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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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Journal DOI :
Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Dec 2000
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Aug 2000
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Apr 2000
Selecting the target year
Pathway of stroke patients seeking medical care
Byun Young-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 149~163
The purposes of this study were to investigate the pathway which stroke patients take in seeking medical care and to identify factors which influence that pathway. This study was conducted by a survey. The subjects were 130 adults, who were diagnosed with a stroke between January and April of 2000. Data was collected by means of a interview, questionnaires, and an Activity Index. The result of this study are summarized as follows: 1. The mean age of subject was 61.58 years. Forty-nine percent were men and fifty percent were women. The majority of the subjects were married. For educational level, thirty-three percent finished elementary school, and twenty-three percent, high school. Most of the subjects reported 'middle' economic status. Ninety-two percent lived with their spouse and children. The diagnosis for seventy-two percent was ischemic stroke and for twenty-two percent, hemorrhagic stroke. 2 The most frequent early sign of stroke was hemiplegia(43.3%), loss of consciousness (36.7%), dysarthria(33.3%). The type of hospital first used was a herb hospital(40.8%), or a western hospital(59.2%). The factors in their choice were ; distance from the hospital to the place that the stroke occurred(47.5%), desire for a herb hospital(15.8%), and an invitation(12.9%). The ischemic stroke patients preferred herb hospitals, but hemorrhagic stroke patients preferred a western hospitals. 3. The pattern of stroke patients seeking medical care was that forty-three percent of stroke patients pass through step 1, forty-six percent, through step 2, and 8.5% through step 3. The more steps, the higher the use of herb hospitals. 4. The factors influencing the pathway of stroke patients seeking medical care were diagnosis, and level of consciousness. Ischemic stroke patients used herb hospitals, more frequently hemorrhagic stroke patients, who used western hospitals. The alert patient preferred a herb hospital, but stupor patients preferred a western hospital. 5. The Activity Index was not related to the pathway which stroke patients used in seeking medical care.
Decisional balance corresponding to the Stage of Change of Smoking Cessation in Middle Aged Men
Chang Sung-Ok ; Park Chang-Seung ; Min In-Sun ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 164~176
Purpose : This study was done to identify the factors of decisional balance for smoking cessation among middle aged men in Korea. This was composed of a set of variables at the level of decision making when middle aged men decide to stop smoking. It was used to classify and identify the characteristics of the stages of change for smoking cessation to which the middle aged men belong, and was used to identify the variables of decisional balance which influenced the stages of change for smoking cessation in middle aged men. Methods : A convenience sample of 169 men who had smoked and were smoking, were between age 30 and 60 and lived in Seoul(mean age=44), were selected from the community. The data was collected from December 10, 1999 to February 28, 2000. The research instrument was the Decisional Balance Measure for Smoking Cessation (Velicer et al., 1985). and Stage of Change Measure(DiClemente et al., 1991). The data were analyzed using the SAS Program. Results : 1. According to stage of change measure, the 169 subjects were distributed in each stage of change for smoking cessation: in the pre-contemplation stage 63 subjects(32.7%), contemplation stage 60 subjects (35.5%), preparation stage 17 subjects(10.1%), and maintenance stage 29 subjects(17.2%). 2. Factor analysis identified 4 factors of decisional balance as appropriate factors for smoking cessation of middle aged men. There were named by the researchers; 1)'Perceived Burden to Self', 2)'Perceived Benefit to Others' 3)'Perceived Approval to Others', and 4)'Perceived Disapproval to Self'. 3. Analysis of variance showed that the three components, 1)'Perceived Burden to Self(F=8.50, P=.0001)', 2)'Perceived Benefit to Others(F=3.19, P=.025)' and 3)'Perceived DisApproval to Self(F=2.87, P=.038)were significantly associated with stage of change. 4. Through discriminant analysis, it was found that 'Perceived Burden to self' was the most influential variable in discriminating the four stages of change(pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, and maintenance). Conclusion : The results are consistent with the application of the Transtheoretical model, which has been used to understand how people change health behavior. Even though this study is a cross-sectional, not a longitudinal study, the findings of this study give useful information for smoking cessation intervention for the middle aged men.
