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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Dec 2006
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Aug 2006
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Apr 2006
Selecting the target year
Clinical Application of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for Novice Nurses
Cheung, Nam-Youn ; Song, Young-Shin ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 334~342
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the feasibility of OSCE for novice nurses. Method: The study was designed using a methodological design. Data were collected from January to February, 2005. Nine stations were developed for the examination. Five minutes was allowed for each station. The examination was administered to 2 groups of novice nurses. Results: OSCE for clinical performance improvement which consisted of nine 5-minute long stations, was developed. Those stations were tested by 79 beginning nurses who were divided into 2 groups. Reliability ranges for Cronbach's alpha were
and the mean value was 0.797. Total mean score for the OSCE was 66.75. Total score for the 2nd group was significantly higher than the 1st group. The nurses were satisfied with the OSCE method and process. Conclusion: The OSCE can be an effective tool for evaluating clinical nursing skills in novice nurse. More reliable and valid stations need to be developed and then repeated evaluation of the nurses can be done.
Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Clinical Skill Competence of Nursing Students
Yoo, Moon-Sook ; Yoo, Il-Young ; Hong, Sung-Kyung ; Son, Youn-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 343~350
Purpose: This study was done to identify the relationship between self-efficacy and clinical skill competence of nursing students. Method: The participants in the study were 375 student nurses enrolled in 3rd & 4th year of a BSN program in Seoul and Gyeongi province, Korea. Data were collected from December 12, 2004 to November 30, 2005 using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.0 Win program. Results: The average score for self-efficacy was
, and for clinical skill competence
. The self-efficacy score showed a significant difference according to student's year in college (t=2.494, p=0.013), and GPA score (t=4.299, p=0.000). The clinical skill competence score showed a significant difference according to year in college (t=5.351, p=0.000), GPA score (t=2.997, p=0.003) and satisfaction with course (F=5.214, p=0.006). There was a significant positive correlation between self-efficacy and clinical skill competence (r=0.224, p=0.000). Conclusion: These findings show that there is a need to develop strategies to improve self-efficacy for student nurses in Korea. And also, it is recommended that programs to improve clinical skill competence need to be included in nursing curricula.
Comparison of Oral Hygiene Effects between 0.1% Chlorhexidine and Normal Saline on the Incidence of Oral Pathogens
Lee, Eun-Nam ; Park, Hee-Sook ; Kim, Soo-Mi ; Park, Mi-Ja ; Lee, Young-Jin ; Jang, Mi-Ra ; An, Hyang-Nam ; Ju, Hyeon-Ok ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 351~358
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oral hygiene with 0.1% chlorhexidine or with normal saline on the incidence of pathogens in the oral cavity of patients in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Method: A quasi experimental design with non-equivalent control group and non-synchronized design was used. For the study 46 patients were recruited from a university hospital (24 for the experimental group, 22 for the control group). patients in the experimental group received mouth care with 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate and those in the control group received mouth care with normal saline twice a day for 7 days in a row. Oral samples were taken for bacterial cultures on admission day, the 4th day and the 7th day for both groups. Results: The incidence of oral pathogens decreased in the experimental group, and increased in the control group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of oral pathogens between the two groups. However oral hygiene using 0.1% chlorhexidine gluconate decreased the incidence of oral pathogens significantly for patients who already had pathogenic bacteria in their mouths on the admission day. Conclusion: The results suggest that mouth care with 0.1% chlorhexidine is effective for decreasing the incidence of oral infection for ICU patients who have oral infections.
