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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing
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The Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 4, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 4, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 4, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
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Test of a Multilayer Dose-Verification Gaseous Detector with Raster-Scan-Mode Proton Beams
Lee, Kyong Sei ; Ahn, Sung Hwan ; Han, Youngyih ; Hong, Byungsik ; Kim, Sang Yeol ; Park, Sung Keun ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 297~304
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.297
A multilayer gaseous detector has been developed for fast dose-verification measurements of raster-scan-mode therapeutic beams in particle therapy. The detector, which was constructed with eight thin parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPICs) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) absorber plates, is closely tissue-equivalent in a beam`s eye view. The gas-electron signals, collected on the strips and pad arrays of each PPIC, were amplified and processed with a continuous charge.integration mode. The detector was tested with 190-MeV raster-scan-mode beams that were provided by the Proton Therapy Facility at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. The detector responses of the PPICs for a 190-MeV raster-scan-mode proton beam agreed well with the dose data, measured using a 2D ionization chamber array (Octavius model, PTW). Furthermore, in this study it was confirmed that the detector simultaneously tracked the doses induced at the PPICs by the fast-oscillating beam, with a scanning speed of 2 m s-1. Thus, it is anticipated that the present detector, composed of thin PPICs and operating in charge.integration mode, will allow medical scientists to perform reliable fast dose-verification measurements for typical dynamic mode therapeutic beams.
Design and Simulation of Depth-Encoding PET Detector using Wavelength-Shifting (WLS) Fiber Readout
An, Su Jung ; Kim, Hyun-il ; Lee, Chae Young ; Song, Han Kyeol ; Park, Chan Woo ; Chung, Young Hyun ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 305~310
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.305
We propose a new concept for a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector based on dual-ended-scintillator (DES) readout for small animal imaging. The detector consists of lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) arrays coupled with orthogonal wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibre placed on the top and bottom of the arrays. On every other line, crystals that are 2 mm shorter are arranged to create grooves. WLS fibre is inserted into these grooves. This paper describes the design and performance evaluation of this PET detector using Monte Carlo simulations. To investigate sensitivity by crystal size, five types of PET detectors were simulated. Because the proposed detector is composed of crystals with three different lengths, degradation in sensitivity across the field of view was also explored by simulation. In addition, the effect of DOI resolution on image quality was demonstrated. The simulation results proved that the devised PET detector with excellent DOI resolution is helpful for reducing the channels of sensors/electronics and minimizing gamma ray attenuation and scattering while maintaining good detector performance.
3D Non-Rigid Registration for Abdominal PET-CT and MR Images Using Mutual Information and Independent Component Analysis
Lee, Hakjae ; Chun, Jaehee ; Lee, Kisung ; Kim, Kyeong Min ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 311~317
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.311
The aim of this study is to develop a 3D registration algorithm for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired from independent PET/CT and MR imaging systems. Combined PET/CT images provide anatomic and functional information, and MR images have high resolution for soft tissue. With the registration technique, the strengths of each modality image can be combined to achieve higher performance in diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. The proposed method consists of two stages: normalized mutual information (NMI)-based global matching and independent component analysis (ICA)-based refinement. In global matching, the field of view of the CT and MR images are adjusted to the same size in the preprocessing step. Then, the target image is geometrically transformed, and the similarities between the two images are measured with NMI. The optimization step updates the transformation parameters to efficiently find the best matched parameter set. In the refinement stage, ICA planes from the windowed image slices are extracted and the similarity between the images is measured to determine the transformation parameters of the control points. B-spline. based freeform deformation is performed for the geometric transformation. The results show good agreement between PET/CT and MR images.
Strained Ge Light Emitter with Ge on Dual Insulators for Improved Thermal Conduction and Optical Insulation
Kim, Youngmin ; Petykiewicz, Jan ; Gupta, Shashank ; Vuckovic, Jelena ; Saraswat, Krishna C. ; Nam, Donguk ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 318~323
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.318
We present a new way to create a thermally stable, highly strained germanium (Ge) optical resonator using a novel Ge-on-dual-insulators substrate. Instead of using a conventional way to undercut the oxide layer of a Ge-on-single-insulator substrate for inducing tensile strain in germanium, we use thin aluminum oxide as a sacrificial layer. By eliminating the air gap underneath the active germanium layer, we achieve an optically insulating, thermally conductive, and highly strained Ge resonator structure that is critical for a practical germanium laser. Using Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence experiments, we prove that the novel geometry of our Ge resonator structure provides a significant improvement in thermal stability while maintaining good optical confinement.
Development of SiPM-based Small-animal PET
Lee, Jin Hyung ; Lee, Seung-Jae ; Chung, Yong Hyun ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 324~329
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.324
A decreased number of readout method is investigated to provide precise pixel information for small-animal positron emission tomography (PET). Small-animal PET consists of eight modules, and each module is composed of a
lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals optically coupled to a
silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The number of readout channels is reduced by one-quarter that of the conventional method by applying a simplified row and column matrix algorithm. The performance of the PET system and detector module was evaluated with Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE) 6.1 and DETECT2000 simulations. In the results, all pixels of the
LYSO array were decoded well, and the spatial resolution and sensitivity, respectively, of the PET system were 1.75 mm and 4.6% (@ center of field of view, energy window: 350-650 keV).