The effect of the aseptic dressing method on infusion phlebitis
Lee Kyu-Eun ; Yom Young-Hee ; Oh Jum-Sook ; Kim Kyung-Min ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 177~191
The purpose of this study to conform the effect of the aseptic dressing method to prevent infusion phlebitis. One quaxi-experimental, nonequvalent control group post-test design was used to evaluate prevention of phlebitis between a control group and an experimental group. The data for the control group were collected from 100 hospitalized patients from July 1 to November 30, 1999. The data for the experimental group were collected from 100 hospitalized patients from December 1, 1999 to March 5, 2000. The control group used paper tape on the IV site and the experimental group used a sterile gauze dressing which was changed every 24 hours. Two sets of instruments were used for this study. First, instrument developed Weinstein(1993) and modified by the researcher was used for judging phlebitis. The second, instrument developed Park(1996) was used for assessment records concerning the phlebitis which developed. Catheter sites were inspected on a daily basis by unit nurses and development of phlebitis was grade and documented. Data were analyzed using
and stepwise regression The results are summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of phlebitis according to the duration of catheter insertion decreased in the experimental group(
, p<.05). 2. The incidence of phlebitis according to the duration of catheter insertion decreased in the experimental group(
, P<.0001). 3. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups in the severity of phlebitis. 4. A statistically significant difference between the two groups was found in the incidence of phlebitis according to the location of the insertion site. 5. No statistically significant difference between two groups was found in the incidence of phlebitis by age 6. A statistically significant difference between two groups was found in the incidence of phlebitis by sex(
, p<.05) 7. Further study revealed that the duration of catheter and sex were predictors of occurrence of the phlebitis, explaining 38.2%, 14.2% of the total variance respectively. In conclusion, the aseptic dressing method is recommended to be prevent infusion phlebitis.
The Effect of Foot Massage on Stress in Student Nurses in Clinical Practice
Won Jong-Soon ; Kim Keum-Soon ; Kim Kyung-Hee ; Kim Won-Ock ; Yu Jae-Hee ; Jo Hyun-Sook ; Jeong Ihn-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 192~207
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of foot massage on the stress of student nurses in clinical practice. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects of this study were 52 student nurses from three junior colleges and one university. The subjects were assigned to one of two groups : the experimental group(26 students), and the control group(26 students). The study was conducted from October to November 1999. For the experimental group the foot massage was performed once a day for 3 days, starting from the first day of clinical practice. Subjects' mood, fatigue, blood pressure and pulse rate were measured as dependent variables. The Instrument for mood and fatigue state was a 100mm visual analogue scale. For the experimental group pre and post tests were done just before and after every 3 foot massages and on the 7th clinical practice day. For the control group pretest was done on 1st clinical day and posttest was done on clinical practice 7th day. The data was analyzed by the t-test and paired t-test and the results are summarized as follows: 1. The mood state scores were significantly higher for the experimental group as compared to the control group after the foot massage(t=13.73, p<.001). 2. The fatigue state scores were significantly lower for the experimental group as compared to the control group after the foot massage(t=8.69, p<.001). 3. The systolic blood pressure was significantly different between the experimental group and the control group after the foot massage(t=3.0073, p<.01). 4. The diastolic blood pressure was not significantly different between the experiment group and the control group after the foot massage. 5. The pulse rate was not significantly different between the experiment group and the control group after foot massage. 6. The mood state scores on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd massage day was significantly improved right after the foot massage. 7. The fatigue state scores on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd massage day were significantly lower right after the foot massage. 8. Systolic blood pressure on the 1st and 2nd massage day was significantly decreased right after the foot massage. Diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were decreased right after massage but the change was not statistically significant. On the basis of the above findings, this study suggests that foot massage can be an effective stress relieving method for student nurses in clinical practice.
