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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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Volume & Issues
Volume 4, Issue 2 - Dec 1997
Volume 4, Issue 1 - Jun 1997
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Literature Review about Sexual Adjustment for Chronic Illness and Disabilities
Kim Soon-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 7~17
Improving quality of life can be achieved by rehabilitating one socially and restoring their sexual life. Holistic care for persons with disabilities means the rehabilitation nurse intervenes when problems of sexual function are discovered, observed, or expressed. However, most people with chronic illnesses and disabilities must confront prevalent myths about their sexual nature and abilities. These myths often have their basis in the notion, common in our society, that the only people who are sexual are those who are young and beautiful. People who are obese, old, or do not conform to current standards of sexual attractiveness are usually deemed as asexual or undesirable. These narrow sterotypes have been particularly damaging to physically or mentally disabled people. People with chronic illnesses and disabilities often have special needs regarding their sexual behavior. Most of us will confront chronic illness or disability in our own lives to some degree. In addition, illnss or disability can occur at any age. In this study, I discuss some of the special needs of people with chronic illnesses and disabilities and the methods of coping with those needs. I also discuss some of the sexual concerns that people with chronic illnesses and disabilities have in common, and the assessment of sexual function and nursing strategies through literature review.
Study on the Body Temperature Measuring Time and Accuracy and Reliability of Tympanic Thermometer
Jeong Ihn-Sook ; Yoo Eun-Jung ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 19~30
This study was to investigate the method for shortening the body temperature (BT) because it takes a long time and is impractical to measure axillary or oral BT with mercury thermometer, The first approach was to identify BT change according to the measuring time and determine the clinically not statistically avaiable and optimal BT measuring time. The second was to test the accuracy of tympanic thermometer. It can measure BT within a few seconds, so if it is approved accurate, we can save BT measuring time by substitute tympanic thermometer for mercury thermometer. This study was conducted from 1, to 30 June, 1996. The subjects were 12men students of medicalk college and 29 women students of nursing school. The results were as follows ; 1) The 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13minute-measured axillary BT and 3, 5, 7, minute-measured BT showed somewhat linear relationship with time. It was difficult to find the optimum measuring time which were clinically significant. 2) For axillary tempeiature, the measuring time which were not statistically different was 11 and 13minute. But the real BT difference between 3 and 13minute, or between 5 and 13minute were very small and was within the range of daily variation. 3) For oral temperature, there was no intervals which showed the statistically insignificant. But like as axillary temperature, the difference between 3 and 7, or 5 and 7 minute were trivial by
respectively. 4) Tympanic temperatures were lower than oral BTs which were measured with mercury thermometer by
(with ear tug) and
(without ear tug). 5) The reliability of repeated measure tympanic temperature was better than without ear tug. With above results, we can't determine the optimal and cilically significant oral and axillary measuring time using mercury thermometer. However, because the real differences between measuring times were very small, so we recommend further study for the aged, the infants and the febrile patients. And we can't sure the accuracy of tympanic temperature but the reliability was better with ear tug than without ear tug.
The Factors Affecting The Nurse-Patient Interaction
Kim In-Ja ; Son Haeng-Mi ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 31~42
The factors that affect the nurse-patient interaction were identified. Sixty-six nurses participated in the cross-sectional survey. Based upon the literature, the factors were classified into 4 categories : the patient, the nurse, the family caregiver, and the situational factors. The data were collected with the open-and closed-ended questionnaire developed by researchers. In the closed-ended questionnaire, the significant factors differentiating the best-liked from the least-liked caring situation were found in all factors except the nurse factors. None of the nurse factors was found to be significant. In patient factors, the physically attractive stereotype was found to affect patient-nurse interaction. As expected, family caregiver factors were found to affect the nurse-patient interaction. The content analysis was done to identify the specific factors affecting nurse-patient interaction. In both of the best-liked and the least-liked caring situations, the patient factors were the most contributing causes as likely as 68.51% and 66.45%, respectively. Some factors that nurses perceived as causes for the best-liked and the least-liked to care were presented. In conclusion, these results show that nurses are influenced by stereotypes in caring patients. So, some programs to increase awareness of the biases of nurses are included in in-service education. Also the incentives to encourage nurses are needed.