DWT-based Denoising and Power Quality Disturbance Detection
Ramzan, Muhammad ; Choe, Sangho ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 330~339
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.330
Power quality (PQ) problems are becoming a big issue, since delicate complex electronic devices are widely used. We present a new denoising technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT), where a modified correlation thresholding is used in order to reliably detect the PQ disturbances. We consider various PQ disturbances on the basis of IEEE-1159 standard over noisy environments, including voltage swell, voltage sag, transient, harmonics, interrupt, and their combinations. These event signals are decomposed using DWT for the detection of disturbances. We then evaluate the PQ disturbance detection ratio of the proposed denoising scheme over Gaussian noise channels. Simulation results also show that the proposed scheme has an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over existing scheme.
Development of a Hand Pose Rally System Based on Image Processing
Suganuma, Akira ; Nishi, Koki ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 340~348
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.340
The "stamp rally" is an event that participants go the round with predetermined points for the purpose of collecting stamps. They bring the stamp card to these points. They, however, sometimes leave or lose the card. In this case, they may not reach the final destination of the stamp rally. The purpose of this research is the construction of the stamp rally system which distinguishes each participant with his or her hand instead of the stamp card. We have realized our method distinguishing a hand posture by the image processing. We have also evaluated it by 30 examinees. Furthermore, we have designed the data communication between the server and the checkpoint to implement our whole system. We have also designed and implemented the process for the registering participant, the passing checkpoint and the administration.
Image Contrast Enhancement Based on a Multi-Cue Histogram
Lee, Sung-Ho ; Zhang, Dongni ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 349~353
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.349
The conventional intensity histogram does not indicate edge information, which is important in the perception of image contrast. In this paper, we propose a multi-cue histogram (MCH) to represent a collaborative distribution of both the intensity and the edges of an image. Based on the MCH, if the intensity values have high frequency and a large gradient magnitude, they are spread into a larger dynamic range. Otherwise, the intensity values are not strongly stretched. As a result, image details, such as edges and textures, can be enhanced while artifacts and noise can be prevented, as demonstrated in the experimental results.
A Low-Energy Ultra-Wideband Internet-of-Things Radio System for Multi-Standard Smart-Home Energy Management
Khajenasiri, Iman ; Zhu, Peng ; Verhelst, Marian ; Gielen, Georges ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 354~365
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.354
This work presents an Internet of Things (IoT) system for home energy management based on a custom-designed Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) transceiver that targets a generic and multi-standard control system. This control system enables the interoperability of heterogeneous devices: it integrates various sensor nodes based on ZigBee, EnOcean and UWB in the same middleware by utilizing an ad-hoc layer as an interface between the hardware and software. The paper presents as a first the design of the IR-UWB transceiver for a portable sensor node integrated with the middleware layer, and also describes the receiver connected to the control system. The custom-designed low-power transmitter on the sensor node is fabricated with 130 nm CMOS technology. It generates a signal with a 1.1 ns pulse width while consuming
at 1 Mbps. The UWB sensor node with a temperature measurement capability consumes 5.31 mW, which is lower than the power level of state-of-the-art solutions for smart-home applications. The UWB hardware and software layers necessary to interface with the control system are verified in over-the-air measurements in an actual office environment. With the implementation of the presented sensor node and its integration in the energy management system, we demonstrate achievement of the broad flexibility demanded for IoT.
Design of a G-Share Branch Predictor for EISC Processor
Kim, InSik ; Jun, JaeYung ; Na, Yeoul ; Kim, Seon Wook ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 366~370
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.366
This paper proposes a method for improving a branch predictor for the extendable instruction set computer (EISC) processor. The original EISC branch predictor has several shortcomings: a small branch target buffer, absence of a global history, a one-bit local branch history, and unsupported prediction of branches following LERI, which is a special instruction to extend an immediate value. We adopt a G-share branch predictor and eliminate the existing shortcomings. We verified the new branch predictor on a field-programmable gate array with the Dhrystone benchmark. The newly proposed EISC branch predictor also accomplishes higher branch prediction accuracy than a conventional branch predictor.
Output Noise Reduction Technique Based on Frequency Hopping in a DC-DC Converter for BLE Applications
Park, Ju-Hyun ; Kim, Sung Jin ; Lee, Joo Young ; Park, Sang Hyeon ; Lee, Ju Ri ; Kim, Sang Yun ; Kim, Hong Jin ; Lee, Kang-Yoon ;
IEIE Transactions on Smart Processing and Computing, volume 4, issue 5, 2015, Pages 371~378
DOI : 10.5573/IEIESPC.2015.4.5.371
In this paper, a different type of pulse width modulation (PWM) control scheme for a buck converter is introduced. The proposed buck converter uses PWM with frequency hopping and a low quiescent.current low dropout (LDO) voltage regulator with a power supply rejection ratio enhancer to reduce high spurs, harmonics and output voltage ripples. The low quiescent.current LDO voltage regulator is not described in this paper. A three-bit binary-to-thermometer decoder scheme and voltage ripple controller (VRC) is implemented to achieve low voltage ripple less than 3mV to increase the efficiency of the buck converter. An internal clock that is synchronized to the internal switching frequency is used to set the hopping rate. A center frequency of 2.5MHz was chosen because of the bluetooth low energy (BLE) application. This proposed DC-DC buck converter is available for low-current noise-sensitive loads such as BLE and radio frequency loads in portable communications devices. Thus, a high-efficiency and low-voltage ripple is required. This results in a less than 2% drop in the regulator`s efficiency, and a less than 3mV voltage ripple, with -26 dBm peak spur reduction operating in the buck converter.