Efficacy of 1:1000 Diluted Heparin versus 0.9% Normal Saline for Maintenance of Intermittent Intravenous Locks
Park Mi-Mi ; Kim Chang-Hee ; Cho Eun-Suk ; Lee Mi-Jung ; Kim Hae-Suk ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 208~221
The objective of this research was to compare the flushing effects using 1:1,000 diluted heparin or 0.9% normal saline in relation to needle gauge and frequency of IV medications. The comparative categories were clotting, duration of patency, and incidence of phlebitis. The design of research was a Nonequivalent Control group, Post test, Nonsynchrorized Design. The independent variable was 0.9% normal saline flushing the IV locks and the dependent variables were clotting, duration of patency, and incidence of phlebitis. Subjects were medical-surgical inpatients over 15 years old and with peripherally placed IVs who were hospitalized in a university medical center. Exclusion criteria included foreigners and those who were rejected for this research. The final sample for data analysis included 295 IV sites in 194 patients; 154 were in the saline group and 141 were in the heparin group. Subjects were assigned to have IV locks is flushed with 0.9% normal saline in the experimental group and to have IV lock flushed with 1:1,000 diluted heparin(100 units) in the control group. In order to increase reliability, the nurses who were assigned to the units involved in the study received an explanation on the standard method for locking an IV, recording method for observational data and criteria for the detection of phlebitis. Data were collected for a period of 2 weeks, from March 16, 2000 to March 29, 2000. Total duration of IV was defined the time of IV insertion to the time of discontinuation. Phlebitis was defined as the presence of the following : pain, swelling. erythema at the insertion site. Chi-square was used to determine the association between the degree of clotting, duration of patency, and incidence of phlebitis for the diluted heparin or the normal saline and needle gauge and frequency of IV medications. The results are summarized as follows : (a) There was difference in the degree of clotting between two groups(
, p=.015). (b) There was no difference in the degree of duration of patency between two groups(
, p=.295). (c) There was no difference in the incidence of phlebitis between two groups(
, p=.663). (d) There was difference in the degree of clotting(
, p=.013) and in the degree of duration of patency(
, p=.031) according the needle guage between the two groups. (e) There was difference in the incidence of phlebitis(
, p=.025) according to the frequencies of IV injection between two groups.
The Effects of Music Therapy on recovery of consciousness and vital signs in post operative patient in the recovery room
Kim Sook-Jung ; Jun Eun-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 222~238
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effect of music therapy as a nursing intervention on changes in recovery of consciousness and vital signs for postoperative patients in the recovery room. The subject for this study were fifty three of postoperative patients who were transferred from the OR to the RR at Kwangju Christian Hospital in Kwangju City. Thirty of them were assigned to the experimental group, and twenty three, to the control group. The age of the subject was between twenty and sixty years of age. The subject had a general anesthesia without any special complications, and they were not completely awake. The data were collected for six months from July 1999 to February 2000. The method used was to compare the condition of the subjects in each group at the beginning and at certain times repeatedly. The features observed were the level of consciousness, the frequency of complaints of pain, and vital signs of the subject before and 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after hearing their favorite music for 30 minutes. The results are as follows 1. The recovery of consciousness was revealed through significant changes in facial expression, facial color, and grip strength in the experimental group more strongly than in the control group. No significant changes were shown in verbal order. The differences in recovery of consciousness in the pre-post music therapy between the two groups was not significant in verbal order, facial expression, or grip strength. However, significant changes were seen in facial color. 2. There were no significant differences between the two groups in changes in the frequency of pain complaints after music therapy. However, a significant difference was shown in the pre-post music therapy scres. 3. Vital signs did not show a significant difference between the two groups. However, the
of the experimental group was significantly elevated after 60 minutes. The difference pre-post to the music therapy in the vital signs between two groups was significant only in body temperature. This study showed that the effect of music therapy given to postoperative patients is that it promotes changes in facial expression, facial color, and grip strength helping recovery of consciousness, stabilizing vital signs, elevating levels of
. and reducing complaints of pain. It is recommended that if the patient wants it music therapy be given right after surgery in the recovery room as a nursing intervention.