A Study on Prevalence and Nursing Intervention of Bed Sore Patients who Received Regional Home Care Services
Kim Keum-Soon ; Cho Nam-Ok ; Park Young-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 43~60
This study was to identify the nursing intervention method in finding out the incidence, risk factor, prevention and treatment of bed sore cilents who received regional home care nursing services. The eleven home care nurse practitioners took the survey on 97 patients who received home care nursing service from Seoul City Nurses Association for one month from September 26 to October 26 1996. A modified version of Braden's bed sore assessment tool for bed sore risks and a tool for assessment of bed sore stage and measurement bed sore sizes by Bergstrom, Braden, Laguzza and Holman(1987) were as research tools for this study and a questionnare with 40 questions and 12 items on nursing activities was used to find out the prevention and treatment of bed sores. Also, two open ended questions were used on current approaches and efforts of the treatment being applied to clients. The finding of the study were summarized as following : 1. The rate of bed sore occurrence was 47.4% 2. The areas of bed sore occurrence were hip(28.9%), sacrum(18.6%), great trochanter(14.4%) and the average number of sore spots were 2.26 3. Two groups-one with bed sores and the other without-were studied to determine prediction factors for bed sore risks. Sensory function, humidity, level of activity, mobility, nutrition, skin friction and chapping and body temperature turned out to be statistically significant factors for bed sores. Also the age of clients turned out to be a individual characteristic variable significantly affecting the rate of bed sore occurrences. 4. The education for clients and family on systematic skin assessment and bed sores and practice of active/passive R.O.M. are mainly used as nursing activities for bed sore care. 5. The treatment method varied by stages of bed sores. Sometimes folk remedies like applying the powders of dried elm tree roots to sores were used. Good nutrition, frequent position change and skin care turned to be the most effective means to fast recovery of sores.
Survey on the Relationship Self-esteem and Professional Self-concept of Nurses
Noh Choon-Hee ; Sohng Kyeong-Yae ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 61~71
This survey was done to identify the self esteem of nurses in Korea. Data was collected from 700 nurses in hospital setting. These data were collected by self-reporting questionnaire, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, Professional self-concept of nurses instrument, from Dec. 1994 to Jan. 1995. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics with SAS program. The results of this study were as follows : 1. The mean of self-esteem was 30.74. 2. The correlation between self-esteem and PSCNI was slightly moderate(r=.5739). 3. The self-esteem of nurses was found to be significant by age(P=.0245), religion(P=.0004), position(P=.0186). This study suggested that we need to identify the factors influencing self-esteem and to design the program increasing self-esteem.
A Study on Prevalence and its Relating Factors of Urinary Incontinence in Women
Kim Keum-Soon ; Suh Moon-Ja ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 73~85
The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of the urinary incontinence and it's relating factors in women. The target population is 327 community dwelling women in the age of 30-70 years old at 6 cities in Korea. The data were collected from August, 1996 to December. 1996 with interview using structured questionaire composing of items of general characteristics, obstetric characteristics, disease characteristics, situation of experiencing urinary incontinence, discomfort due to urinary incontinence, and depression. The data were analysed with
test, and ANOVA test. The results obtained from this study were as follows : 1) The prevalence of urinary incontinence in women is 37.7%(130/327). 2) The mean duration of experiencing the urinary incontinence was 75.9 months and the 60% of the respondents experienced a few frequency of urinary incontinence and the most common amount of urinary incontinence(91.5%) was somewhat small expressed as 'wetting their clothes'. 3) The common factors related to the urinary incontinence were coughing, sneezing, laughing aloudly, and the activities of need for hurry. 4) The most common situations of discomforts associated with urinary incontinence were having long journey, exercise, playing, and social meeting. 5) The incidence of urinary incontinence was significantly higher in woman who had more children, older age of last delivery, more vaginal delivaries, and less c-section. 6) The incidence of urinary incontinence was not affected with the disease characteristics of the respondents, however it was higher when the women had the physical problems of constipation, abdominal laparatomy and episode of urinary catheterization than who had not. 7) The most common symptom of urinary incontinence was the frequent urine(43.1%), and the next was the urgent urine(12.3), delayed urine(9.2%). 8) 90.7% of the epsodic urinary incontinence were not treated at al, however, they wanted to try the herb medicine(41.5%), Kegel exercise(27.7%), and biofeedback(10.0%). 9) The level of Depression in the group of urinary incontinence was higher than that of non incontinence group significantly. In conclusion, as urinary incontinence in women proved severe health problem, health care providers need to develop and provide nursing intervention of urinary incontinence such as pelvic muscle exercise with bio-feedback and psychological care.
