advantages expected are a significant reduction of testing time and of the related costs, an increase of the test coverage rate, an answer to the new demand of railway infrastructure maintenance engineering to modify and validate computerized interlocking systems. Formal methods mastery by infrastructure engineers are surely a key to prove that more safety is not necessarily more expensive.
The Aging of Signalling Equipment and the Impact on Maintenance Strategies
Antoni, Marc ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 2, issue 3, 2009, Pages 107~112
Research projects of SNCF aim at reducing the costs of infrastructure possessions and improving the operational equipment availability and safety. This permanent search for a better regularity led the SNCF to analyse the maintenance approach of signalling equipment in detail. Until now, it was commonly acknowledged that signalling equipment, which consists of many electronic devices, is not subject to aging. In this study, a Weibull lifetime model, able to describe an aging phenomenon, is used and it can be shown that the deterioration is statistically significant. The validity of the model is tested. We also analyse the influence of environmental covariates. We simulate different scenarios in order to investigate the impact of several maintenance strategies as well as on future maintenance costs, on the amount of components to replace based on the mean age of the network. It can be shown that in most cases a systematic replacement strategy offers the best solution.
Risk Management Qualitatively on Railway Signal System
Zhang, Ya-Dong ; Guo, Jin ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 2, issue 3, 2009, Pages 113~117
Risk management is an important part of system assurance and it is widely used in safety-related system. Railway signal system is one kind of safety-related system and its most important goal is to guarantee the safety of railway system. The method based on risk management can find and solve the security issues of railway signal system more effectively. This paper introduces the basic conception of risk management, studies the whole process of risk management and related tools and techniques and discusses some key points qualitatively combining with the particularity of railway signal system.
Modeling the Calculation of Lateral Accelerations in Railway Vehicles as a Tool of Alignment Design
Nasarre, J. ; Cuadrado, M. ; Requejo, P.Gonzalez ; Romo, E. ; Zamorano, C. ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 2, issue 3, 2009, Pages 118~123
Railway track alignment Standards set a minimum lenght value for straight and circular alignments (art. 5.2.9.), in order to ensure passenger ride comfort in railway vehicles of which dynamic oscillations will thus have to be limited. The transitions between alignments can cause abrupt changes (usually called discontinuities or singular points of the alignment) of curvature, of rate of change of curvature or of rate of change of cant. A passenger is likely to experience effects due to the excitation of the elastic suspension of the vehicle which generates oscillations that are damped as the vehicle moves away from the singularity. The amplitude of these oscillations should be adequately attenuated by the damping of the suspension system within the interval between two successive singular points, especially to avoid resonances. Therefore minimum lengths between two successive singular points are stated in alignment standards. Nevertheless, these nonnative values can be overly conservative in some cases. As an alternative, track alignment designers could try to assess how much the excitation has been attenuated between two successive singular points and thus assess at which point a new singularity may be present without affecting ride comfort. Although such assessment can be made with commercial SW packages which simulate the dynamic behavior of a vehicle considered as a set of rigid bodies interconnected with elastic elements simulating the suspension systems (such as SIMPACK, ADAMS or VAMPIRE), a simplified and user-friendly computation method (based upon the analytical solution of differential equations governing the phenomenon) is made available in this paper to track design engineers, not always used to working with full dynamic models.
The Need for Weight Optimization by Design of Rolling Stock Vehicles
Ainoussa, Amar ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 2, issue 3, 2009, Pages 124~126
Energy savings can be achieved with optimum energy consumptions, brake energy regeneration, efficient energy storage (onboard, line side), and primarily with light weight vehicles. Over the last few years, the rolling stock industry has experienced a marked increase in eco-awareness and needs for lower life cycle energy consumption costs. For rolling stock vehicle designers and engineers, weight has always been a critical design parameter. It is often specified directly or indirectly as contractual requirements. These requirements are usually expressed in terms of specified axle load limits, braking deceleration levels and/or demands for optimum energy consumptions. The contractual requirements for lower weights are becoming increasingly more stringent. Light weight vehicles with optimized strength to weight ratios are achievable through proven design processes. The primary driving processes consist of:
material selection to best contribute to the intended functionality and performance
design and design optimization to secure the intended functionality and performance
weight control processes to deliver the intended functionality and performance Aluminium has become the material of choice for modern light weight bodyshells. Steel sub-structures and in particular high strength steels are also used where high strength - high elongation characteristics out way the use of aluminium. With the improved characteristics and responses of composites against tire and smoke, small and large composite materials made components are also found in greater quantities in today's railway vehicles. Full scale hybrid composite rolling stock vehicles are being developed and tested. While an "overdesigned" bodyshell may be deemed as acceptable from a structural point of view, it can, in reality, be a weight saving missed opportunity. The conventional pass/fail structural criteria and existing passenger payload definitions promote conservative designs but they do not necessarily imply optimum lightweight designs. The weight to strength design optimization should be a fundamental design driving factor rather than a feeble post design activity. It should be more than a belated attempt to mitigate against contractual weight penalties. The weight control process must be rigorous, responsible, with achievable goals and above all must be integral to the design process. It should not be a mere tabulation of weights for the sole-purpose of predicting the axle loads and wheel balances compliance. The present paper explores and discusses the topics quoted above with a view to strengthen the recommendations and needs for the weight optimization by design approach as a pro-active design activity for the rolling stock industry at large.
Research on Safety-related Communication of Railway Automatic Block Between Railway Stations System
Yun, Pei-Yan ; Guo, Jin ;
International Journal of Railway, volume 2, issue 3, 2009, Pages 127~130
The system improves the safety and efficiency of railway transport, combining the advanced axle-counter with single-track semiautomatic block. Using computer, to accomplish relay-based semiautomatic block logic operation and axle-counter to check section status, it will further increase the performance of railway transport. Safety-related communication is one of the important topics in railway signal system. By referring to relevant safety-related communication standards, to research on safety-related communication of Micro-computer automatic block between Railway Stations System, the thesis introduces the basic requirements, concept model, codes, and the process, etc.