The Effect of Disinfection and the MRSA Isolation from Hand Disinfectant in ICU Nurses
Park, Sun-Nam ; Rhyu, Kyung-Hwa ; Jeong, Jeong-Im ; Park, Ok-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 359~367
Purpose: This study was a within subject repeated pretest-posttest design done to compare the effect of disinfection and the degree of MRSA(Methicillin- resistant staphylococcus aureus) isolation from hand disinfectant in ICU nurses. Method: Out of the total internal medicine/surgery ICU nurses at a university hospital in Seoul, 29 female nurses who were participating in direct patient care were participants in this study. After collection of samples, Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were isolated from the palms, nails and nasal cavities of the nurses according to disinfectants (soap and beta-scrub). Results: The effect of disinfection was greater in the beta-scrub group than in the soap group, and the effect of disinfection on palms was higher in the beta-scrub group than in the soap group. As for the degree of MRSA isolation, there was more isolation in palms in the soap group than in the beta-scrub group but there was no difference in the degree of MRSA isolation from the hand disinfectant in nails and nasal cavities. Conclusion: Beta-scrub showed a superior prolonged effect against transient bacteria compared with soap. Further, to reduce MRSA infection, we recommend interventions focused on these aspects.
Risk Factors of Blood and Body Fluid Exposure in Clinical Nurses
Shin, Eun-Jung ; Park, Ho-Ran ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 368~375
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors of exposure to blood and body fluid by clinical nurses. Method: The participants in this descriptive study were 276 clinical nurses involved in nursing care in a general hospital located in Seoul. The collected data were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Results: The annual exposure rate to blood and body fluid by clinical nurses was 66.3%, and the ratio was higher in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group for nurses under the age of 25, nurses who were unmarried, nurses with low clinical experience, and nurses who work night shifts more than six days a week. Clinical nurses who were unmarried were 1.9 times more likely to have been exposed compared to married nurses. Nurses whose work experience was less than 18 months were 2.7 times more at risk than nurses with more than 18 months of experience. Also, nurses whose fatigue scores were high had an increased chance of exposure (1.9 times). Conclusion: It is necessary to provide intensive training programs for clinical nurses who are in the early months of their career and are likely to be young and unmarried, in order to prevent exposure to blood and body fluid. Administrative supports to self-control and hospital ward operation measures to relieve nurses' fatigue should be provided.
Effects of Internet Diabetic Education on Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Self-Care in Type 2 Diabetic Patients over One Year
Kim, Hee-Seung ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 376~381
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of web-based diabetic education on glycosylated hemoglobin(HbAlc) and self-care in people with type 2 diabetes. Method: Twenty-five patients were requested to input the blood glucose level weekly at http://www.biodang.com by cellular phone or wired Internet for one year. The researcher sent optimal recommendations weekly to each patient using the short message service for cellular phones and wired Internet. Results: Patients had a significant mean decrease in HbAlc, from 8.0% at pre-test to 6.9%, after three months and rested at 6.8% until 12 months. Patients had a significant mean increase in physical exercise adherence, from 3.3 days at pre-test to 4.1 days per week, after three months. Patients had a significant mean increase in foot care adherence, from 4.8 days at pre-test to 6.9 days per week, after one year. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Internet education could be used to improve HbAlc, physical exercise, and foot care adherence in type 2 diabetic patients.
Effects of Patient-Controlled Analgesia Pump on the Postoperative Patient's Pain Management and Recovery of Bowel Movement with Gastrointestinal Cancer
Park, Hyoung-Sook ; Kim, Kyung-Hoon ; Baik, Seong-Wan ; Park, Kyung-Yeon ; Kang, In-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 382~389
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) on the postoperative patient's pain management and recovery of bowel movement with gastrointestinal cancer Method: The participants were 249 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal disease and scheduled for elective surgery, who were recruited to either the postoperative patient-controlled analgesia group or epidural analgesia group. Participants aged 20 and above were recruited from P, K, D, and I university hospitals in B city. Pain visual analogue scale, and recovery of bowel movement according to PCA-related characteristics were measured using structured questionnaires from April 2005 through December 2005. Descriptive statistics t-test and F-test were used to analyze the data. SPSS WIN 10.0 program was used. Results: Mean score for pain was 62.31. Scores for pain on the visual analogue scale were significantly lower in the epidural-PCA than in the intravenous PCA, and also significantly lower in the absence of side effect of PCA than in the presence of side effect. Recovery time for bowel movement was significantly faster in the absence of side effect of PCA than in the presence of side effect. Conclusion: Based on the findings, there is a significant difference in pain and no difference in first passage of flatus according to PCA infusion route in patients who are post-operative for gastrointestinal cancer.