The Effects of the Resistance Exercise Program on the Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient's Functional Disability, Biochemical Parameters, Self-Efficacy and Family Support
Kil Suk-Yong ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 87~101
This Research is an attempt to find out what effects the resistance exercise program has on the rheumatoid arthritis patient's functional disability and biochemical parameters. The research took place from June to November 1996, and the target included an experimental group of 25 cases of rheumatoid arthritis and a control group of 26 cases of rheumatoid arthritis taken from the Anam Medical Center at Korea University. The resistance exercise program was executed on these patients five times a week during a period of eight weeks. Before and after the experiments, measurements of functional disability score, ESR, CRP, self-efficacy, and family support were taken and closely analysed. The results of this analysis are as follows : 1. After the experiment, the experimental group had less functional disabilities compared to the control group(t=9.11, P=0.0017). 2. After the experiment, the ESR of both the experimental and the control groups decrease, but there was not notable difference between the two groups(t=0.07, P=0.9546). 3. After the experiment, the CRP of both the experimental and the control groups decreased, with no significant different between them(t=0.53, P=0.6022). 4. After the experiment, the self-efficacy of the experimental group increased significantly compared to the control group(t=3.15, P=0.0042), but the self-efficacy had no effect on the actual practice of the program. 5. After the experiment, the family support of the experimental group was higher than of the control group(t=6.33, P=0.0013), but again the family support had no effect on the actual practice of the program. Judging from the results of these experiments, the resistance exercise program not only diminishes rheumatoid arthritis patients' functional disabilities, but also has a great influence on increasing their self-efficacy and family support. Concluding, in diminishing the functional disabilities of rheumatoid arthritis, the resistance exercise program would be appropriate nursing intervention.
Effects of Behavior Modification and Aerobic Exercise on the Degree of Obesity, Eating Behavior, Depression and Self Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls
Chaung Seung-Kyo ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 103~117
This study was designed to investigate the effects of behavior medication and aerobic exercise on the degree of obesity, eating behavior, depression and self esteem among adolescent girls who were overweight and obese. Forty seven subjects were selected from one girl's middle school located in Seoul. Seventeen girls received the behavior modification program by joining 60-90 minute group session weekly. Behavior modification, in this study, consisted of self-monitoring, changing patterns of life style and attitudes, teaching nutrition and physical activities, and asking personal help. The aerobic exercise program was given to 16 girls 3 times per week with 60 minutes each time. Forteen girls received both behavior modification and aerobic exercise. These interventions continued for 8 weeks. Changes after intervention were examined twice after 4 weeks and 8 weeks for degree of obesity and once after 8 weeks only for eating behavior, depression and self esteem. The results were as follows ; 1. Degree of obesity was significantly decreased after 4 weeks and 8 weeks in 3 groups. Degree of obesity after 4 weeks and 8 weeks were not significantly different among 3 groups. 2. The mean score of eating behavior related to obesity decresed significantly after intervention in the behavior modification group only. There was significant difference in eating behavior among 3 groups after intervention. 3. The behavior modification group showed no significant changes in depression and self esteem after intervention. In the aerobic exercise group and group who participated in both behavior modification and aerobic exercise, the level of depression decreased significantly and the level of self esteem increased significantly. There were no significant differences in the level of depression and self esteem among 3 groups after intervention. These findings indicate that behavior modification might be effective in decreasing degree of obesity and eating behavior related to obesity, aerobic exercise be effective in decreasing degree of obesity and the level of depression, and also in increasing the level of self esteem.