A Study on the Care Needs of Family-Caregivers and the Level of Self Care for Patients of Cerebral Vascular Accident(CVA)
Cho Young-Hee ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 239~255
The purpose of this study was to explore the care needs of family-caregivers caring for patients with a CVA and the level of self care of the patients. The subjects for the study were 112 patients with a CVA and their caregivers. These patients were seen in a hospital or out-patient-department(OPD) at two oriental medical hospital in Jeonbuk province. The survey instruments used in this study were Kang's ADL checklist for self care of patients and Kim's Likert-style checklist for care needs of family-caregivers to patient with CVA. The survey was conducted from July 4 to August 30, 1999. Internal validity by calculation of Cronbach's alpha was 0.95, which was regarded as high. The survey results were analyzed using the SPSS program, with percentages, means, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results of this study are as follows : 1. The level of self care for patients with a CVA was : 1) complete dependence(M=14.9, 13.1%), 2) complete independence(M=23.6, 20.9%), 3) incomplete independence(M=23.9, 21.0%), 4) incomplete dependence(M=26.6, 25.0%), 5) dependence and independence(M=23.0, 20.0%). The items for which there was a high level of self care were : 1) drinking(M=3.62), 2) eating (M=3.25), 3) position returning(M=3.18) : and the items for which there was a low level of self care were : 1) ascending and descending stairs(M=2.08), 2) walking(M=2.47). 3) putting on and taking off trousers(M=2.55). 2. The mean score of the sum of the care needs of the family-caregivers was : 1) need for immediate care and help: 2) need of the way to communicate with patient: 3) need for education and assistance related to physical functional level: 4) need to be informed about the disease, treatment and care: 5) need for social support and consultation: 6) need for appreciation: 7) need for management of nursing problems related to immobility. The highest meed factor was the need for immediate care and help(M=3.47): and lowest need factor was the need for management of nursing problems related to immobility(M=2.80). 3. There were significant differences between the level of care need and general characteristic of the caregivers, there were family-caregivers age(P=0.001), marital status (P=0.276), occupation (P=0.006), monthly income(P=0.000), Patient's relationship to caregivers(P=0.004) and health(P=0.000). 4. There were significant differences between the level of self care and general characteristic of the patients, there were patient paralytic condition(P=0.01), blood pressure(P=0.01), and length of suffering(P=0.03). 5 There were significant differences between the level of care need and the general characteristic factors, which were CVA patient's blood pressure (P=0.05), problem of medical fee (P=0.05). 6. There was significantly correlation with the family-caregivers care need and the level of self care in the CVA patient(r=0.300, P=0.000). As a result, need to promote the level of self care in patients and to meet the care need of family-caregivers for more efficient nursing of CVA patients, is emphasized. Therefore more study is needed on an efficient way to provide rehabilitation and quality nursing interventions for family-caregivers and patients with CVA.
Effects of changing position on cardiac output & on patient's discomforts after cardiac surgery
Yu Mi ; Kwon Eun-Ok ; Choi Yun-Kyoung ; Kang Hyun-Ju ; Oh Se-Eun ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 256~270
Invasive hemodynamic monitoring has become a valuable assessment parameters in critical care nursing in patients undergoing open heart surgery patients. During cardiac surgery, the Swan Ganz catheter is placed in the pulmonary artery. Critical care nurses routinely obtain cardiac output, cardiac index, and pulmonary arterial pressure in these patients. Traditionally, patients are positioned flat and supine for cardiac output measurement. Numerous studies have dealt with the effects of changing position on the hemodynamic variables. However, there are a few studies dealing with patients who undergo cardiac surgery in Korea. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of changing position on cardiac output, PAP, CVP, BP, HR and discomfort in patients after cardiac surgery. A sample of 21 adults who had CABG and/or valve replacement with Swan Ganz catheters in place was studied. The data were collected in the cardiac ICU of a university hospital in Seoul during the period from July 28, 1999 to August 30. 1999. In this study, the independent variable is patient position in the supine, 30 degree, and 45 degree angles. Dependent variables are C.O., C.I., CVP, PAP, MAP, HR and patients' perceived discomforts. Subject discomfort was measured subjectively by visual analogue scale. Other hemodynamic data where collected by the thermodilution method and by direct measurement. The data were analyzed by percentile, t-test, ANOVA, Linear regression analysis using SPSS-/WIN program. The results are as follows : 1) Changes in cardiac output were absent in different angle positions, 0, 30. 45 degrees(F=.070, P=.932). Changes in cardiac index were absent in different angle positions, 0. 30, 45 degrees(P>.05). 2) Changes in central venous pressure were absent in different angle positions, 0, 30, 45 degree(P>.05). 3) PAP had no change in different angle 0, 30, 45 degree positions; systolic PAP(P>.05), diastolic PAP(P>.05). 4) Changes in systolic blood pressure were absent in different angle positions, 0, 30, 45 degree(P>.05). 5) Changes in heart rates were absent in different angle positions, 0, 30, 45 degree(P>.05). 6) Patients' perceived discomfort was absent in different angle positions, 0, 30, 45 degree(p<.05). In conclusion, critical care nurses can measure C.O., C.I., PAP, BP, & CVP in cardiac surgery patients at 30 degree or 45 degree positions. This can improve the patients' comfort.