The Development and Effect of a Tailored Exercise Program on Physical Fitness in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
Sohng, Kyeong-Yae ; Moon, Jung-Soon ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Choi, Dong-Won ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 390~400
Purpose: To develop & to examine the effect of a Tailored Exercise Program (TEP) on physical fitness in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a two-group pre-and post-test design, from a total 41 participants. 21 were assigned th the experimental group find the remainder to the control group. The experimental group participated in a 4-day a week, 8 week program in which one session a week was by direct instruction with the self-help group and two sessions a week were by videotaped instruction at home by themselves. The control group did not receive any intervention. Results: The eight week TEP in patients with PD was found to be significantly effective in enhancing muscle strength, ankle flexibility, and balance. However instrumental activities of daily living was not changed by the intervention. Conclusion: These results suggest that TEP can have an effect on physical fitness in patients with PD. Further research with a larger sample and for a longer follow up period is needed to expand our understanding of the effects of TEP for patients with PD.
Effects of Lower Extremity Exercise Program on Muscle Strength and Flexibility in Women with Knee Osteoarthritis
Kim, Jong-Im ; Kim, Tae-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 401~408
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a lower extremity exercise program on muscle strength and flexibility in women with knee osteoarthritis. Method: This study was conducted using a non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The participants were 35 women with knee osteoarthritis. The experimental group performed the lower extremity exercise program, which was an adapted BeHaS exercise program developed by Kim(2006). It consisted of approximately 65-130 minutes per one session, two days a week, for twelve weeks. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured by the Seated Leg Press Machine (TY-H2217, made in Korea), back muscle strength by back muscle strength scale (TKK 5402, made in Japan) and flexibility, by Sit and Reach tester (01285, U.S.A). Data were gathered from September 2005 to March 2006. Frequency,
test and t-test were used to analyze the data. SPSS Win 11.0 was used to assist analysis. For normal distribution of data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was done. Results: There were statistical differences in the mean strength of both legs together, strength in leg with more pain(p=.044; p=.046), sit and standing time (p=.007), and back strength (p=.021). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that a lower extremity exercise program can help improve lower extremity muscle strength in women with osteoarthritis.
A Study on the Stage of Change of Exercise Behavior and Related Factors in Patients with Chronic Arthritis
Lee, Yun-Jeong ; Lim, Nan-Young ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 409~418
Purpose: This study was done to identify the process of change, decisional balance and self-efficacy corresponding to stage of exercise behavior based on the Transtheoretical model in patients with chronic arthritis. Method: The participants were 151 patients with chronic arthritis using an out-patient pain clinic and hospital in C city. The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA, Sheffe test and discriminant analysis with SPSS/WIN. Results: The patients were distributed as follows for each stage of exercise behavior 21.8% in the precontemplation stage, 26.5% in the contemplation stage, 25.2% in the preparation stage, 7.3% in the action stage, and 19.2% in the maintenance stage. Significant effects for stage of change were found for nine of the 10 processes of change and Pros, Cons, self-efficacy. Scores on these variables were found to increase across the stage of exercise behaviors from precontemplation to maintenance. Discriminant analysis revealed that self-efficacy and stimulus control, and reinforcement management were the major correlates of the stage of exercise behaviors. Conclusion: The findings of this study give useful information for exercise intervention, by using strategies of exercise for chronic arthritis patients in different stages of exercise behavior.