A Study of the Classification of Nursing Diagnoses
Shon Young-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 119~131
This study was conducted to analyze the nursing diagnoses applied for case studies of nursing students through their clinical practices, and to provide the educational basis of nursing diagnoses with its results. The data were collected for two years(1995 and 1996) from 70 case studies reported by the 2nd and 3rd year nursing junior college students. The students made 259 nursing diagnoses among which 230 diagnoses qualified NANDA classification and were taken for analysis. The results of the analysis were as follows : 1. The number of diagnoses indicating response patterns was 35(35.7%), whereas 98 diagnoses in NANDA table. Among the 35 diagnoses, the pattern of exchange was most frequent, then feeling, moving, knowing in rank. 2. The diagnoses were analyzed in the categories of response patterns. For Instance, 'Altered in Nutrition' was most frequent in exhange, then Risk for Infection', 'Ineffective Airway Clearance', in rank. 3. Among 230 diagnoses, 'Knowle Deficit' was most frequently mentioned, then 'Activity Intolerance' 'Anxiety', 'Pain', 'Altered in Nutrition', 'Risk for Infection', 'Ineffective airway clearance', in rank. 4. The types of word expression of each diagnoses were various. 'Activity Intolerance' was expressed in 6 types. 5. The relating factors applied to each diagnosis were analyzed. For Instance, the relating factor of 'Knowledge Deficit' were illness, and therapeutic process, lack of motivation, occurrance of complication, short experience, operation, and so on. From the above study, the researcher would like to recommend as follows : 1) The current diagnoses need to be verified its content validity, when they are applied to our culture. 2) The most effective educational method for applying nursing diagnoses should be explored. 3) Further study could be focused on not only 'relating factors' but also 'sign and symptoms'.
Perceived Weight and Health Promoting Behavior - Normal and Overweight Adults -
Jo Hyun-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 133~146
The objective of this study was to clarify whether there are any differences between normal and over-weight adults in their perceived weight, health status, health conception and health promoting behavior. The sample consisted of 238 normal weight and 106 over-weight(11% above on the Body Index Scale) adults, more than 20 years-old, who live in Seoul metropolitan. One participant per household was selected for conveneience. The findings from this study are summarized below. 1) Among 106 overweight adults, 30 were above 20% on the Body Index Scale and 11 were above 30%. Twenty-one(19.8%) of the overweight group and 34(14.4%) of the normal weight group had one disease, and there were 30(28.3%) in the overweight group and 46(19.6%) in the normal weight group where one of the family members had a disease, but these differences were not statistically significant. The average monthly family income for the overweight group was \2,220,000 compared to \2,070,000 for the normal weight group, and this difference was statistically significant. The age range for the whole group was between 20 and 74(mean=35.6 for total, 39.4 for overweight and 34.0 for normal weight group). Again significant difference was found. Occupations were salaryman(57.6%), teacher(7.4%), student(5.4%) and others(27.3%). Fifty-six salaryman(70.0%) from the overweight group and 92(52.0%) from the normal group did not consitute a statistically significant different. For the educational status, 90(87.5%) of the overweight adults and 222(93.7%) of the normal weight group finished high school or more educational courses, and there was significant statistical difference. Ninety-two(86.8%) of the overweights and 156(65.5%) of the normal weight group were married, and again significant statistical difference was found. 2) A test for difference in health characteristics between the two weight groups indicated that two groups did not show statistical differences in their perceived health status, health conception or health promoting behavior. That is, the overweight group also perceive their health status as good as the normal group, and regard 'Health' as a state that enables them to carry out social roles and functions rather than as the traditional concept of health as no disease or no symptoms. Both group showed slightly high level of health promoting behavior. To determine if no statistical difference might be related to the overweight group's failure of perceive themselves as overweight, the perceived and objective overweight status were compared by the Pearson Correlation Analysis, and a strong corelationship was found(r=.76, p=.000). That is, if participants perceived themselves as overweighted, they thought and replied to be got more weight comparing to the other person who are in same age and sex. However, 43(18.1%) of the normal group perceived themselves as being overweight and 28(26.4%) of the overweight group thought they were of normal weight. Even though the overweight group employed in this study perceived themselves as being overweight, they regarded themselves as healthy as those in the normal weight group. It was shown that there was no statistical difference between the two groups in health conception, health status and health promoting behavior. 