A Subjectivity Study on the Meaning of Aging for Elders
Lee Keum-Jae ; Park In-Sook ; Kim Boon-Han ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 271~286
This study is designed to investigate what elders think about the meaning of aging. We have used Q-methods to identify meaning of aging from elders, and developed self-referenced surveys to analyze characteristics In this study, we used a non-structured method to select Q sampling. From 183 Q populations, we selected 36 Q sampling. A total of 32 persons sixty-years or older were randomly selected for P samples, When the Q-sorting was complete, we interviewed the participants at both end of the extremes(agree or disagree), and documented their responses. We used PC QUANL to process the data and used principal component analysis for Q factor analysis. There were five subjective types for the meaning of aging by elders. Of the 32 P-samples of elders, 11 were identified as Type 1, 7 as Type 2, 2 as Type 3, 8 as Type 4, and 4 as Type 5. Type 1 : 'Matured elders' Elders wished the well being of their children, thought older persons should maintain good health, worried about becoming senile, and dependent God believing in life after death. Type 2 : 'Assertive-Rights' Elders categorized as Assertive-Rights insisted on their rights to life as a person. Type 2 elders characterized themselves as people who should keep themselves healthy, become weak and lack sexual desires, act selfish like a child, need to be protected, and be financially independent. Type 3 : 'Passive-Dependents' Elders characterize themselves as those who pray for their children's well being, worry about the children even after their death. and becoming senile. Type 4 : 'Hopeless' The 'Hopeless' type of elders characterized aging as a time to pray for their children, insignificant beings, thoughts were selfish and child-like, poor, worried about going senile, regret their life overall, and preferred to die than to live as an old person. Type 5 : 'Attached-Present' The 'Attached-Present' type of elders thought elderly characterized themselves as acting selfish and child-like, wiser, anxious, regret their life, stand aloof of greed and worldly things, being a model for the society, and deserving to be treated with filial respect. Thus far, Korean elders seemed to have a positive and negative meaning of aging due to the current changes in the society, value system, and family structures. The above five subjective meanings of aging confirm that we need to approach and nurse the elderly differently. Years of aging are a part of and a natural process of life with various physical, psychological, and sociological changes. Nurses need to assist elderly to find the positive meaning of their life by providing appropriate physical, psychological, and social support at an earlier stage in nursing. Based on this study, we could derive the following two implication from the perspectives of science of nursing to care for elders. 1) Based on the studies investigating the type of meaning of aging, we could develop tools to assist in nursing intervention programs for elderly. 2) Based on research on the meaning of aging for different developmental stages of life, we could develop a model for roles for different family members in nursing and caring for the elders.
Study on Nursing Needs for Hospice Patients and their Families
Lee Jun-Ma ; Kim Jung-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 287~300
The purpose of this study was to identify nursing needs for hospice patients and their families in order to establish a foundation for appropriate Korean hospice care. To achieve the purpose of this study, 1 interviewed 50 patients who were going to die within 3 or 6 months and 42 family members of these patients who were registered in Pusan National University Hospital Hospice Program. The interview was done in the patient's room using semi-dialog style questionnaire. Data collection was done from March 1, 1999 to September 30. 1999. The important results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. Nursing needs that patients and their families have experienced were classified into six nursing domains; physical, emotional, economic, educational, spiritual and postmortal care. 2. Nursing needs of hospice patients are; pain control(80%), physical comfort(72%), consideration from medical personnel(68%), provision of information(64%), best treatment(60%), help of volunteers(36%), and continuous hospital treatment(32%). 3. Nursing needs of the families are; pain-control in Patients(97.6%), best treatment(97.6%), physical comfort of patients(95.2%), continuous hospital treatment(92.8%), provision of information(80.9%), consideration from medical personnel(76.1%), expectation of recovery(66.6%), emotional support of family(61.9%), and physical comfort of family(40.4%). It is concluded that there is a real difference between the nursing needs of patients and the nursing needs of their families. Therefore we must examine and intervene for the demands of patients and their families using a holistic approach in order to meet their hospice needs.