A Survey on Experience and Illness Management of Rural Women with Osteoarthritis
Son, Jung-Tae ; Park, Sang-Youn ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 419~427
Purpose: This descriptive survey was done to assess how rural women with osteoarthritis perceive their symptoms, what are their treatment preferences, and how they manage their illness. Method: Individual interviews were carried out with 205 women with osteoarthritis living in rural areas. Structured questionnaires were used and the interviewers were 7 trained research assistants. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis with SPSS win 11.5 program. Results: Of the respondents, 68.8% were overweight and 15.1% were obese, 86.9% reported pain in the knees, low back, and shoulders and the average pain score was 66.06. Those knowing the exact diagnosis accounted for 73.7% of the respondents but only 49.7% reported receiving medical treatments, and 40.2% who received treatment adhered to their prescription. Folk medicines were used by 14.1% of the respondents, but 65.2% among them reported that folk medicines were not effective. Exercise 2.03 times per week was reported by 17.1% of the respondents and 48.6% reported preferring to walk. Conclusion: Women with osteoarthritis in rural areas need a rehabilitative care program focused on exercise. The community health care system in the rural area should deliver optimal health care for this population. The results of this study can be used as a basis for planning intervention programs for women with osteoarthritis in the rural area.
Perceived Anxiety and Uncertainty in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Recipients to and from Isolation Unit
Kim, Hye-Jo ; Choi, Dong-Won ; Park, Ho-Ran ; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 428~436
Purpose: To investigate the levels of uncertainty and anxiety at admission and discharge to the isolation unit for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Method: The data were collected from 60 patients who were admitted to the department of HSCT. Uncertainty and anxiety were assessed using the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale (MUIS) and Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Collected data were analyzed using the SAS program. Results: The mean score for anxiety at admission was 2.20, and at discharge 2.10. The mean score for uncertainty at admission was 2.19, and at discharge 2.07. The anxiety at admission the group with physical discomfort was higher than that of group without physical discomfort. A positive relationship was found between anxiety and uncertainty at admission and at discharge. The major variables were expectation for cure and physical discomfort, explaining 25.87% of the anxiety at admission. The major variable was expectation for cure, explaining 20.94% of the uncertainty at admission. Conclusion: Front the above results, it can be concluded that support and consideration are required to reduce anxiety of the inpatient in single room.
Stress, Coping, and Depression in Patients Following Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Kim, Kyung-Eon ; Yoo, Yang-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 437~446
Purpose: This study was done to identify the level of stress, coping, and depression among hemopoietic stem cell transplantation patients who received care in an outpatient center. Method: Data were collected from 81 patients who underwent hemopoietic stem cell transplantation at C University S Hospital between August 2005 and February 2006. Results: Stress and depression were significantly higher following hemopoietic stem cell transplantation in women, and in patients who were worse off financially or who were in bad health. The highest item of stress was 'economic burden for treatment'. There were significantly higher levels of emotion-focused coping among patients who had a spouse and who received motivation from the doctor. The highest item for problem-focused coping was 'try to look at the bright side of life'. The highest items for emotion-focused coping were to 'have faith that treatment will be finished quickly' and 'believe that your situation will improve'. Stress was significantly correlated with depression among these patients. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop nursing interventions to enhance positive coping and to decrease stress and depression among patients who have a hemopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Symptom Experience and Related Factors in Patients with Angina Pectoris
Woo, Soo-Hee ; Eom, Ae-Yong ; Oh, Eui-Geum ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 447~456
Purpose: This study was done to examine symptom experiences and related factors in angina patients. Method: The participants were 92 patients admitted to C university hospital between October and December 2004. The tools used were a questionnaire on symptom experience related to angina developed by Gensini(Coronary Angiographic Gensini Score). Global Assessment of Recent Stress Scale and a tool measuring performance of health behavior. Results: The mean score for symptom experience was relatively low (M=27.65, SD=18.44) as was the score for coronary severity (Gensini score) was 16.30 point (SD=18.04). The mean score for perceived stress was moderate (M=30.16, SD=12.26). Compliance was relatively good in these patients with angina (M=61.55, SD=7.60). Analysis of the correlation of symptom experience showed a statistically significant positive relationship with perceived stress (r=.410, p=.000). There was significant negative relationship (r=-.251, p=.016) between symptom experience and compliance. In the regression analysis, symptom experience was found to be significantly influenced by stress (
=.168, p=.000), age (
=.057, p=.002), and economic status (
=.061, p=.007). These variables explained 26.2% of the variance in symptom experience. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that symptoms of angina can present not only as chest pain itself but also with fatigue, shortness of breath, and sleep disturbance as the most common symptoms.