3) Perceived health conception was shown to be significantly related to health promoting behavior(r=.20, p=.004 for whole group ; r=.27, p=.009 for overweight group ; and r=.21, p=.001 for normal group). It means that in both group the higher perceived health conception level, the more frequent health promoting behavior. And, perceived health status was also shown to be significantly related to health promoting behavior(r=.16, p=.000) as a whole and especially for overweight group(r=.24, p=.018), but no significant relationship for normal group(r=.08, p=.620). 4) By means of multiple regression analysis, health conception, perceived health status, age, sex and marital status provided predicted 15.18% on health promoting behavior.
The Relationship of Anxiety, Hopelessness, and Family Suppoort of Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Park Jum-Hee ; Lee Hyoun-Ju ; Kim Hyun-Mi ; Lyu Eun-Kyung ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 4, issue 1, 1997, Pages 147~162
This study was attempted to provide the basic data for nursing intervention to improve the psychosociological adaptation of patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer by examining relationship between anxiety and hopelessness that they are experiencing and family support, in order to help them successfully cope with various psychological problems. This study was carried out with 93 breast cancer patients who are receiving chemotherapy in the injection treatment room of K University Hospital located in the downtown of Taegu after having underwent mastectomy in the hospital between December 1995 and August 1996. This study used the systematized questionnaires which contain 7 questions about general characteristics, Spielberger's trait anxiety & state anxiety scale, the tool that WON(1987) modified the hopelessness scale which was developed by Beck et al.(1967) and the family support tool made by TAE(1985). By using the SPSS/PC program, this study obtained the real number and percentage for the general characteristics of the subjects, and mean and standard variation for the degrees of trait anxiety, state anxiety, hopelessness and family support. The correlation between each variables was identified on the basis of the Pearson Correlation, and the degrees of trait anxiety, state anxiety, hopelessness and family support in the general characteristics of the subjects were analyzed by using the t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan test. The results of this study were summarized as follows. In the general characteristics of the subjects, most of each group were 51 years old or more and the middle class in income, had educational background under elementary school, no job, Buddhism in religion and spouse, and were receiving chemotherapy using MTX and 5FU. It was shown that the degree of the subjects' trait anxiety is, on an average, 50. 29, state anxiety 49. 68, hopelessness 51. 46 and family support 34. 28. Both trait anxiety and hopelessness showed normal correlation ; the higher the degree of trait anxiety is, the higher the degree of hopelessness is, while trait anxiety and family support showed reverse correlation ; the higher the degree of trait anxiety, the lower the degree of family support that the subjects perceive is. State anxiety and hopelessness also showed normal correlation ; the higher the degree of state anxiety is, the higher the degree of hopelessness is. Family support and hopelessness showed reverse correlation ; the higher the degree of family support is, the lower the degree of hopelessness that the subjects perceive is. And family support and state anxiety showed reverse correlation but there was a statistically significant difference. The degree of trait anxiety in the general characteristics of the subjects showed a significant difference by age, job and religion, the degree of state anxiety a signigicant difference by job and religion, the degree of hopelessness a signigicant difference by age, educational background and existence or not of spouse. In conclusion, the breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy perceive anxiety and hopelessness due to several causes such as diagnosis itself or side effects of chemotherapy, so that it is required not only to develop specific nursing interventions including family support to alleviate anxiety and hopelessness but also to apply such interventions to clinical practice.