The Effect of Rhythmical Exercise Program Period on Physiological Improvements in the Elderly
Han Ae-Kyung ; Won Jong-Soon ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 301~315
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a Rhythmical Exercise Program(REP) on physiological functions such as muscle strength, blood pressure, pulse, flexibility and body fat in the elderly. The research employed a non-equivalent control group pre-post test quasi experimental design. REP consisted of 45 minutes of dance, 3 times a week for 10 weeks. The formulated hypothesis were examined using the non-parametric statistics; Wilcoxon Signed rank sum test and Mann-Whitney test. The results are as follows; 1. The upper muscle strength and lower muscle strength of the experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group following the REP(P<.0 5). And the Period of REP affected the muscle strength; the longer the exercise period, the stronger the muscle strength became. 2. The systolic blood pressure of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group following the REP(p<.05). But there was no significant difference in the diastolic blood pressure between the experimental and control groups. The period of REP affected only systolic pressure; the longer the exercise period, the lower the systolic pressure became. 3. There was no significant difference in heart rate between the experimental and control groups, following the exercise period. 4. The flexibility of the experimental group was significantly higher than those of the control group following the REP(p<.01). And the period of REP affected flexibility; the longer the exercise period, the higher the flexibility(p<.05) became. 5. There was no significant difference of body fat between the experimental and control groups. The body fat of the experimental groups was significantly lower only 10 weeks after exercise(p<.01). Based on these results, it is suggested that rhythmical exercise program improves muscle strength, systolic pressure, and flexibility in the elderly.
The Relationship between Perceived Family Functioning and Depression in Patients with Chronic Low-Back Pain
Son Jung-Tae ; Park Hyun-Sook ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 316~331
This study was conducted using a descriptive correlational survey design to identify how patients with chronic low-back pain perceived family function and to examine the relationship between family function and depression. The participants of the study were 116 patients with chronic low-back pain patient who were having follow-up treatment in a local pain clinic, located in Daegu. A structured questionnaire was filled out participants themselves and the structured interview was given during January and February, 2000. The data collection instrument were FACE II-Korean version and Beck's Depression Inventory(1983). The data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation(SD), t-test, F-test, Duncan test and Pearson correlation coefficient, done with SAS. The results are as follows; 1. The mean of the respondents' perceived family function was 3.47, with emotional bonding at 3.61, acceptability and sharing at 3.61, participation at 3.23, negotiation and satisfaction at 3.24 and responsibility and expectation at 3.76. 2. The mean of the respondents' perceived depression was
. 3. There was significantly negative correlation between family function and depression(r=-0.4817, p=.0001). 4. Research variables included demographic characteristics and showed that subjects who were aged 65 years or older showed significantly lower scores in patient's perceived family function than those who were aged 45 years or below(p=.0502). Perceived family function of females respondents were significantly lower than males(p=.0026). The illiterate showed significantly lower scores than other groups(p=.0001). Respondents with spouse and extended family tended to show significantly higher scores than those who were living with spouse only or by themselves alone(p=.0091). Those who had higher income showed significantly higher scores than in the lower income group(p=.0001). 5. For family function regarding pain characteristics, those who reported severe pain-related daily activity impediments showed significantly lower scores in family function than others with less pain(p=.0357).
A Study on Self-Efficacy and Quality of Life in the Elderly Patients with Chronic Pain
Kim Kyung-Hee ; Chung Hae-Kyung ; Choi Mi-Hye ; Kwon Hye-Jin ;
Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing, volume 7, issue 2, 2000, Pages 332~344
The subjects of this study were 100 elderly people who were over 60 years of age and had chronic pain. The study examined the matter of quality of life and self-efficacy of elderly patients with chronic pain including the influence of related factors on these variables. Also, by examining their relation, it provides basic data for the development of efficient nursing interventions for the elderly patients with chronic pain. The tools were the general self-efficacy scale by Sherer & Maddux(1982) and a specific self-efficacy Scale(Lorig et al, 1989) modified to better suit the subjects of this study. The quality of life scale by You-Ja Ro(1988) modified to better suit the subjects of this study was used. The data were collected from August to October 1999. Four researchers and two research assistants developed a data collection protocol subjected to a pilot study for confirmation of validity. In this study, the research assistants read the questionaire to the subjects and recorded the responses themselves. The interviews lasted 40-50 minutes on an average. The data thus collected were analyzed in terms of t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient, using the SAS PC program. The major findings are as follows: 1) For self-efficacy it was found that males had higher self-efficacy than females for specific self-efficacy. But for general efficacy, males and females showed similar results. The the quality of life was found to be higher for males than females. 2) A positive correlation was identified between the specific self-efficacy, general self-efficacy and quality of life. 3) The general characteristics affecting the self-efficacy of elderly patients with chronic pain were employment, age, level of education, spouse, economic status and income. Self-efficacy was higher among those who were employed, aged between 66-70, well-educated, married and rich or having their own income. 4) The general characteristics affecting the quality of life of elderly patients with chronic pain were lodging with children, religion, level of education and economic status. The quality of life was higher among those who lived with their children and were Buddhists, were well-educated and rich.