Survey of Perception of Complementary and Alternative Therapies (CAT)
Kim, Keum-Soon ; Yi, Myung-Sun ; An, Kyung-Eh ; Yu, Han-Jin ; Kwon, So-Hi ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 457~466
Purpose: This study was done to investigate oncology nurses' perception, attitude, knowledge and practice of CAT and to describe nurses' needs for education on CAT Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 270 oncology nurses working at four medical centers in Seoul and Kyungki participated in this study. They completed the questionnaire between December 2005 and February 2006. Results: Oncology nurses perceived CAT as possible nursing interventions, but felt that there was no conclusive evidence on effectiveness/safety. Of the participants 44.4% have used CAT for themselves, and 73.9% of them were satisfied after using CAT. Two biggest reasons for CAT use were symptom control and emotional support. However, 80.8% of the participants had not had any training related to CAT Both nurses who have used CAT and those who have been trained to practice CAT represented a more positive perception toward CAT (p=.000). The biggest perceived obstacles to the practice of CAT were concerns about side effects (71.2%) and lack of knowledge and skill (69.6%). The most favorable CAT modalities in both practice and training were mind-body medicine. Conclusion: Overall oncology nurses' perception toward CAT was encouraging. However a high number of the nurses reported lack of knowledge and skill in CAT Education and training strategy for CAT need to be developed.
The Effects of a Communication Training Program on Communication and Interpersonal Relationship for Student Nurses in Clinical Practice
Song, Eun-Ju ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 467~473
Purpose: This study was done to Identify the effects of a communication training program on communication skills and interpersonal relationships. Method: A communication training program was provided to student nurses who were selected as participants during a course of clinical practice. Of the students 23 were assigned to experimental group and 22 to the control group. The experimental part of the study was done with the experimental group during 6 week program course. The control group received only a communication theory course. Results: Communication and interpersonal relations scores on the post-test in the experimental group were significantly higher than in the control group. Conclusion: This program allowed nursing students to advance their communication skills during their clinical trials. These are skills which are necessary for nursing practice. The study demonstrated that a group training program that can provide students with practical support by improving the personal relationship.
An Analysis of the Nursing Research on Communication in Korea
Song, Mi-Ryeong ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 474~484
Purpose: This research was done in order to provide basic data for future research on communication and development of programs. Research methods and key areas of previous nursing research on communication in Korea were analyzed. Method: Journals with themes or titles 'nurse-patient communication', 'nursing and communication' and 'interaction between nurse-patient' were searched through internet search engines. Results: The most prevalent research design was survey and nurses were the main participants. Questionnaire was the most frequently used method to obtain the necessary data for the research. The most frequent nursing research topic regarding communication in Korea was the form of the communications such as 'types of communication', and 'organizational communication'. Conclusion: For future nursing research regarding communications in Korea, the participants and themes should be broadened. There is also a need to develop objective methods to measure and assess the results of communication so as to enable actual application of the results of the studies.
Body Satisfaction and Weight Loss in Women College Students
Chaung, Seung-Kyo ; Min, So-Young ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 485~492
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify body satisfaction and weight loss experience according to individual's discrepancy between obesity by BMI (body mass index) and self-assessment. Method: The data were obtained by measuring height, weight and using a questionnaire to obtain data on self-assessment of obesity, body satisfaction and weight loss experience. The participants were 286 women college students in J city, Chungbuk. Results: The mean BMI of the women college student was
which is within the normal range. The concordance rates between obesity by BMI and self-assessment were 54.1%, 39.9%, 61.5%, 78.6% (Kappa=.29) in underweight, normal, overweight, obese students respectively. Forty seven percent of students who were not obese (BMI $<23kg/m^2$) assessed themselves as obese. The mean body satisfaction of college students was very low and 64.3% of the students had a weight loss experience. The students who perceived themselves to be 'obese' even when their BMI was under
reported lower body satisfaction and higher weight loss experience than other students. Conclusion: There were significant discrepancies between obesity by BMI and self-assessment in women college students. The self-assessment of obesity had a greater effect on body satisfaction and weight loss experience than actual BMI in women college students.
Relationship between Health Related Lifestyle and Health Status of Student Nurses
Jo, Hyun-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 493~500
Purpose: This study was done to investigate the relationship between health related lifestyle and health status. Method: A survey was conducted with a questionnaire. Participants were 220 student nurses who were selected from G College, Incheon, Korea. ANOVA, t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data on health related lifestyle and health status. Results: First year student nurses had significantly higher score on health related lifestyle than senior students. But the social health status of senior students was significantly higher than that of first year students. Social health status was shown to be high for the students who had never been ill, who lived in their own house, and whose economic status was at the median level. There was a statistically significant correlation between health related lifestyle and health status (physical, emotional and social). Conclusion: Health related lifestyle has a significant influence on physical, emotional and social health. Also health conception, disease experience and economic status are related to physical, social health, and where the student lives has an effect on health related lifestyle.
A Survey on the Meaning in Life of Elderly People
Jung, Yu-Jin ; Shin, Kyung-Il ; Choi, Soon-Ock ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 501~509
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure meaning in life of elderly and to delineate basic data for developing nursing strategies for improving the meaning in life of elderly. Method: Subjects were 240 elderly above 65 years old staying in Busan and Kyungnam Province. The data was collected from May to Jun 2004. The instrument was utilizing Elderly Meaning In Life(EMIL) scale developed by Choi et al.(2003). Results: The mean for elderly was 100.4, the range was from 37 to 148. 63.3% of subjects were in existential vacuum. The mean of 1 phase 'acceptance and awareness of self and life' was 36.9, 2 phase 'creative value realization' was 17.8, 3 phase 'experiential value realization' was 2.8, 4 phase 'contentedness of past and present' was 43.7. There were significant differences according to the gender, religion, educational level, spouse, spending money, living arrangement and disease. Conclusion: On the viewpoint of above results, 63.3% of subjects were in level of existential vacuum, which required logotherapy. Therefore it shows that developing nursing-logotherapy to improve the meaning in life for elderly is demanded.
Development of a Premature Infant Pain Scale (PIPS)
Kim, Mi-Soon ; Kim, Mi-Jin ; Ham, Eun-Ha ; Kim, Kyoung-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 13, issue 3, 2006, Pages 510~519
Purpose: To develop and validate a scale suitable and efficient scale for use in clinical practice as to assess pain in premature infants. Method: Pain indicators identified by observation of preform infants. A cohort of preform infants was studied prospectively to determine the construct validity, inter-rater reliability, and internal consistency of the scale. The PIPS uses four indicators of pain: corrected gestational age, heart rate, oxygen saturation, behavioral state. The validation study included 45 premature infants with gestational age of 37 weeks or less. Results: The inter-rater reliability of the PIPS was acceptable, with Pearson correlations ranging from.720 to.970. Internal consistency was high: Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from.551 to.653. There was a strong correlation between the PIPS and PIPP scores (each researcher's r=.743, each indicator's r=.914). Although gestational age showed no association between these factors and the sum, the other variables were positively associated with the sum. Time needed to calculate PIPS scores is was less than Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) scores(p<.000). Conclusion: The validation data suggest that the PIPS is appropriate and efficient for assessing pain in premature infants. Further studies are required about to determine appropriate interventions for each pain score on the PIPS.